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.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cpoa (Capamo) METOOO CCEOBAH PTECOO AHAA B CEPE COAHO OT COAHO PAOT Pae coao pao a cep poeccoao pa

peo opeee ox aa oac pecx coax cceoa o opo ooe XX . poeaa coaoo e paeca pa eoea a epeopypoaa oece ee oc, apaeo a peee coax poe. e a opaee eooo pecx cceoa xapaepe eppea oex aepao, ocoeoc oopx paccapa c o cae. Aop ocoac a epcee pecoo a ocya oooc apcaopx aoccx c ceoa coao paoe coao oe.

ee coa: pec aa, coaa paoa, coaa oa, apcaopoe cceoae, aoccoe cceoae.

Coaa paoa a opeeea oac poeccoao pa, aya ca, oxo pee coax po e coppoaac e a ao. poecc ee ea a cep poeccoaoo oa caac oe epoco, o o peyecy paac a opao: epoaao o a paeca eeoc, ae ceaoe opaoae, ae Bace Poao oop coooecx ay, poeccop, peop epa coao o eepx cceoa.

Eea Poccaoa pca-Cpoa oop coooecx ay, po eccop, aeya aepo coao apooo coao pao Capaocoo ocyapceoo execoo yepcea.

Cooo: 4M. 2005. 21.

.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa cayc oopoo oceeo oac o yepcecoo. Bo co cyae, oa ac opaoaex popa CA epoecx cpaax, e ooc coae pao, oa aae XX . oceeo paac eope ece o, oxo, ceae yee oco epo ece a, accoa pao paoo opaoa . apaeo poecca peecoo ocoa ee oc coax paoo a poeccoao, ocoao a ocoo eco oece eopeeco oye, pxo o oae ae cceoa ocyece co ao o coao oo.

Boy a o poy ox Moepa, peya pa coaoo oecee epao aac eco oece yy apaeo a coae pee e ex exao e pee coax poe, coaa paoa e oo ocooaac eoo oec pecypca ay o eoee oece (cooo, coao apooo, cxoo), o paoaa coce e pe cceoa, oope ae c ycexo oc p aaeeco coooeco oeceoc. x cy oocc, apep, cpae ec-ca, oopa co oaac epoaao oceoa yaxc opoc x cee pao oxoo oaa oo, a o e aa peee aaeecx cceoax opoc x cecx cooec, pep opaa. Ceye ao ae, o oa ocoae coao pao e Aac eoe pe eco copyaa c cooo a acoo yepcea a o ca, oa pocxo a eca pcaa oxoo, aax oee aco oo cooo. poeccoaa aaeec o cooo, c oo copo, coax paoo, c py o, a pax cyax ycox, xo a x aa o oo cxoc: o coooo y ax peyao, Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

oope oo pee coax poe, a o co ax paoo cocooc peeco oxo coe eeoc, pe cceoaece eo, copa aapoa a.

o epe cyaa coao pao a ayo c apcea cceoaecx eoo paac e oo a ocoe acoa eooo pyx coax ay. epe o oa eopa, ycox pa pyeoc oeca, ox o epa epaeca, paa coao oo opoae coce cypc oec, ocoe ae ex, ooe e o oca ee coao pao. Ocooe coepa e x ee ocaec ee ecop a ocoy pe opeee, eopeecx paecx ea eeoc coaoo paoa oax ycox eyapoo oece. e c coee pa eoea, cee coaoo epaeca, yaa yco eoeecoo cyecoa.

Ocoeoc coao pao aaec cpee ocoo epecapa coec cepeo, ceoae oop oe cyeceo c eoc poecco ao pa oca o ypoy epec e oo eo, o ceaco, opaa poecc eo. o oy oop o peeco e poeccoaa, e oo cocoo pe eop a pae, o aapoa, oea cocey pay paoy coe opaa, eeppoa eop paecoo oa, pec epe occa co a ye, op o o xoa opeee.

Ceac coao pao ec poeccoao oooe e oo yao pyoo epaeeco eeoc, o ocyece apo a pao oea ce cy. ec coaa paoa.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa caec o co y c pao coooe, oo pa peycapae poeee cceoa c e x ea eeo peaa eeoc ypee eoc a. C o o pe, oe aeca pao opa a ao, o-epx, oea opeoc eocpece x, ye ecx eo y paoa opoa eo;

oeax eo, oope peca ece eca, pao, ocoe py pca, oa ee e oxaee poeccoao oo. Bo-opx, eoxo o oea e eo, oope pec oe ceaca cooecye coao cyo eo, e peya, oopx yaec oc. Bce o coyec oo, o oe a aa paoo, pe ca oe o eeoc cy, a poe ee pa oe, apoc ooeoe acpoae poeoc ppoa oy cee peec, .e. occeo ee oc, a ae peaoa aa popaoc ooeoc, eoxoo eoo ypae opaae coa o cep.

B e ocoeoc cceoa coao paoe? O ac, o oycoe peeo oac o coaa paoa, cae c e opaa oee po ee oec.

Bece c e, epec pyx cceoaee, apep, c xapo, epoooo pooo, epeo epeceac c epeca cceoaee coao pao. Oao epo oo p apy oaoe pae coao pao cax c e cepco, oa a cceoae co ao pao ecoeo. pa o pace, caoc co, o cceoae coao pao aepecoa oea oo, o paoae [1], cceoa eo c eoo, oxoo pa. Bece c e, apyee c ceoae pa, o pacy ae coao o cya, ccee yooo c paooxpae a Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

emuocmu a o, mo paomaem, co ay ae peey oac cceoa coao paoe.

M ee pe o cceoax coao paoe poo cce, peoaa e oo yee coao pao a poeccoao pa, aa eopeecx oye, eoo ypoe epe, o coax po e cocoo x pee, aceo oee o py. Eceoe ycoe, oopoe p o oo o c, o o cceoa coao pao, poce oy poecc, o cce o c pa.

Te ae, oope ceac oyae xoe aoe o eeoc o aoec c eo, ceao poox cceoax oopax, peca coo caocoey eoc e oo ee epe, y pae apoa, o acee oye. pece ae oepac ooe aay, aac y ax paoo apa opaox cpaoax o aax, ayx cax yex ocox. Te ca ocyec ec ppaee a o pae coao pao, ypa e opaa coao cep, cocoax pee co ax poe. aoap cceoa pocxo pae eop eoo paeco coao pao, oaaec eoo poecc, oepaec pea ec oec.

poeccoaa coaa paoa, pepaac pa ocpa, yae pa eoea, peoaa e, o ceac ae oxoa pecoo aaa. o oaae, o coae pao caoc peec paa, coco pec oe cocey e eoc, a ae epecope e ycao, oope oyco e cyyypo opeo opaa. Tae ycao o y a ae cepeoa, pacpocpae oece ooceo e y, ox, opoco.

.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa Peecoc pae ooae peooe cpax eep oc y cax ce cox oe ooe B- poax, aex, ex ec e coo pyx e, yaxc oa oepe.

Ocoeoc occoeco coao o Pocc ec pae pe ee apae ocoo eoo, oco ao a opoa capx op pacpe coaoo opo. Pe e o yecoe ep o ce a aaeo yaeoc ooe ao, e x, pao, a ae o yce pepecco ooe popaax pao c apoac paoapye cepe ex pecye;

o ax cyax, oa opo ca caoc oee pope, e aa y coao o aoa ocyapca o aooy cox paa [c. 2;

3].

B copeeo Pocc cpae oo ooe co ax poe e cea oac yacec co epae. B co oepe, cey cpae, coae pao acpaop coax cy oac o e cee oaoe coxpaee ocyapcex oo, e cya pocx e, peee cox cya o eec poepo ecoc eo, oocoaoc x pe e a cyc coay oo. oo co ae poe eoc caoc o epax yepoc cxooeca eaaa, eaooy e ce, a ca a eoc y paccapaec a pa epe pee ax ec, oope, o cy, aoopy a. Bece c e, oe o oo, cooo oe coae pao a e, o aa eoc, p oee pooo opa paca ce, opocoy eeoc, eooco py xc apao yco pya, eee cpyyp o peoce. e oopoa coao o apae Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

oca oeo a cpyype p poe e oy pee, oee oo, acoaa oa ocaec opeee cpaee.

C ycexa coaoo ocyapca, oa epaeco e pecae eoco-ea oe, aae o ac a aooc, eoxoec, oe oo a pa a yaa ex ce yyp, oa cac o coee Project Moderne a eepaa popecca oepa, aay ayy coay o y xo o, oepae coao-copec y pocpaceo-peey cey e [4, c. 71].

oee oo, paaa pa paax coao o a c, acoc, ooa po e coco, oop coaa oa ooaac a exa ac , oppyeo a accox, eepx pacox ocoa x. Hecop a o, coaa oa pooae ocaac aaeco ypaeeco pao, aeeo e oo a oae coaoo pa, o a eo yyee. Bac c epo ocpypoa coax poe, eaec o e pa x oeceoo aa ce ae caoc oeo aaa p.

Pepecc oxo, oop acoo ocpooc pe apae coao o (apep, aceax poa apoacoc, B-e, Ca), o c a paa eaa coax po e, a acca cee a opoe oe co cocye pa capx exao opo, o ope poo pae payc a acoaa o a. P yacecx aa, ex ooe o ooec e, o ce pae cya ocepx cee, opee a pee cayc cy eoc eo paoeoc eex epeco cyeo coao o, oeax a ece cy. Bo oey ay po.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa pa e coaa pa caa o cee, a pae cce oa, poeee oe eoc ecyx c ep apyex poeo c o ocpa [5;

6]. B ax cceoax e o c: e paeco, ocyoc, coee pa eoea oce e coao cpaeoc.

ocoy coaa paoa ee e p apae, peayec oec cpyypa (cea opa a, cya, oea, oe ceaca, o paoopay eeoc o coaoy ocy a), a ee coe a pae caac c oo ce pec, eoxo pec aa cex x aceo, aee a paoy a o opeo po ee cocoax ee pee, a ae a epee x a poecc p pee.

Paccop oee opoo ocoe cceoa coao paoe. cceoae coao paoe oe pecaeo pa cpae acoc o ocaex aa. M ocaoc a ceyx aoee ax ax cceoa: yaeaoe paoe c ceoae;

cpe pax cceoa ec: aa coao o, oea, aoca, cepa, ao e, ocoo ceye caa o aoccx apcaopx cceoax coao paoe.

C o pe ypae ay cceoa p o paa yaeae pae poe. Ca ec, o yaeaoe cceoae ocoaec a eo peeco epcee, oopa opeeec ayo oo Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

aae cpyypy cceoa, eo a, e, xapaep c ceoaecx eoo, cooecyx e aaa pao poe. Pae eopeece epce oo ye poey c pax copo. yaeaoe c ceoae coao paoe pooc c e pa eop, pacpe a o coax exaax, cec e oopx c e e coae poe. p o ocee ocyecec o ayx ee, ooy yaeaoe cceoae poooca pao y, peya oopoo eocpeceo apae a pa ecoe peee.

Bece c e, yaeae cceoa coao paoe ocpeoa e ee pax, a a eope eca aa poecc yaec ocoo pa epe cope. poe oo, yaeae cceoa oo oc cayc poecc a ee ayy coca y, ope pecae o e a o cycce exo o, ae coco y, y cpe eoopx oo pao pyooee pox paoo.

cceoa coao pao oy pooc opaa , o cyae oeo pe oxo, coec opaaoo apooo cooo, o o ae poo c cpe pax coax py ox e, ooe, pyox yex pao, c pa aoea, ecx ec, oa pe e o pacpe eopeecx ocoa ax c, a co aa epooo, cooo ooe, coaa p oo, coaa ea, ocooo.

ae ae, o paeee a yaeay p ay ayy oc yco xapaep e, oop e, o e eo paee xopoe eop. a oo e, oo peec pae ex oa, oope ca c pa cceoa, ex peyao, oope peaae.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa paoo yopee. Bpoe, oac acca ee e, o ooe oo coacc c coopaee M. yo o aco cocae x acca, pae ayy a coocaycy, yaeay, .e. pe aaey coopye eoco-epaoo opyca aaeecoo a, ocaycy, pay pe aaey pee pyx paecx aa ae pecoa cceoae. Ho ao ace poe cpay yo ac paccye o aex ocoeocx ycpoca ay a coaoo cya, o e ec e aco e ca.

apoae coao oe coao ae peoaae cooae ceecx cceoaecx eoo. Toy, o pae oece pee, eoxo ae cceoa, oope oo c eopeee oc ocyec ee. Aa coao o oe pooc pax opax. Bo-epx, cyae yaeaoo coaoo cceoa yee, paa eopeece oc oa coax poe, pa ec e opae pee paa, oee oo, caa ya ayo ypae aacy peye oee oa, a x ya oa ec py a o o, a oeceoc. Bece c e, ae cceoa eoxo epecopa coxc pecae o pax coax poe eax coao o [7;

8;

9;

10;

11].

Bo-opx, p apoa coao-oeco po pa a ao-o epo cep ca oo op ypy ccey ee cco eaex peyao, o ope coca pep yceoc oe aa o Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

aepe aeeoo cpoa. Tao oxo e cae ox peex opae, ocoy opepoa a o opeee e. Caoc oo oxoa aaec popaa opaa oecx epop, o po cy popeo o pee opex coax poe oeoc o oce eax ee, aacy apoa coo poopeo peaoc. Oao a exoo ec eo yopoa py x poeo popa, pe oa ocoo coepecyec aoap pa poeo eeoc coao cepe.

B-pex, aa coao o, yy pepoao ceax, aacy eacx, epaecex c epx py, ex pao peoea eee oo pee apee poe oee oo poe a oecy , ocyecec oe cae cpo. a pao, cep coy op coooec aa ax, xo opo poo cocee opoc, a a o o o poee oe e opa. Tao aa peaae oa aepae pee poe, oao oe oaac opy cece ecx pe ex pao opea a aaa, po oopoo cya ece eepae opa ac. Bece c e, o aaa oaaec eae eo pe op x cya, oa eoxoo p peee, cocooe oe ee cee c coay ape oc, pe p poe coao a.

Ba peo cceoa coao o ec cpae aa, acoc, eyapoo epc ee. eoc eyapox cpae coco, pee ceo, o, o o a oooc ye ooopae.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa apao pee poe, aepae oe opaa cce coao o, epecope e cxe, oo pe, a pao, cpae coeo poa aopa pa c a ooe. poe oo, cceaec cpae aa ooe oee yoo eoco oxa coaoe o cyapco e oo a oy aeop, o eo opex ooex. o oe ao oo, o e acoa apyex e poxo co ae ea, c yeo oo, a ae pa, cy, paoe, oece co ao-ooece yco pa epop o pac. Heoxoo e a cxoca, a pa, a ococa, a eoca oeeceo apyex o ee coao o, o e ayac ooce o yaoc peocxoca ex x ooe co aoo ocyapca. a, oa copoa cpaeoo oxo a coco e cxoc pa ey cpaa epcee peayeo x coao o.

Ee o ace cpaeoo oxoa aay coa o o o yee eyapooo, oaoo oeca ee pa. B acoc, a yaae a op [12], oppoae paco coao o oce Bo po poo o o o c e ooeco oeco ac CA cya xooo o, acoc , cpaxa oeo eooeco ypo co copo Coec oo Coa. Pace oceoeo cce coaoo oece e Beopa ceye oea eo c c po poecca, a cac eyapoo opo, e accooo pooca accooo opee oa x cpaax, coeae poo-opepoao ooeco o yepcaccx op coaoo ocyapca.

Ooae Bopo poo o cococoao pocy ao ax e x oox Coeeoo opoeca, pae pacoo coaoo ocyapca copooaoc Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

yecoee opo a eo cpay. a, opa copo a cpaeoo oxoa o aa oa opex cpa oao oece.

. op yaae a e p pyoce aaa co ao o. B acoc, epeo cceoae copa e ae, ocoac a peooe o paee coa oo oecee a yy pay cepy. B o cy ae ocya py pyx eo ce a pao, e, ocyece ecao pao, oae cepe, e yaec, ocoy caec e e oo e coaoy ocyapcy, oe o aeoo pya cepe coaoo ocya. Toa eooo ye cpa a oaae ax coao ocya e:

e pe ocyapc o py ooe a e ce.

o ea oo paee a yoe paoe, eecoopao paccope, apep, o, a opao pa x coax ocyapcax paaac ceea oa ca a [13]. Te ca oo pacp coe c ey ocyapceo coao oo oo, oceeo [14;

15]. Coo, eoxoo y a e aop aopo coao o coaoo oecee: ocyapco, po, eocyapcee opaa ce eopax paoo o yxoy.

B ao cyae epeco ye paccope, o ao ce e ocyapco paceae ce a co eopa oo coaoo oecee, a oa ce oac a p coax poe. oae oo, o cooy ype pecae o pox y e ea ocoe coao o, ooe ocyec eepo yc e aa cpae coao o [16], oco y epae aeop coaoo paaca cpa o ac coaoe epaeco, oopoe ocpooc eo coa ocyapco. ec peec cpae ec.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa ca, .e. cceoae oex cyae. He epec ocye o cpae cceoax coaoo o cya.

Ee oa poea cpaeoo aaa coao o coco ocoeocx coyex ax. pee ceo, pyo ea eppea oa pyx cpa ep ax coceo yyp ay. op peypeae o pce pepa cpay cceoae eo poe op, c oopo cpaaec ce ocaoe. o ycyyec pyoc paa coec ex x cpaax coae oece paa, a ae eocpecee ep, oope pac o yoa, xo oy e pa coa cc pax ecax.

oo ec-ca, cpaex cceoax co yc cacece ae, oope copac pacpoc pac eyapo opaa, a OOH, Bce p a, HCE Opaa ooecoo co pyeca pa. peee ax ax ooe poo cpaee o py aopo, o ce ocyapc ee pacxo a oee epop (apep, oo cpa coae pacxo pacxo a oopoy) e pea acee o ypo oxoa. peyeco aoo oxoa o, o o ooe oe apoee ce a poe o, oao o ocae oe poe a, e ae ocycy, ocoy eyapoe opaa e e ocya e ca coe aae x cop.

poe oo, ae e cea eo cpa.

ce e, o eo ooo poye. ec c ceoae coao o Eca c-Aepce co ye eo cpae coao o pax cpaax pa. accpy cpa o pa oaae, o ee p pea coao-opepoaoo aaa (welfare capitalism) ocepa, epa coao Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

eopaec. Taa oo ocyecec, o c e, o cey pep: eo aop coao o (ocyapco po), po ce coao oece e ooee e a pe pya [17].

Paccapa opoo ocepa epa pe , aop oaae, o coao-eopaec pe, o opacy c ep y, xapaepyec pa y epcaa paeca a ocoe cox, a e ax caapo. Caace cpa y pep aoo pe a [18]. o coa c-Aepcea, ce oya aa, ce ac, ce o ycoa ce oy [19, p. 28].

ocyapco pae a ce oe ace paox oaoce ce, peoca oepy e o, oop yay eacoc, ocoeo e, o peoae paoy.

Taoe cpaee ooe cceoae coao o ye pa aooaec x peaa o pex cpaax apae oox ee eya poo epcee. oeo, o peo e cyecye co ope. Oao acca c-Aepcea o oe poo cpae aa peax cce co ao o, paa eo eop. B acoc, cece eocao eyapoo cac, paoe oo aopa e oc oec, a oo coa cea, o a oo pey cacece a. cceoae e ye, o opaa coao o o cpae cea oc oaa a pecaex o pax ox y e a pe pya, cooa eepo epae aeo p, oc o, a opao x ce oy oec e cee coao peee caap , eac o o x yac a pe (.e., e oaaeo aoc) [19, . o 12, p. 10]. ace e oae ooe e axo coeo pae eyapoo cace, xo.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa ec peae opae oa o o, o pae o epe opex peax aoec.

B cpaeo aae, oo eepa, ocycye paca. Mey e, a yaae ea oe, ceye y a o, o pecaee ec, pao ocy pecypca aoec apye, x pcyce cpaex eeapx ypeex, a pao, aoo peae o pecaee oca, o o o coyec x py a ooaaex paox ecax cce cooecee [20, p. 2;

c. ae 6]. ca, eoo pe x aopo oy ae eoocyo e yapoo cace.

cceoae oex cyae oao oece cpaee eyapoo apoooeco cac o eec a aaeo oxoe eeoo aopa, pe oeoo apo Peo. ac cooo o c [21] pe o oxo aay oo, acoo coae peop caacx cpaax pa ya pea coaoo ocyapca o eao oe, eeo c-Aepceo. ooo aopa xapaepc ca aco oe aococo ex poee cpae x aepo c pa epoc, yepcaoc aec o. Coocaee cce aypax eex oco pex aeop acee (ce, epao pecape) 1990-e . caacx cpaax ooo ey oe o e coao peop.

Paa a a oeax cceoa coao paoe: oea opeoce ( yaeoc) oea ee oc oea aeca ycy, eoc yopoa Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

opaa, ecocooc peyaoc popa poeo. He ceao ocaoc a cpae oe ax cceoa coao paoe.

oo o apoa ocyec coa poe, eoxoo poec oey, ao ex oco ec, oopx o oe paoa. ocoeca o y cy oexo, a oy cococoa ycexy poea.

ooy eoxoo e oo oca ao, o cea poo ocapac peycope pae ceap pa co, a ae poya, ax oo oa ocec oo ex, o aapoa poeo.

Ocyec coay aocy, p oo pa x poeyp poo epee pao coaoo oe a. oo coyec ccea coax oaaee, o oop oac cyecee xapaepc oex coc coco coax oeo poecco, e e oecee pae [21]. Tae oaae, a pa o, c oec paa ooe ey eco aopa (oee poc coca oe o). poe oo, o ox coax oaaex opaa c pe yypo pa op, pecae o ca apax eaax aococo, apep, oaae : a oa, epea aa (o), oea oa, epea apax epax (Pocc), o eco cae oe (aaa Epoa CA). oece oaae e a e, a aee cc, o yc oe aay coao aoc, apep: oaaee eca aoc cpac cc oaaeo eoa aeo pao, a ae ocyoc ycy o yxoy a e.

pepa cceoa, coyeo exoo coao aoc, c pao, ocee aay pacxooa pee poe ee-ao [22]. B coao aoce aacy pec a aaee.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa oaae-apeep, epe coca oea c oo opoo a c pe paa, oope opaa co, cpe ypo oo oo paa, apep, yoeopeoc aeco ocya.

p ycaoe ae oaaee oo cey e o: ycpeee oaaee p oo papoce c xox ax (cpe eepaypa o oe, cpe ap aa);

ypoee oaaee, .e. ceee x eey cy eepa (apep, epee eoc oo o oecx oo oecex epax);

opeee e oaae e acoc o yco eo epe (eo poooe aee aee cece peepee o pacea cceoa).

Coaa aoca coye opa, oope co e oaae op, pe paa. Hopa o cpoa coo coepa ap epee pao oaae, cooec c oop ycaaa c oaee oe peoa o o e eeoc. Oo opa yaa peee ( ae acae) apep, aa apao a aa, poo y, epa pee o ae apaep, oope eoxoo epa. O ae apaep opypyc ox pepe, a pao, p oo cepo oe. O c oee cye o coey xapaepy (ac o peoe opex papaoo) pyee epeoc ccey o aaee, oao, x peee coao aoce o paao [23, c. 153154].

B aoceco paoe ec p aa: 1) cpae e: c peyaa eeoc (coca) pyx, c pe peyaa coe eeoc (coca), c ocae e (pep);

2) aa oyex ee;

3) eppea oyeo paopoo opa. B coao Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

aoce pec pae ecoe eo. Ec epe cceoaee cac aaa, oxo pee o opo apye y o coax e poec co, oope peyec oe, o peac poeyp c epoo opoca. B o cyae oop o pyoopayeo aae, pe oopy oo ye cocae ae ceaca ceaco, ex o ao cepe, oaax cooecy a, o oac oe oco eoca eocaoy ooy opa o cceyeoy opocy.

ococa cep oo oec oooc oye opao c cece peaa ax-o co ax poeo, o ce oepaoo opo a pea ae peop oopa coax ee. eo caa aoo oxoa oo oec co pc coo a eocaoo oocoax aopo, ocoeo o ece cpaeoo aaa. poe oo, oyc a oee cepa aco ocaaac a aopax, pa x e, cy eo eoope pa, caec apa, ecyece, oy oaac eaee , peyae, coae poe, oeaee a yc ee, oy cococoa yce coaoo epaec a ooe opeeex coax py.

poecc cceoa a ao e cee, a o pe pee cceoaecoo a [24]. pe ec e oo o o, ao cpyeap p o aecyec copa aaa ax, a ee o ex ooex epae ca, oope oa aoap oy, o cceoae oa ae ac a, peec, oe cep, a.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa cceyee cya oeo eo epeca, opeee cepea.

Paooc paoo cceoa (applied research) ec auoucmcoe. B aocco cceoa (action research) ao ep peya opeeee ec, aoccoe cceoae cyae eocpece aa aopo opex peopaoa, a, oex cye opae, peao eeoc, eye o ee. o oxo oy pae ae peee cepe opaoa eeea pep, co ao pao coaoo ypae. Tep aocc oe cceoae ee 1944 . peoe coa c xooo ypo eo, oopoy pae c o o, o y coco y coae cce o e x. pya eo e coco o, o, poxo epe poecc oeoo cceoa, oe cee oo ocpa ee [25].

Hecop a o, o o paoo aoccoo coaoo cceoa aco ey epecopy o cocoo pee coax poe, pyoc epe x peyao ec x opypoae ayx ep ax, ecoo yaex o oooce opeoce pe ao pa, o eocpecex aa coao-o ecoo oeca. B c c oop o eoxooc pao opex peoea, acax ca poc o, ex yo peae peeo, oox pee oceeo eeoc pao ypaee, paocpox ypcax oe aa ecx peax. oop o oo x eocaax ax eoo, ceye yoy o pyoc x, cax c oppoae aaecoo apoca o e acx, eco, oope yac eex oe pyx, o e oaa cocooc opeeeo apy Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

coeo epeca. Tpyo a pae coa yco, oa c ceoae oaae ac aop eceo o ycy coe eco pecae eacx py, xo yc o apae acya a.

Bo cex yoyx e ax cceoa peoaa oc oee eee eoe paeee poe ey cceo aee aao, cceoaee cceye . Te, oo cceye, aec e oooc a poecc aca a ayo ca a coa e aea peoea. Oao ec pye oxo, oo px pao a ec o, o cceoae, a peoea, papaaaec pecae cooeca, o py, oopa cae poe cpec x pa pee. Tae cceoa apyc a o pec oo a. Copee ee oco . Xaepac oo p o peco e a, oopoe oae peec ec, oo oca opoc o o, o aoe pao cpaeoc, oya ac a ay eocy o [26]. Tao oxo peayec apcaopx c ceoax (participatory research), peao ayax ce o eccx cceoax coao o co aoo ocya, a pae eepo yce o coao pao [27].

Coo cceoae oo ae oopae o pa aopaop ayx cepeo, cepo-cceoa ee, oopyex aea yeoe ep, o py cacy pye ccee pae pe aoc. ox ac, pyxc ccee opaoa, coao a, coax ayax, ceo co, o a o oxo coae ca ey a e , c o op paoae. O copee ca aaeecy aay, e cpaae ocoy coax ee, ooo aco opaae ae oae coao peaoc.

.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa apcaop (o a. participation yace) oxo oec eae aepa oxo cceoa, ocoy o payeae copee cceoae coeco c e-o, e yee oo-o oo-o. o oxo ocoaec a pe, o poce a e, a poeccoa, co co pecoy e aay, o x a coep ae e opaoa coaoo pa. p ao oxoe ca yac opaa poo aa po e, a cceoae acpye o poecc, e a aepoa co po a cepa.

apcaopoe cceoae (participatory research) p eec paoe c oeceoc, opaax pyax, ec apecyea poea ee coa xapaep. o cpec o epea cceoaecx oooce py ex, o eppoa ecpae, o o o e co caocoeo pa cax ce. p o oya o eceoc a a pooco a, a a eo coo ae. oe ocoa, peoeoe pac cea co oac opaoa ayo ppo, ec e apcaopo cceoa. o oe oaae, o , oeee yo aa x coceo peaoc , paa oae cocooc ecoa yy e coe peaoc [28].

Haoee oeoe coco apcaopoo cceoa , oopoe oae eo o oee paox o ayo pao, o aoe yace pecaee opaa cooeca cceoaeco poecce. e cococo a yce oa pecypco pocx e, a poa x oea, aaaopo poe oe aa epca opaa eco cooece. B a o cceoa oy pec paoopae eo copa aaa ax. Bao, o ce yac eo o a xapaep cc oyaeo opa, a, a ee Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

cooa, o apoa ec, oope co pe p, o pape poey. apcaopoe cceo ae peec ax opax coao pao, a pao a c cooeco (community work), paoa pye, o c e, pye caooo. Meyapo coe o opaoa pocx Oapo (aaa) Oeco apcaopx cceoa A e () o eoope oocex opaa, oope ocyec poe e oo eoa a poe pa e. apcaopoe c ceoae peoc eccx pyx acpy x poeax pax cpaax: CA, aae, , H apaya, ax.

Cyecye aa paooc apcaopoo cceo a, a apcaopoe aoccoe cceoae. Pa e oo oxoa ae o ao opeoc aep ax oxoax coaoy cceoa coax ecx, opepoax a aa ecoo cooec a. pepo cy paoa paycoo coooa A. Typea, opeeeo co eo a coooecy epe, poecce oopo coae aop ac ocoa o coeo oee, ocoa cocey aoc oec eoc [29]. B cceoa A. Typea a Poc c ca ac aepax pocox opaa, oaoex cocoe pyox ooe a pooce.

p o o e caoc oea cceoa, a cya aece pecaee opeeeoo a eeoc.

oxo apcaopoo cceoa c cpy ea acee ocyece ee a y ao ypoe, a ae ea ae a aoc oeo e oa pacoppoa coao peaoc . paa oaae, o poecc oeoo op p pee oye o pa ee c oe oooc. apcaope cceoa ca o.B. Poao, E.P. pca-Cupoa ypo cpaee oa opaa cooeca, oco eo cpe yeex ceopo oeca, apep, cec o ecoc cpe e, ao, ecx e c, ee opoco.

B po cceoae, oop acpye poecc oco a oa pecypco o o pye cooec e, oe cya coa pao. a eo o oe ye yoaxc pyax caooo, poca coa , coao paoe c cooeco, acoc, a a ax eocyapcex opaoa, a accoa o, paoe o oee ee popaoa, cy ax a opaa pao o-oyao ce p, a coy eoacoc opyae cpe.

B c c peee apcaopx eoo cceo a oae opoc o oox opaex poeax.

B o c oo yoy, acoc, oee ayay, e pyx oxoax, poey ecpcpacoc coo a ax (ae, o a poea aa oo a cceoae oe aco, ae ex oxoax, e pe cae yaex py e e ac o a opy poy aa aeo eppeax, po, eeooc paoe peyao cceoa ea). Oece, copae ep pye ae, po cooc oopy ex ceec, oope ope opeee y oecy . B eoopx cyax epep ooep po ay coee eoo copa ax c pao poaa, o aaae eopopy ee oex a ppoy copaex oex aepao. B o c o acaopa apcaopx eoo peyc o oee yc oocoa aoc epacco o p opypoe opoco cope oex aepao p opoe xoa cceoa.

Memooou ucceoau u pumuecoo aaua...

Paccapae oxo peocae e p peo pa eopaecx poecco eepaa o po e oo cceoax, eocpeceo cax c coa pae coao paoo, o opaoa.

o acaec peoaaee, pepex aoy eoy, o a yaxc papaoy yeoo aa po pa ypca, a ae pe coe eaoeco e eoc ae pe, oope oo oc yace cyeo oce, pooce peec a o pee y. Ceo ce oe cpa epexo cox ypeex cpeeo ceo opaoa oe poeo-ope poaoo oye (problem-based learning). B o oe pe oaae pae po cpyopa, aeo cy a epa aae, a cye caocoeo pacpee y yp coe py, ypa poecco oca, ooe pecae opa. peoaae eaec oe peo ex cyax, oa cyea peyec ocya oa pocxo co poeccax caoypa e y eooc yaxc. a eo c oco ycexo coyec a ax o coa yaap peea, e peyec pae eacoo, pec oo e, ao yao oeo pao, oeceoc epeca ooy a, e a ae o caocoex op, ocaa epecopa coeo e. B peoaa coao pao apcaope eo poco eoxo. aoap a eoa cye oy popec poeccoae aeca caocoe oo aaa, oeoo p pee pao pye.

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