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TEOP METO MEPEH H.B. Apaoa, .B. Hoaea (Moca) OCTPOEHE OHETAHX APT A METO OBEH BAHOCT PETATOB OEHOHOO CCEOBAH B cae ocaec poeypa ocpoe

eoa oeyax ap, aoecoo poccco cooo. poc peya apo a eoa pee aa oe aoc peyao oeooo cceoa.

ee coa: oeyae ap, aoc epe, oeo e cceoa.

poeaa oeox cceoa cao opaea poccco cooo. B o c, pee ceo, paccop peya aaa eoc oeox cceoa a a coooa. B paax x cceoa ec pae poe. pee oo x a eo o e aoc a peaaec cooa eo ocpoe oeyax ap.

oeyaa apa o paecoe pecaee c epoo ae, opaaeo ocoe e, paoa e pyo xoe ocye poe, a ae oaae c ox ooe c py. oeyaa apa ya o opaae aop ccox e (oeo), oeex Haea Bacaoa Apaoa acpaa ocyapceoo yepcea yaapx ay. E-mail: uran@mail.ru.

Bopoa Hoaea acpaa ocyapceoo yepcea Bca oa oo, ey ceac OOO epoape.

Cooo: 4M. 2006. 23.

H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea ocpy c e oee ooo ocea poopye x peyao.

Meo ocpoe oeyax ap exec pea yec ocpeco pyoo cycc. poeypa poee ocpoe oeyax ap opopyec oepao po, oece a cop cex yepe, coco e cox ao.

B aao cooo aoe oo o o poee oeox cceoa, oao Pocc o oceeo pe e aoo poa cceoa cpeac peo. Cyecye oeco opeee oeooo cceoa, x ao ee o cae ceyee: o oeo cceoa e (evaluation research, program evaluation) oaec p ao cceoaec poe, oop coyec cc eo oe eoc coao o oppo a peoea o ee oe [1, p. 29].

ep poea o oee ca pyoacae c ceoa, pooec oe o pe Bopo poo o. C. Cayep eo oe cooa aaeece a pee paecx aa. e cceoa a a paeco, oopoe ocyeco acpoae. Ha ao opoo aa oeox cceoa pxoc a 1967 . epo poee acax coax peop. Ha o ae ye yaoc copypoa poe aoec ey oa oea, p o ocoo poeo ac a paeca aoc peyao cceoa.

B oe opoo aa oeox cceoa pyo c ceoaee o ae c M.B. c (M.W. Lipsey) [2] poe e aa a ax a epo 19781980 . o poea oac oe. Aop yepa, o cpe cceyex poeo oaaoc eee 10% ex, o peca paoe eo peec oec pe, e aop pecx ooe e y epee [2, p. 12]. O pxo oy, o e eo ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

opeeex, epex, ax aex ocpyo, oaex aece poopyex ee, oope ae eo pae epepo opopyc, coo oy a peya. Heoxoo apaee e eoe peca ee o oe epeoo poecca, y o oea e oc coax popa accecoe coooecoe c ceoae. ocpoe oe epeoo poecca . Tpo 1989 . peo eo ocpoe oeyao ap, oop ee ooceoe peyeco caapa cpyyppoa, a ae ao pecae.

Cyecye ooe oeco oeox cceoa cepe opaoa. Haoee ece x: poe oo oo opaoa epp, poe Xcap, cceoae o ec cepaa Cea, cepe Mcap. B x cceoax a e e e cceoaece o, o yaa M.B. c [3].

M ca aay oe, a paoae eo ocpoe o eyax ap, oce eo ce cae copo, o ooc cooa. C pyo copo, a ceye oe aeaoc pee eoa c yeo peoeo o a pee eoooeco aa poep aoc oeooo cceoa. poe oo, aepecoa oy e paecx peyao: coa eopeeco cxe oe eoc coao popa peoeo ce pe p yco, o peya oayc pee.

Meo ocpoe oeyax ap oca papa oa cpaeo eao aae 80-x . . Tpoo peeo pa eoa oeox cceoax . Hoao peeo aaa cxoo opaoa, H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea oea opecoo yepcea (aa, a H-op). B ocoy eoa . Tpoa eo oe cooaeo eop epe, eeoe X.M. eoo paoe 1968 . [4, p. 25].

Heoxooc cooaex eop epe coac o X.M. eoy caa c e, o coao epe o cpy paac a yx pax ax eopeeco oepaoao. Bcooaee eop epe cya co opypoo epexoa o eopeecx oe o epee, ocy ae. ocpoee oe e, aeax opeoy cya, ocax aoo oe ey ae epee x oece aopa, aac npoecco oenmyauauu.

C o pe X.M. eoa, eoey po poce poeaoc coooe eopeecoo pec oo, pee ceo ooe poecca epe poeccy ocpypoa eop, cpaa oea opy oepaoa a. poaapoa .. pea, A.C. oa aaeo oepaoacc oxo cooo . . aepa, X.M. eo oeae, o oe e eo cca oco ec ec yepee, o o pec oy cooece e epax y pee pcyx aec, a epax pecx oepa.

X.M. eo opaaec paoe . Hoppoa, oopo ec a a o a ay: 1) o, aaae e yo, oaae o-o, o oe eocpec eo ocpo 2) o, aaaee epe ocypoa e, .e. o, aee oopx ooc aco o peeec ocyaa eyo eop. a opao aoca a a o? . Hoppo o o e ceeco oppe a ooe, coeeo eaae ooe eo-o, ooaeoo epe ocy pyeoe oe, c eo po aae ooeo, oo aae y oe [5, c. 94]. B aece pepa ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

poc acca a eaae ooe oaae cpe eco a aae ooe. poe oo, oc a a: a oo ocyecec poepa oe, a py o a paccye.

Ca a ocye oppooco oe ceecx oppe aex paccye eoa oaaec ceyee: 1) e cyecye cpoo oecoo oocoa epexoa o ocypyex o y;

2) ceece oppe eocpeceo eaae;

3) aa eyo copypoaa eop e ec e ocpeceo poepeo.

cxoo oo eoa ocpoe oeyax ap oo ca oeyaa, oopa pecae po ecc oepoa eop c oo aex epeex, x aopo, a ae ce ey . cooae poecce oeyaa paecoo pecae eop oyo eoopx paoax aae cpyypa oeya a. . Tpo peo ooe ooaee oo e oa oeyaoe apopapoae (concept mapping) [6].

B acoc o acaa poea ocpoee oeya o ap oe aa o pee o ooo o eca oo ae ecoo ao peaa. Ocaoc a ao ao ocpoe oeyao ap opoee.

a 1. Ha epo ae ocyecec oooa c ceoa. a coooeco cceoa poca c e aa, pooc op yaco pyox c ycc. B oe poe peac co e, xo o o oeco yaco e peae 10-20 eoe. . Tpo oeae, o acoc o ee cceoa o aaa pyooo ocye oe eece oe peya H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea oycpoa, ocoy eoopx cyax peoe ee oppoae aa apopapoa aae ocye (o cao epy oepe co ceo eeoc aopa, oop aaec oeoo eeoc).

a 2. Ha o ae pocxo paoa yepe.

Oo peyao oo ec oo aop yepe co, pax coocoea, cax c epecye poeo (c., apep, a. 1). peeo oeoo eeoc o aop oe acac ceecx pey ao popa o ee yopoa. o a oe peaoac p oeo ocye c oo ex oooo ypa oax py, a oe o oc ocpoe a aae epayp. p ope coo yepe co yec, o eppea oeo ap oe paao ec. Moe cocaeo o yx co oee yepe. Ho aop peocepea o co oa co pooo aopa yepe, oc o e, o pye ye coo paoa c o oeco, co ocaoc a 100 eee yepex.

a 3. Ha o ae peayc e poeyp. Caaa yaca yao eoxoo paccoppoa apo c yepe o pya. B oy pyy o oac yep e, e o ccy. B acoc o oeca yepe ee poea oeco ee oe pa.

oce oo caaa aoy yepe, a ae a o pye yepe pcaaec ec (o ae aoc aoo cceoa) o 1 o 5, e 1 oaae ooce y eaeoc yepe ( py) ce eope eco cxe, a 5 pa aoc. eca e coy c eocpeceo ocpoe ap, a eoxo o o aece ooe ape a ae 5.

a 4. poecc paecoo pecae oeya x ap coco pex ao. Bo-epx, pooc aa ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

paee yepe a y y oy ap. Bo-o px, ocyecec pypoa paeee yepe a ape o acepa, oope opaa oee coe op oey ax pypoo. B-pex, cocac ap, oope o pa yepe o o oa, o o acepa.

Oe a opoee. Ha epo ae pyo yac o pooc ooepoe apoae. peoaaec, o p paee yepe pocpace yac oe ppy aopo pepe, oope a eec. Ece oe, o oe peoo, o pep ocaoo paoopa. Mooepoe apoae opaec a e o o, o aaee oe (yepe) oo aea o oca, paec x e oe eoopo oopao pocpace [7]. B ae cyae o pocpaco oaae ccoo paepoc, a pacco ey yepe ceaeco oc. ocpoe oeyao ap po cooa yepoe pocpaco ocp (oo po e ocp cooecye aa apa).

Cey e . pacaa, . Tpo peaae pe yepoe apoae, o ea execx po e c eppeae [8]. Peyao yepoo apoa ec pacooee oe a ococ, e aa o a cooecye yepe.

oce aepe yepoo apoa oe a oc oc pooc epapxec acep aa (. Tpo coeye cooa eo Bapa a ay eo p pa oe c xo a ooepoo apoa, cca c a . epa) [9]. oo pyy a ape, oyeo oce ooepoo apoa, oepac o, oae o acep, o ec ocoo yye oeyao ap. epyc ycpeee pe o yaca aoo yepe acepa. epeoc o paec a apy oey papoay acepy papoay.

H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea a 5. Ha ae pacpo copac e e cae yac , o coppoa apo c yepe. B poecce o cye aoy acepy pcaaec aae. oee e a aa aoo acepa peoaae oeae cee aoc ao py yepe, opaax eope ec apac cceoa. oo coyec oea aoc (ec), oyea o aoy yepe a 3- a e. aoo acepa paccaec cpeee aee o yepe. Papoc cpex ae xapaepye oopo oc ae oeyao ap. aacy oyaec a, o ee eaee pa ey acepa, o ae eoa paa ooae a eppepoa acep.

Apoa eoa oeyax ap pooac pe eo paeco aae oee oo eooo eco oppeoc opaoaeo popa. popaa ooo ypaeecx apo (aee popaa) aaa yopoa 1997 . aao popa o ocyapca ec Mcepco ooecoo pa opo P.

e popa oeceee opace apooo xoca cooapoa apa ceo cpeeo ea o apae ooa pooca coae p eco acc eeepo, ex eoxoe a a pao a pep oypex pox ycox.

popaa peaaea ceaco, ex c ee opaoae, o eax o ycoepecoa co a, o ce poecc. ace popae opa eo o opacy (25-40 e). acee pocxo a ocoe oypcoo oopa o peyaa aeo: ecpoa o ocpaoy y, cxooecoo eca poeccoaoo ep. Ceacy oe coe aa ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

peaaec p ceaoc: aco eee, o eee, ape aoee ocpeoae a pe pya.

Oyee poxo yax, apeoax pao poee, yoeopx opeee peoa peo aaecoy cocay, eoeco ae, aa yex po pa exec oooc yeoo aee, aa o a eoxoo epayp o oooc oece ocy eyapo aoa epo pecypca.

Oea oeoo peyaa popa ooea a o cc pooc a ocoe paccope aaa cep coeo occ aex oeo ceaco, aepao oopa ae-oeo, oooex c epa-opaaopa [10]. oea ceye ye ocooe ae p poee opoo aaa cpye ap peyao copax ax.

oomoume man pee e pcy ocpoe oeyao ap aoo cceoa, poepe a peooe a ocoe cyecyeo cpyeap. epoe x cyec oae oex epeex, epx eoc po pa. Bopoe cyecoae oe cceoa o oe e eoc.

poep epoo peooe a poaapoa a aea, peyae ee oee epeee o oc, yco oye p. poep opoo peo oe poee aa oeo, coax a ocoe peya o yx opoco, a ceaa oa peocpy oe cceoa. Ha e yaoc ooc peocpypoa o e, ocoy oe coepa ocae peyao o a oy opocy. epe a caa aaa coa oe o e aoc peyao oeooo cceoa c oo eoa oeyax ap.

H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea poeeue cnepmo pynn pee ceo, a coppoaa cepa pya eoe (oo aec 10-20 eoe) oepaopa. Po oepaopa ypaee poeypo. Oeooe cceoae popa axoc a pae ecox coax c cooo, eeea, eao, oo, cxoo , ooy aece cepo pae ceac oac epecex c.

o poeeo pyooe ocyee oe o ee: eoc popa. epoaao apoaoc poec oy cepy cycc, o c c opaao pyoc cepa oea a paa a a aa: ca aa oa pyoa cycc c oyee epoaao yao ap, a ae ocpoee acepo ap eppea o.

poecc cocae oeyao ap coco 4 a o. peaa aoo aa opeoaoc o 1 o 3 aco.

1. Cocaee cca yepe. Moepaop peca ey ocye. p o o yec, o ce yac pa o o opypoy. oecee oo coc o poeeo eooe ocyee. Moepaop yec, o oae ocyo pepa ocyee. ae cep a peaaoc caa yepe, oope acco pyc c peoeo eo. B peyae cocae c co 60 yepe.

oce oo oepaop yec, o yac pao o ce acae yepe. o poeeo epoo eoe ocyee c e yoe cca yepe.

aoy yacy peocaac oooc poc o ee yepe. pocxoo opypoae ao o epoaaoo yepe. Hapep, ec oop o o oyaeoc, o o a co: eoxoe cpo, oyaeoc (aepaa, coaa p.), acoo oy ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

aeoc ec eoxo pepe oe eoc popa .. Bce y ocyac o opy. a pecoe o pa coace c e aca yepee.

ae yepe cca epeece a oe e apo.

2. ocpoee ap. Bce apo c yepe paoe a coe pooo ope. aee o cpypoa acep o ocoa, oope ope ee cepa: o oea popa (yac popa ;

oa, apaa a oyee;

y, peoca ycy oye). Te ca oe yepe o pa eeo a 3 aeop: 1) yepee oocc yacy popa: eo epeca, aeca e oyae oy peyay;

2) yepe oocc paooae yaca e oa: e, xapaepc oa, o oe o;

3) yepe oca coca ya, a ac popa, oop oaae xapaepca opa oaeoo poecca, popa, a ae ceeco ceo (apep, eopaa opa ac e cc a). poe x oeo o eeo paeco aece aaa popa. Apepoa peya oo aa pecae a pc. 1. Ho ae oaac o epoaao cpyyp, a a p oy o yo oc aoo cpyyppoa.

oopa oa ocpoe ap pooac o py ocoa. oce oo a apo c yepe/ caa pacpeee o oea, cep pao x a ocoa ceaeco oc yepe. M peca opa e cxe apoe yepe . epoaaa apa a ooea o yepe , eoca oo ap.

H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea Co-e apoc xapaepc Caooea C Ooe Xapaepc c oae pep oee Mooc C cxooece Ooe poeccoaa ocoeoc c copyo paecoe Ha a peee Peya Peya ceaca oa e o popa Peya Peya ya aaa C Haoee oppoae peco acc eox cee Pae Cpyypa oxoo ceeca Ooae:

yypa ya Be co oye Peya Puc. 1. oenmyaa apma Oea emuocmu npopa 3. Cocaee acepo ap. Paeee cepo oe a 2 aa yeo poyoc pao a ao ae, ce a epoaay apy cp oo ee ee a. Heoope yepe oe e poeyoe acep. Tae yepe a opac, pocxoee, opaoae aee epeeo co ao-eopaecoe ooee. o poeyo ac ep ae e acep ppoc ao a.

Peyao aoo aa caa peoaaea cpyypa pe yao popa.

4. eppea ap. oce cocae acepo ap yaca o peoeo a aa oye ac epa. Peya ao pao pecae a. 1.

Taua OEHA ETBHOCT POPAMM ac ep poey o e ac ep epe p poc ao a Mo oc Bep a a o oc op o a a o oc apepa ae e oa o Credentials oe a a oe e caoo e Caoo e a oe ope oc Ba oc oye o a p ope e aa co oye a C pee e oy ya ap oe, ex ecoe opaoa e y pae ecoe opaoa e C oco oc oye O 1-e cee opaoa e Bopac T oc p opa aec o po cxoe e oaa e c xoo eco aa a Mo a oye Caoo e a Opa ya Peea oc oye aaa yaeoc ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

pooeue ma. ac ep poey o e ac ep epe p poc ao a Mo a oye C e a ya pe oaa ec coc a oc y ye a ep aa Ca O ce e Coc a py pa pa eca e oc Cpo oy aeoc o oc o a oe a ep ao o ypc a xoe oc pa Oe e (xopoo poec pe) c a oa a o oc Haepe e ce o a , ec o pao apepa eea o oc C a oc op poa e eox ce e op poa e eox ce e Oe o o Haxoe e ce oye e a ca ac e Acco a yc o Pea a coec x poe o H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea Ooaue ma. ac ep poey o e ac ep epe p e e e a p e e e a ao Pea a coec x poe o ao a pa e a pa e B epe e po oc e x ex oo epeaa a ao oea oe e ec o o oe e ec o o Coec e poe c A c pa e p ea e oc pe o a p ea e oc pe o a pe o a pee a pe o a a c peax Acco a yc o popa ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

H.B. Apaoa, .B. Huoaea oe aoc peyaa oac cooca opoc, coyee aee, c epee oe.

cepa peaac opoc ae c e x oopa ae oe. e aeaecoo aapaa oo cea o, o opoc ee eocaoo coy coepae y aoc. Hapep, cepa pya ea pey a popa, oope ooc e ye aee. oo ceye, o cceoae cpec eoc popa, o ya oo ac ocec.

B ooo oe pecae ocoe e po pa aoee ae aop, oppye peya o poxoe ooo (a o ae e pocxo ee e a e o popa pax yaco). epe cee aa c a cex yaco po pa: ppoc ao a, oppoae eox ce e, peee a pae, oee ecoo pe aeoc peoa. Ha e yaoc opa oe aoc cex aa cex yaco popa. B oe epeae peo pooo ceee copoy epeco cyaee po pa, epec ocax yaco opae paeapo.

Haoee a oe eoc popa, c ae o pe, ec ppoc ao a. epec ocoe yepe cepo, oope oocc ao y acepy: ooc, oee caooe ceaca, pa e epcoaa, aoc oye oa, oa oy e, cocooc oye, aee oa o oe aa, cpeee oy ypaeecoe opaoae, ocp opa ceaco, ycaoa a ooc, yoeopeoc popee aa a.

ocmpoeue oenmyax apm...

e eo cyaee popa ec x coaa ooc. a a epay, a a op oay ooc oaa e coppoae coae c c py yaca popa. e eo pep ec pae epcoaa, oopoe cy a cpyeo cpaeecoo pa pep oaae oece a aeco ee ea a oeo pep.

TEPATPA 1. Rossi P.H., Lipsey M.W., Freeman H.E. Evaluation: a Systematic Approach.

7th Ed. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 2004.

2. Lipsey M.W. Theory as Method: Small Theories of Treatments // New Direction for Program Evaluation. 1993. No. 57.

3. Rossi P.H. Evaluation: a Systematic Approach. Beverly Hills;

London: Sage Publications, 1979.

4. Blalock H.M. The Measurement Problem: a Gap Between the Language of Theory and Research // Methodology in Social Research. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968.

5. emo .. aoceca poeypa cooo: oep cop eop. M.: Haya, 1993.

6. Tpou . Heoyoae aepa oepe Oea exoo: cpyeap 21-o ea: Evaluator As Cartographer, 1999 // http:// conceptSystems.com.

7. Camapo.A. Mooepoe apoae // eppea aa ax coooecx cceoax M.: Haya, 1987.

8. Kruskal J.B., Wish M. Multidimensional Scaling. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications,1978.

9. Everitt B. Cluster Analysis. 2nd Ed. New York, N.Y.: Halsted Division of Join Willey and Sons, 1980.

10. ypo .. eepaa popaa epeooo yp, 1999 // http://www.gurkov.ru.




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