WWW.DISSERS.RU


...
    !

.A. pacaeo, .H. eooa (Moca) CEPTHA OEHA TEEPEAM Ca ocea cepoy papoa cyocx xapaepc pea eeox peax poax. B aece aox

paccapac: peacoc cya;

cee ceoc coep a, paepyoc ec;

ae paaex, ape c eea peyee ococ oapa ycy ece pe aoo cooe;

ae ax eeo, a op, ace, a aca, pcyce cecyax oo.

ee coa: cep opoc, eepeaa, oa oea, eaa oea, papoae, aa, op, a ce, aaca, cecyae o.

Haceee o o cpa, c ayope acco o oya, oe peeo peae cya aece coaoo cyea, paa oy yec, a epec oppoac. eco, o aooaeco o ac pea peape ae peae cya, e e e ee, aacy ecye post factum. oa opeeee a aooaeo coeo ac o pee aco ax y pea pye ypaca.

Opoa po ax poeccax pae oeco eec, acoc, coooec cceoa, oo pe, aapy ye cao coepae accox coo, p pa Aaoea pacaeo ay copy ayea ypac M.

apca Hoaea eooa oop coooecx ay, cap ay copy ayea ypac M.

Cooo: 4M. 2004. 18.

cnepma oea meepea ea ae oeca eeae a oeca, a oeoo a, oea.

Ha ocoe aaa ypo ac coepa aepac oo eee eeoc aepacx coocxooo coooo paax poea, oop ye ecoo ece oae poeccop Aeepco o oya ecacoo yepcea (ae, CA) op epep, cococoaa a pee a oeca o poee, a poee pa cya o o poe ae cpyypax coeo ac [16].

Peaa, c ac opaox ooo, oe paccopea a ec, oeao coepa a a , ooaee copeeo aooaece a eoyc e, a poope eoc opea coya.

eco, apep, o ooe cycc pecce a poeccoax aaax opa o ooy ac pe a a oeeceo eee, pea yecoe pe oa oece apaepa pcyc pea accox opaox coax.

Ocoy peoy ae e peax cooe a oooe ooee, oopoe oo-oo aae ayypo a eoce opea coeo coaoo opye.

C oee peao poy a pocccx eepaax oeco e ocaaoc epa oy ypo pa peax cooe. yc, aye pao, a o a pecae eca ae cya ao o caa co o.

poea a peao oya opeeex xapaepc, oope a oaoeoc oeceoc co oece a ooey, o ce opoco y ayop, a epe a ocoooec oo coooecoo cceoa peao oya, ocyeceoo a aepe ooeco ypac pe .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa a ayea ypac M paax ecap oo ayoo poea. popaa cceoa a ooo ea .H. eooo .A. pacaeo;

papaoa eo cceoa ocyecea .H. eooo .A. pacaeo;

poeee cepoo opoca oce peyao .A. pa caeo A.. aao;

eppea peyao .H. e ooo .A. pacaeo.

popaa cceoa peycapaa oop pe a a ocox eeaaax, cep opoc e acce pocopeoo aepaa ox eax poo, cepoe papoae a eax o x poax pa cyocx xapaepc pea, aa opee opocoo ayope eeoo poy.

cyoc xapaepca pea popao cce oa oece ceye.

1. Peacoc cya.

2. Cee ceoc pa coepa, paepyoc ec.

3. Hae ece peaoo cooe paaex, ape c eea peyee ococ oapa ycy.

4. Hae eeo opa.

5. Hae eeo ac.

6. Hae eeo aac.

7. pcyce cecyax oo.

Meoec cceoae ocyecoc cey o pao. Copy aep ooeco ypac pe a ayea ypac M (15 eoe) eee yx ea cep 2001 . poo aee a pea o oo ocox eeaao Pocc. Opaaop cceoa peoeoa pa aoe pe, eee oopoo po cop o ocyecc a opocoo ayope, a ce ea ce.

cnepma oea meepea ep oo ae cao oppoae acca eeox poo aeeo cepoo aaa, cocoeo 41 poa c oo oeo, 37 poo c ea o oeo 10 poo, oax a aaey a aey pyy: oo ac cepo o opeee a oe, a pyo a eae.

e o a cceoa oaae, o ee eo c opao aepao, oea oopoo peao o oaa. B ao cyae oy e py poec coao, oopx peec o ooy peao ee oc xo cepy x poeccoax epeco. Te e eee, apaoc oeo o eeoc ao. ae eoa pya opoex, a opao, poea o ooy pay poeccoao paeoc ocae c eca paoopao o py coao-eopaec paa: oy, opacy, eoy oy, eeya epeca .., o opoae oooc paoopa oeo.

co, o oee pooo o oeceoo e, apaoc ooe, oeo pea ee oee ea.

Cey a cceoa coco o, o o x eeox poo eax eeo x poo peaac e cepa a papoae o ecao ccee xapaepc peax cooe, oecex popao cceoa cyoc. o x epy coca eeoe po o 7 a, eee eoe, op pya o p ooca, ecoc Cacy, oe Hecae o a ooca. eax o P y 8 ooco, oa Cpa o coe o epe ooca, oa May Cep o p ooca.

ae xapaepc oaac oe opoe x peeo poa? Oea cee a opeeeo xapaepc paaec aax: aca oe oeaec ec aa, ocyce ye.

Taua CPEH A CHOCTHX XAPATEPCT OTBHX HEATBHX POOB Xapa epc Po peax cooe o e Hea e 1. Peac a c ya 7,3 5, 2. Coepae paae c ce o, pec ae 6,7 6, paepy oe ec e 3. Tec coep paa ee, ape c ee a 5,3 6, peyee oc oc oapa ycy 4. Coep ee opa 5,1 4, 5. Coep ee ac 4,7 7, 6. C ya c ee a a ac 4,54 6, 7. pcy c y cecyae o 4,50 5, .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa Taua PAH CHOCTHX XAPATEPCT B OTBHX HEATBHX POAX Xapa epc Po peax cooe o e Hea e 1. Peac a c ya 2. Coepae paae c ce o, pec ae paepy oe ec e 3. Tec coep paa ee, ape c ee a peyee oc oc oapa ycy 4. Coep ee opa 5. Coep ee ac 6. C ya c ee a a ac 7. pcy c y cecyae o cnepma oea meepea .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa oe aoc cpa pa xapaepc o x eax poo.

a, oece oco opoex poo ea cpe apyeo ceye ca, pee ceo, ae eeo ac, a o peacoc cya.

Cee a oex xapaepc ox eax poax epac aa;

a, ceyee co opoex ( poeax) cpoao ay cee: c ooaae cpoy ax ox poo, yc eax.

a , peacoc cya cocea, o e opoex, copee o poa. ooa cepo oea y xapaepcy ox poax o ce-ec aa.

Hae ececx cpec peyee ococ o apa ycy eaec opoe ox e ax poax ae epepoao. Xo cao ocyc e ax cpec, o e opoex, x poax o aoo, ecoc pcyc eax poax e:

o ooa opoex oeo y ecoc 8- ao. Tae e a ox poo opee 21% opoex.

Ec ox poax ooa opoex e aa e eo ac, o eax ae ac oee oo oea cepo oea aca co ao (8-10).

Hae eeo opa cao o cee oe ao paae acc ox eax poo (cp. co opoe x, e aex x eeo yx pyax poo 13 16% cooeceo). Ho papoae x eeo p x a oee ecoo paae oe poo a ox eax. Cae coe a 8-10 pco a o xapaepc 27% opoex ox po ax oo 12 % eax.

Taua CO OPOEHHX, PCBOBX PAHE A CHOCTHM XAPATEPCTAM PEAMHX COOEH Xapa epc a peax cooe 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Peac oc +10,7 4,0 5,3 2,7 4,0 10,7 4,0 5,3 9,3 16,0 28, c ya 30,7 18,7 4,0 0,0 1,3 5,3 6,7 14,7 5,3 5,3 8, ee peyee +12,0 8,0 10,7 5,3 6,7 14,6 12,0 9,3 12,0 5,3 4, oc oc oapa 11,0 8,1 5,4 4,1 1,4 9,5 8,1 4,1 24,3 2,7 21, ycy +50,5 8,6 2,15 2,15 3,2 1,1 1,1 5,4 1,1 2,2 3, ee ac 13,3 6,7 2,7 1,3 8,0 4,0 5,3 4,0 14,7 6,7 33, +13,2 5,3 13,2 17,1 7,9 3,9 3,9 9,2 10,5 7,9 7, ee opa 16,2 20,3 9,5 14,9 8,1 8,1 4,1 6,8 5,4 2,7 4, +32,0 22,7 5,3 6,7 1,3 4,0 1,3 6,7 5,3 2,7 12, ee a ac 13,5 12,2 6,8 4,1 4,1 8,1 2,7 1,4 5,4 8,1 33, +46,7 16,0 5,3 1,3 5,3 5,3 2,6 2,6 8,0 4,0 2, Cecyae o 34,7 13,3 9,3 4,0 1,3 8,0 1,3 4,0 8,0 5,3 10, cnepma oea meepea .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa ooc poa cepo oe cee acco pyec c ocyce a eeo aac. Cpa p, ceecye o ocyc aox: o x poax o o a 32%, eax poax 14%.

pcyce peae cecyax oo oee xapaep o, o e opoex, poo, oeex a eae: ec 47% oop o ocyc cecyax o o ox poax, o oo 35% oop o o e p eeo ea poa. eca ac opoex p o yepae, o eax poo pcyce cecyax oo acao oo oeeo 10 a o ( oo 3% opoex pco ao e a pcyc cecyax oo ox poax).

a paoa eee a xapaepc oe x poax?

O o, oop ceye cea, aoc oeex a xapaepc a aopa oece poa o ea ec e a oea: o-oy, paax oeo o cooe a oey e e oec cocax, o ce e paex pace ao cceoa (ea, e oc o, p, peaeoc epcoae ..).

Cooca xapaepc poax, opeee x opaae a oe:

eee ueoe (omee a noumu mpe yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a cnepma oea meepea Boa 7 an (omee a noumu mpe yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a Topm puya (omee a noumu mpe yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa oe Hecae (omee a noumu y yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a ecoc Cacy (omee a noumu y yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a a , eepoe Boa 7 a (oee a o pe yaca cepoo opoca) oe ceo e c, o-oy, ceoc ec, o pcyce ce cyax oo.

B eepoe eee eoe (oee a o pe yaca cepoo opoca) epecye xapa epca peacoc cya ae eeo peye e ococ oapa ycy.

cnepma oea meepea Aaooe eco aae a opa xapaepca p oee eepoa oe Hecae (oee a o y yaca cepoo opoca), xo acooe ae e ee aax ee. ec ae epecye peacoc cya.

B peae ecoc Cacy㔻 (oee a o y yaca cepoo opoca) xapaepca Cya c eea aac co a epo ece cpe cex xapaepc, oeex opoe a aecye eepoe, a a opo peacoc cya, .e. oep aec a ec, o oex poo aop oece poa o ea oee co.

Cooca coepaee xapaepc oee x opaae, a eae, poax. ec oee o eo poceaec caceca acoc ey e xapaepca, oope ae ceo acca ea x poo, ope poo.

uo P y (omee a eamu oce yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a o eepo, ooee oopoy o a peoc e oy cpee cepo, peoe ocye a coeopao oyc-pye eeo ayop: cyeo a .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa x ypco ayea ypac M (pyooe cce oa .A. pacaeo). Oca o po eo epco ae, ooe yope pae: a epo pyo ape, ex, o c apaax, cya ec po e a ooax;

yea ea a eo e o a ya pee ea, ea o acoe ao;

o oo ea, o o ocope o caoo ce;

coa Bo a a poa! oe ooaeo yep p e, o epo pyo;

o e o po papaae;

ae oco o.

aa ypcoo paoe co eae o eepoa, oa cyea oe-o apeca o pea yopee ae pae: oce pocopa oo poa coaec e aee, o aop poaapye opa , pa e po poa. o opa oca pee e pee, a ca po aec apecc, ae oo opaee o. Opaee o oaa oe c eo peaeoc, oao aop poa o aeo oe ooa ey aepay... Ooee aopa oy poe apecc poe oo o opae, o poec a pe ooeoe e aee.

Boa Cnpam (omee a eamu emp yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a cnepma oea meepea uo ucoe (omee a eamu emp yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a Boa Maymu (omee a eamu mpe yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a oema Cuep peu (omee a eamu mpe yacmuau cnepmoo onpoca) Cpe a .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa Ho ec aeo e a oy oey poa pyx cocax, e oex epee cyocx xapaep c aeo cceoa: opa ae a oceoae oc xapaepc eepoe o coe (oee a ea ep yaca cepoo opoca) eepoe Boa May (oee a ea pe yaca cepoo opoca).

oepe, o ooee oeoy poy o o e ac cya, oop oe e oea aoea eoy eo ocp pea. ec acoc p o pooooa o peyaa coooecx cceo a eco, o poccca ayop acpoea eao peae eo.

oee oo, peaa e a ooee eeo epeaa eo.

O o, acoo eco ca ocp ayop pe aa eeoe epea a ee oec, ceecye o a, o ee 1993 ., o a coooeco cy eeaaa Ocao, 24% opoex a opoc: Caa ec aeco pea a ooe eepopae? o e ooeo. Cooeceo, aeco coepae ee oo popa e a ocpe pea aoopo.

Ceac Cy ye ayop Bcepoccco ocyapceo eepaooa, peypo pooe co cnepma oea meepea ao-cxooece cceoa, ocee e ooe ayop eeooy ea, ea aoe aee: pe ca, o eee pcya ocaea y, oee oo, o oa ee oe . a ocoeoc aaae oeao a ocpe ce eeoo poy. poe oo, aece aoee o px e cea, o peoe cpa cya e o e pee eeooy ea eeoa pe aa. Beca oaaeo, o e oa o pe py ox cycc cxo, o ae pecoeo, aac y x ocyee ooe e xo aa cceoa.

B aece cpa oo ooe ayop yaa ea oo cocac a peya, oyee Acpaxa oe 2001 . B xoe ocye a oyc-pye o o paoop o peex, oope pe pe ee ooy ea. oo ox, ocoo caae x ocee o o pea, apecc a pae, eocao epea oaaeoo xapaepa copy poa pee, oope, a ca cceoae, oo e opaoe oec, ecye cee ypoy cxecoy opo pee, coxpae opooo oeca ae yyp.

Ta opao, peaa eeee eo ca oc p ayop. Teeee o e poco peaooc e, a cpea oa, oec eeoo pea (o o, acoc, oop coeopaa p apo, oa peae po coac o oe peopaa, ep , ypaccoo pacceoa, a xyoecee pe pea poa ypacy).

aco xoe coooecx opoco oyc-py oe aec papyee paox yypx eoce e pee coae e eoce pyx yyp. p o exaecoe apoae aao-epoecx aepac .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa x op aaaec a poccc eae, o po x cae pepae acoae oece pocccoo oeca. Hapep, eao a pax aaax oc ae p, a Caoe eo, Aoc, yac oopx o ecoa o py a ca a ce. pee pae ocye, cocoeoc Acpa xa: epeaa Caoe eo ca, o ao cpoo c ee c pa. paa ee ox eepee. o aoe yee ococa eoea. Moe , coae ac oaa a pa, oope o pac, ay o op, oey e e pac o o eoe Moe , o oa oop pay, o e y ec ao pa. ca, o o yee.

Pa o pax aoo ooe, cceoae pxo oy, o eccoaeo pocce e pa a coo, , e oee, a py paa ac o coep a a o ocoa, o o caee. ooy o o cyo paax, aax paa x p, ocpae c a ooc yee;

p o po ycy o y, o oy, a pe opaee.

Ocoy peoy ayop ae o ocoeco, o eeee, eocppy acoae cepeo oee ax peax poax, e yae ocoy yc eoc aoy oec ee opoco. eo o opace peeo ycaae paa oee, opee, o oyco, a o e ao oece. O pepe a ce pae po poye peaoa pae oe o ee. Opa oeeecx cepeoo o epae pee peo pye cepco, a ae CM, acoc, ee e. coae, ocee o p epeace a pea poa, oope eocppy oee e, poee aece pea py coceoy opo. Tao y oa a eaye acoa cnepma oea meepea e op oee. Ee o pae pyoo cycc, poxoe Acpaxa: To, o cop e, aec o o x opa , opa c. pey o pep. o a peaa poyoo a. To, o oaa peae:

e ooe c epeepy ea, o xoy ea e a opoc oop ce, o a oaao. M y a eee e xopoey, a oxoy [7, c. 311313].

Bao oe, o o a coooo cpe co o opa o ax ocpx poeax copeeo , a apo, cec, C, opoc epy oepe aa TB. Bopoc aaec o, o o yca pee ceo peocepeee p ec ao opa ? Hyo ee pa oepy: cceoae oaao, o coaoe, eocoaoe ycoee opa poecce ocyoo e eoc pae ceo ay po ocoe opo ca coaoo oa [8, c. 28].

B ope-eape 1997 . opec oeee HPECC ec oo OOH (HCE) o opaoao cce oae Poccce opoc opaoo pe. O poc pooc 34 peoax Pocc oxaa 1013 a o eoe 10-17 e, poeo ooe cooecy oepoccco ope. o a oo cceoa coooe pe opoc peoa cope eeop (76,7%), aee o yae: cya aoo, poo pe c py, cope eoac, a .. pa a, c opaco pcpac ecoo ec: ec 10-14-e e ce a ocya peoa pocop eeepea, o y 15-17-ex oo epeaec a pee eco, a aoc poee pee pyy pye opacae. Bo cex pyax opoco oee c py aoo aee oe c po e ye. pocxo o, o cxoo aa oeceae pocx. Cpe p aoo e ea e opoco caocoeo cpaa co ooe (o .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa ee, eoce ooe peao a o poco), oopee eoo oa pocx, coe oc e peea.

Cpe coo opa, oopy opoc ca ao ce (opa, oopy ca ao x poce, eep aoo e pa), o aa ce ye: py opy 66,8%, oe ypo 65,1%, po e 62,1%, poce eeepea 54,1%, (o e ye) 50,0%, ece oece eepopa 43,5% p. (eoxoo oepy, o pe e o oyao x aaax, oope opoc coaeo pa ae ce coo opa).

Teeee opy ocyo aa pae ocoy po coao ocoe opoca opa coao o oa. ec ocoy po pae peaa. B xoe cep cceo a (19891993 .), ocex pa acea poe eepeaa e, o pyooco A.B. apoa poe e opoc cpe opoco oeca (12-17 e) Moce pe opoo ooco. Bcoc, o opoc ocpa eepeay copee e a opa o oapax ycyax, a a opao, a ae , paeee, a coeo poa eocay, eo, ca c . pocxo coeo poa ooa peapyeoo oea. Bo cex oypx cpe opoco peax poax pcycy , ae o opoae epo opaa, oope caoc o poco oe, eao, cxooec eoxo oee ec opepo. Boae eoxooc ceoa x aepa, ea ce, a o, peca ce a x ece x paco, ye aeo, paoco oye pe. Oea a opoc ae:

o, a a , cee ceo e a ooee eepea e?, o, a o a ey, a epoe eco ca aop paco poa. Ba x ae coepaee ee, a pe oeee epcoae.

cnepma oea meepea B o pe cee ea ee pcycoa paoopa e ece oece epea. Oao e opoc peoa cope pee ceo o, eecepa y. pe opoex poa epec ec epeaa, 12% ooe, 5% oaae , 0,4 ye. Too 15% epecoaa peaa. p e, a opoco a, o ey epeco co pe ce peae po.

o e ec epcoaa peax poo? Ta opy poaac oa x acx aa cceoa, poeeoo apee 1997 . a aepe ooeco ypac pea. Cpe epcoae eaeo peoaa e. ox e coce ao 4%, 15,5% e cpeeo opaca. oee 70% cex epcoae oo, xopoo . Moooc pacoa eyc oe eoc coaee pea. Ha ep a pea x coax xo eoeece (ypceee eoc e) ooe epcoae;

eoe paoa pecae 30% poo;

aece coo opee cya 13% ep coae. Ec apcoa ooe oppe epo peaoo po a, o ooa ea ooo/cpex e ya;

pao ae ao-o peaeo, epeco co cepe ec, CM, cycco, ea (ae ceo coaoo oc eoo). ooxy (o eep poo epo oxa), ooo oee (11% epcoae a oo o ee) cooe. pepo pe epcoae oaaa py y ce pye. paec ce epo pea opo 0,6% x cae eooae, oopoe, a ax aax, poxo o oece peapyeoo eapca. Ta opa o, a eoc, aoe eeox pea x opaex, oaac epeca, o eopeeea paoa, ce, o, py, opoe, oooc, pacoa.

Oe a pecaec opoc o o, a ocp a pe eeee eo, ao epe, o x e, .A. pacaeo, .H. eomoa pae eeoe aa ecy cee o e a oea ae exa p o coyc.

oyaop peaae ayop o opao po y, oop, o eo e, oe opac ayop oece ey, oyaopy, co pe. epea o paa pecae oyaopa o epecax ayop, o ee opae. Ho aoe opaee coeo opaa ayope oepa ec. a cece ooee pecoeo eoop e eo aaa, oopoe po pooc epe accoa ec. aco cceoa poc cpa o o aa c o. Hepeo eeee ao cey e accoa: epo opo aoe-o o ye o pooe, cyc, poo [9, c. 3739].

Apecc a pae, eocao epea yypo-poce eco apaeoc, o pea ocoe pe e ocex e eee. a, o xoe, pooaae peaa, opayea: a, ao ec a cao ee. pe cyax, oa opa-pecaee o cao cee y pe opa-pecaee ayop coa co ae poa ocoeo pacxoc, o oepaec ayope.

TEPATPA 1. Gerbner G. Ideological Perspectives and Political Tendencies in News Reporting // Journalism Quarterly. 1964. Vol. 41. 4. P. 495509.

2. Gerbner G. On Content Analysis and Critical Research in Mass Communicatoin // People, Society and Mass Communications / Ed. by L. Dexter, D. White. Glencoe, Ill.:

The Free Press, 1964.

3. The Analysis of Communication Content / Ed. by G. Gerbner, O. Holsti, K. Krippendorf, W. Paisley, Ph. Stone. N.Y., London, Sydney, Toronto: John Willey&Sons, Inc., 1969.

4. Gerbner G. The Film Hero: A Cross-Cultural Study // Journalism Monographs.

University of Minnesota. 1969. 13.

5. Gerbner G. Cultural Indicators: the Case of Violence in Television Drama // The Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science. 1970. March.

6. Gerbner G., Gross L. Living with Television: the Violence Profile // Journal of Communication. 1976. 2.

cnepma oea meepea 7. Bopoc peoaoo opaooo ea: pacc peo: Cop aepao / o pe. B.. Heaoa, A.. apacoo. M.:

BTP, 2002. B. IV.

8. aeo C.., apuo A.B., eoa C.H. Poccce opoc opaoo pe. M.: Unicef pecc, 1998.

9. Bopoc peoaoo opaooo ea: apaca o.: Cop aepao / o pe. B.. Heaoa, A.. apacoo. M.:

BTP, 2001. B. III.




2011 www.dissers.ru -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .