WWW.DISSERS.RU


...
    !

OHCTA a eco, aoe opoee oeeceo cooo aaoc pepo oe 50-x . cpay aeoe eco e a pao, ocee cooa aeaecx eoo

coooecx cceoax. eeoc coec x yex cooecye apae 60-e80-e . a oe ooopo. epeee a pycc oe pa o c ocae yaeax peyao aax aopo.

Mo ooo xy oeecee a, oopx coepac o a aae oce, peoe coc ex eoo aaa coooecx ax, oepoa coax e, peya eoo paecoo cooa pax aeaecx eoo poecce pee opex coooecx aa, eoece peoe o paoe po paooo epe aea cooo, oca epx aeo popa, peayx eo, peaaee coec cceoae. B oe 70-x .

aaac cceaeca ya opepoax a coo oa pao c ocae aeaecx eoo, epcex epe coooecy pay. Oeeceo aye o e opc. Ee ypoe paccapaeo acee o e oea pooy. Bce caaoe opoo opaeo [1;

2].

Oao aae 90-x . o oo pepac eca ca pyee. Ha aae e cooecye papao e pepo eyc po poo. Coac oe eo, coepecyc cape, oec ce oe oe o x aeo oepx popa ..

B oceee ecee poccca cooo peo ocaa o aaa oac papao ox aeaecx eo Cooo: 4M. 2003. 16.

Om peauu o, pox pee coooecx aa, oac cooa ecx aopo, oac a eo eco epayp c ocae oo, a cooo oe pe aeay. B eee oo epoa pee paec e epeoac aaa epaypa, opepoaa a coooa.

oee oo, ca paec eocy pooo ae oyoae paee , cop, ca cooecyeo po. pae ao , o oop oo oya cyeo.

B o c Peao Coe ypaa pe paax aco e pyp peypo yoa cee o ecx ae aecx eoax. apyec ao oepe peoca ae opaece cc ax a pycco e pao, oopx ocac ocyaee eo, oca copeee aae papao.

B acoe oepe cooecye e paccapa c a ecx oxoa aay coooecx ax:

oe aeo-cpyyp. Oa oxoa pacpac o e oo epe. B ax oepax ypaa apy c ya cae c oee opo pacpe oe ax oooce copeex oxoo aay cooo ecx ax, apyxc a ex oeoo aeo cpyypoo aao.

TEPATPA 1. ndreenkov V.G., Tolstova Yu.N. Brief Overview of Soviet Literature on Mathematical Methods in Sociology (19731983) // Bulletin de methodologie sociologique. 1985. 3. Paris.

2. Tocmoa .H. Maeaece eo cooo // Cooo Pocc. M.: C PAH, 1998.

A.. oeo, .H. Tocoa (Moca) E ATEHTHO-CTPTPHOO AHAA AAPCEA B COBPEMEHHO COOO B cae opoo opypyc ocoe ooe aeo-cpy ypoo aaa.. aapcea. oaaec, a o opae oeeceo coooeco epaype. opoo ocac oc oe apae pa aeo-cpyypoo aaa, cyecy e aao epaype.

ee coa: aeo-cpyyp aa, ec, aeo-acco aa, aeo-accoa oe, oe aex epeex (oe ocoo epeeo), oe Paa, acoa oao eacoc, oaa a coc, pep X-apa.

ec aepac (acpc, 1933 . ppo a CA) cooo-p, pye ceac o eo oo coooecx cceoa.. aapce (1901 1976) aey ac coeo opeca oc poee oepaoaa o, papaoe ax cocoo opoca pecoeo, oope a oooc ep x ae Ape ope oeo acpa coooecoo ayea Moc ocoo ocyapceoo yepcea . M.B. ooocoa.

aa Hoaea Tocoa oop coooecx ay, poeccop ocyapceoo yepcea Bca oa oo.

Ca oooea p acoo oepe P. poe 02-06-80403.

Cooo: 4M. 2003. 16.

.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa e xapaepc (e, ycao ..;

aeo a ae epeey, e oayc epe c oo poo opaeoo pecoey opoca). a copoa e eoc aapcea opoo ocaa, apep, [1].

Bepo papaoo aepacoo yeoo, ocyece x yaao apae, eope, oopo ooc oe coepaee coopae (a aapce oep a, o coepaea coooeca eop eoa c ceoa o e e pae oac cooo, o oe aco oo o e) c aeo-cpyyp aa (CA, aoo epaype LSA) [2;

3]. C. ae epeee e a pycc pao [4;

5].

Cy oe, peoeo aapceo, coac ceyey. M oaae, o cyecye eoopa ae a ya epeea, oopa oce eee oee e pecoeo. oeee e o paaec e oeo aoo eoea a opeeee xooece opoc a e. aea epeea oaa, co ee ae a paee eco cceoae. Oca cocooc ae o epeeo oycoaec e, o eo oa cy po a c ey aae epee1.

yaeao aapceocoo apaa CA ac acuoa oao eaucuocmu: p ca ae ae o epeeo c ey aae epee cea (ae, o a acoa e ocoe oe ox e Copeee apa CA peycapa oooc cooa x a aaex epeex, aeo. Bocoyec oc caaoe c oo opox pao. x oo pec poco popa pep. aea epeea oce c ey aae, ec oopee poc ae cex epeex p epexoe o ooo a pyoy ca c e, o ep ee eee aee aeo epeeo, e opo (o poc oaec ca cec, oex epeex oy eaee co).

eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

oo apoa, ao coyxc coooec x cceoax;

aapce ep copypoa ee o e). oee opooe ocae aapceoco o e pee ceye paee.

aee peoea aapceo ooceo poca oe CA yoo yaac aa aopa ocee o ycoac. Ocoe oe oo poecca yy pa o oca a e. Heoope o oee ca aapceo cae acceco paoe [3].

C poce apao CA oo oaoc ae o oce CA paea oooex cyo cooo AH CCCP [6, c. 140151;

7;

8;

9]. Ta e yaa eoope ece a oe aca ao pao apae pa epoaax aapceocx e.

Moo aa ae pao coecx yex, oopx CA ( eo pocee apae) cooa pee opex coooecx aa. Hapep, paoe [10] c oo CA epe ae ceece aee epeee a oeceeoc aepa yeco, yoeopeoc , cooc oeceo e eoc, yoeopeoc paoe ocaoo. B cae [11] e aee aop, opeee ooe e pecoeo oe xapaepca opoco cpe.

B paoe [12] ocpoea oo oeceo-oeco aoc oox paox (cooac yeoc a pa CA, o oopo ye caao e). Ee o pep pa ecoo cooa CA pee ya [13].

Ha c e CA c aae oca oopox cooyoc e oeo yaao paoe [14, c. 137]. Aop oaae, o p payo oa oopooc, oopo ee cc ca ae py oeo, oope oaa o acc p cooa CA, .e. ae py, oopx aaee epeee eac (aop pae acoy oao ea.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa coc). py coa, coaa pya caec oo poo p cao caceco c ocox oaaee ee eeeoc. eceo, ca c ey oaa e oaaa , o , oaec, apep, o opao a, oac o py xapaepca: o-paoy ey pyoy eeoc coy coe pe .. B o cy ae ypoe opaoa ye cyeceo epepoa e o xapaepy eeeoc. Hapo, p ocyc c ey paa eee c e ypoe opao a a e epepye e o py xapaepca x eeeoc: py paoo ypo opaoa e oaoy cpyypy pyoo eeoc, ocya, a ...

Aop oop o o, o pecae, yoe o oxo oa oopooc, copypoa paoe [15].

coae, ocee o epec pocccx cce oaee paccapaeoy oxoy, paec, e po c. o ae ee ycoepecoa epoa ao aapceoco oe, acoo a eco, e cooac oeeceo coooeco pae (c ee cocae oa oee, peoex yeo 70-x ., o e oe pe e).

Hao ocoe e, aoee epoaao CA. e oo pyo oop o o, ao apae pa ac e aapcea.

a, oaae, o aea epeea oaa a eco co ee paa (.e. oeco cox aex ac co). poco peoo, o o co pao y. Ha aee epeee xooece, pa ae 0 1.

ye ycoo aa ep oe opae, a opo eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

ooe. Bee ooae: v1 v2 o oeo, o ax ep opo aee acc cooeceo;

Pi o cex pecoeo, ooeo oex a i- opoc pi ae;

pi aaoe o epoo opoo aeoo acca cooeceo, Pij o e, ooeo oex 1 a i- j- opoc oopeeo;

pij pij aaoe o epoo opoo acca cooeceo. Aaoo opee 1 c e Pijk, pijk, pijk .. ae, o ec e oo p o acoax, o acox pacpeeex pao, .e. oo o opox ax, o e oe oppeo. Ceoao c ooa epoo, ey cc eepao co oyoc oop o pacpeee epooce cpeaeoc ae cooecyx cyax e. p o, oe o, yo ocoaa eoxooc epeoca peyao c op a eepay cooyoc xo e ocpoe oepex epao cex cox e.

o opye noo epomocmu (peoaae, o a acc c aoca cepa, .e.

a oe oaae o oo o ae acc), Pi = v1 pi + v2 pi 1 Pij = v1 pij + v2 pij (1)................................

oa ca oeoe coooee v1 + v2 = 1 (2) oy ccey ypae, oopo ec c e , coe ex acx ypae (1), a eec e, coe pax acx ex e ypae.

y ccey, ooe oop, e pe, ocoy co ypae e opao ee ca eecx. Ha oo pxo acuoa oao eaucuocmu. B cooec c e, ee eco coooee:

.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa 1 1 pij = pi p1, pij = pi2 p2 (3) j j aoap oy coooe, oeco eecx peo caec. B peyae ccea oaec pee.

Ha pae cooae ocao oe CA ocyec ec pepo a opao. Bpaec opepooa aea epeea (yyp ypoe pecoea, ypoe ypaa peoa ..). opac aee opoc, aoee cae, o e cceoae, c o epee o. co paa aeo epeeo paec coep aex coopae. Ha ocoe oeo a opoc ae pecoeo o cpoc aea oca epee a, .e. c cooyoc o paaec a acc a, o yp aoo acca oe a opoc ae ca cacec eac. oepe, o coo o e apaco e. B eceoc pocxo ce yee. Peaec ccea ypae (1) (2) c yeo yco 1 1 (3). Haee eece v1, v2, pi, pij, pi2, pij .. ep pepyc oca e opao. py coa, oa ae, o a pacpeee ae ax pao ae x accax coooee x acco o x oey. peopa y yaae e c oo opy aeca, oo a epooc paeoc aoy paccapaeoy accy oo pecoea, aeo poo aop oe o a opoc ao ae. Ta opao, oc ae a eo epeeo coc ocpoe oopox cac eco cce acco, pe aoo oea opee ea epooc eo oece oy oy accy, axoee oeo x acco epooce cpeaeoc x aopo oeo a opoc ae pecoeo, p aeax aoy accy.

oepe, o oaaeco cyecoa aeo epeeo p o ocaec a a coec cceoae.

Pe opao ccey ypae (1), (2), ye ca, eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

o oyee e opaa eo ooepe pacpe ee, oeae xo ay aey paa. Oa o oa, a oopo apyec o yepee, eca y a. oc o.

pee ceo, eoxoo oaa cee oe o, o c oceooeco o pe ooo co e ec cao oe aea epeea. Heeo oe a opoc o o, o a cyecoae o epeeo.

Bco, o oe paa o cea ec pey ao acpapoa eca cooo ypo. M yxo o yaoc aoo yaeoo oea (y ac pecoea), ee ao x eo oxoee a pyoo. e a-o poco o, pa cox peooex. Bepoo, oaaeco aeaoc ax oco oe cy oo aee peaoo o aoo-o epecyeo ac (caoo c aeo epeeo) oee pecoe o, paeax pa ae acca. Oao ae ceo e aaec e aeo poep cpae oc copypoax oe. Pe ccey ypae (1), (2) peooe cpaeoc (3) oaae, o a pacpeee aex pao. A e oa oppoa coooe (1), (2), (3) a pya.

a, ec coe aee acc eceo cyec y, o coooe o ep. A ec e cye cy? ao cyae oe oe pe ccey (1), (2) p yco cpaeoc (3). Pae o peee ye cy oaaeco cpaeoc peooe o cye coa aeo epeeo? He, oeo. Te e eee, a pae oo oaae, o ee eo c aeo epe eo, ae e ayac a ocae e opoca.

B epaype ec eoope peya, oope o o, o ocae coe oa coa eyx ye x. O cyecex ocoec, pox co.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa oecy pae, ocyo o, o peee ae cce oa c ca, oe e. co, o ao cyae x e eppepoa a ae o o epooc. o e ea? Coeac cyeco a aeo epeeo? Moe , o o cpa eo, o oa papaoe opaa ac ae eya. Heoxoo ope epecapa a coepae e oc. Oao eoope yee o o pyoy y aece p ocaoo poope ca paccap a apyee aco oao eacoc. O o e.

B acoee pe e aapcea ocaoo oyp cpe aax coooo. pecae o CA a c copeee opaoaee popa cye o-coooo (o o oceo ceecye, acoc, o, o ao poeae oce a oa eco cep o oece eoa coax cceo ax [16;

17]).

a ocee 50 e e, peoee.. aapce o, ao paac. Haoe eoope apae. p o e ye peeoa a ooy pox cee.

Ocaoc a eoopx oeax, pecaxc a aoee cyece.

Cpaeue oee C u amopoo aaua B paoe [18] o oaao, o aop aa ec ac cyae oe oe aeo-cpyypoo aaa c eco ae epee. ec, oao, ee cc oe, o ooo aco epaype oaa, o CA eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

eo, pea opox oax ax e e aa, o eae epax ax aop aa;

c., apep, [17]. oee yo aa coooe ey aop aeo-cpyyp aao ocyece, apep, [19]. B o paoe oce paoo oca pa aopoo aaa aeo-cpyypx oee oaaec, a oce e oy ooe cceoa coooe ey oece epe a cocoo, o ea eoopx poe aopoo aaa. Boaa peyae oe aeoo po peec ae pec a c e eocpa ea ee cooa.

He pe oe o coopaex, peoex paoax [20;

21;

22;

23] (opoo o cooecyx oex oopc [12]). Moo caa, o eo x yax ao e e p apae oa aapceocx pe cae. ae, o apa CA, o oopx e oe pe, ae pe aac ae aeo-acco aa o (A, LCA). o e acaec cya, oa aea epeea epepa.

cnooaue pumepu Xu-apam npu nouce amemx napaempo oeu B aax paoax peoe coco oca ocax e aex apaepo (oeo acco, pacpeee aaex pao ao acce, epooce oece pecoea, aeo opeee oe, oy oy accy), o o aapceocoo.

Oe pee ceo coco epexoe oe aea eco cac oe cacecoo oea apa epo eepao cooyoc o opo a;

c.

ae [24]. peoaae, o oce e oaeo cpec ooy coe paeca (1). ye ca, o o paeco oeae eopeecoy (oaeoy) pacpeee.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa aaex pao oy pacpeee, oopoe cpa eo eepao cooyoc. pecoo pacpee e, aaeoo o ope, paeco (1) oe apyac.

Ccea ypae pacea x apaepo opaec a cooae oo ax aco, oope oea ao pa oeo a ce opoc ae cpay. Peee axoc c oo epaoo poecca. e epa coco o, o eopeece aco, oope opee c oo coooe (1) (2), a oo ye cooecoa a ae a. oc, o oaae aoe cooece.

p o poco peoo, o aey e p opoca.

Ha oepeo ae ocpeco aex aex a paepo paccac a aaee eopeece (oae e) aco Pijk (pe e o ce c oo oex paceo oeca e, ax aa aop oeo a a p opoca), aco cpaac c pea, a ae acoa Pijk (.e. e acoa, oope a ec cy a cxo a). Cpaee ocyec ec ocpeco ecoo pep X-apa. Ec oa ec, o oepeoo aa ae epa ea oo pep (ececeo, p aao ypoe aoc) pe ae aoe aee, o epexo ceyey ypo epa. Ec e peae cae, o aee ae e apaep ocaoo xopoo opaa peaoc.

Oecneeue ooocmu opa ouecma amemx acco (uca aeu amemo nepeeo) a a ocao e epa opeeec c o aex acco. Peya yy e oee e , e oee oeco aex acco (.e. ae aeo epeeo) paccapae. oee oo, cae, eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

p yx aex accax ooe oo e a yoeo peoo pee, a p pex a ..

Peaa epaoo poecca aa c cya, oa oeco aex acco pao y. aee oe cya , oa aea epeea peooeo ee p ae, oop ce caaa. Bepooc axoe ae aoo pee ( aeco aooo) oaec. Oao e oxoo e y, o co ooe oeco ae x acco oe pec eoooc yao x po eppepoa.

O o, acoo yeee ca aex acco o n o n+1 ooe yy pae ey aae oae acoa, oo cy o pae cooecy x ae pep X-apa [25;

12]. Oo poecc ocaaa, oa epexo o n-o (n+1)-y ay epa ae aoe eee oo pep.

poe pep X-apa, cyecy pye coco oe cooec eopeecx pecx aco:

opaoe pep ec oeoo cooec.

C oo opoo oaoc [17, c. 13].

Oecneeue ooocmu paccompeu enpepo amemo nepeeo o ooe aapceocx e a cya, oa aea epeea ec epepo ( oea e coo ae), ocyecc eoopao. oaay ae ooe oc eopeec xapaep. o oea aop pao [3]. ae cooecye coopae epeee o oe ocpyoe pyco. pepo oy cy ocae e peoe yea Xaepaa o ocy oaoo ca ae aeo epeeo. Pacco p cya, oa aea epeea epepa (ec coo, c ecoe co ae), a opoc aee .. oeo, .H. Tocmoa xooece. cao cooece ey oco o coooe cpeoo epepoo ap ao aeo-cpyypoo aaa. Bee oe ooae : x eceoe co, aee ae aeo epe eo ( epaype ae ceo aece ao epeeo paccapa ycaoy pecoeo);

(x) ooc pac peee aeo epeeo, ec cyao e o (ao, o cyaa ea o opeee xapae pyec aae y pacpeee ooc pacpe ee);

fi(x) a aae pa i-o opoca, .e. epo oc ooeoo oea a o opoc pecoea, eeo aee x aeo epeeo.

Hepyo o, o ey ee paee ooae oo ycao ceyee cooece.

Taua CB ME CPETHM HEPEPBHM BAPAHTAM CA Ooae cpeoo cya Ooae epepoo cya dk + ( ) x dx, e (dk, dk+1) v1, v dk poo opeo coo oc + ( ) x dx v1 + v fi(x), pi pi + i v1 pi + v2 pi2 f (x) (x)dx Ocae oee c epepo aeo epeeo o o a pyccox paoax [8, c.109110;

26, c. 5662].

ooe ae epaype yeec y pao opoco (y fi(x)). Paccapac pae cya. p eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

ep pax pao opoco pee [8, c.111]. Be aoee aco coyyc ecox opocax y y Paa:

ci x fi (x) =.

1 + ci x Cea o y opeee cey oca a e aeo epeeo aoo pecoea. Cooec ya exa caoc e oe oxoe a paoy exy CA A. p ee pee oop o cooa oe Paa. Ocae oe Paa oo a pao ax [27;

8, c. 284290].

C C c meopue mecmo Paccopee aeo epeeo a epepo xapa epc cae CA c eope eco. Coceo, o cpae cooecyx oxoo ca ca aapce [5]. M ocec peyao, cax c cooae yoyo e oe Paa. O ea paax e oo CA, o opee eoo apae eop eco paoe c oe c aeo ocoo epeeo (latent trait models, LTM). oox ya ooo oo;

aoe, apep, epeeey a pycc ca [28], oopa oe aaec The relation of test score to the trait underlying the test. aoc oo oxoa cae oee oco, ec co, o yoya e y Paa oo eec cey opao:

Pij =, 1 + exp(Ti - B ) j e Pij epooc oo, o cye c Ti- ypoe a pao o aae, pyoc oopoo paa Bj.

B ocee o poccce cceoae ao a ac epee oae oe Paa, coae cooecyx aeo oepx popa paax.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa papao cce eo oe a yaxc cc ee pocccoo opaoa [29;

30;

31]. Oa x ao oa ccea Rasch Measurement ocaa [32].

Cpaee oxoo, eax pyce ecoo pa, c oxoa CA, ocyecoc eoopao. Ceye oe , apep, aay e paoy caoo aapcea [5].

aa cceoae ocee o ae opa o pooc cpaee oe Paa c oee aoec pea A (LCA cpaaec c LTM). O o pacope o ceecye oee copa [33], c oop oo oa oc epee o apecy: http://www.ipn.uni-kiel.de/aktuell/ buecher/rostbuch/inhalt.htm. o cop coco 40 cae, aa oopx ocae cooae paccapaex oxoo poe opaoaeo cepe.

B aece ooeoo pepa cpaeoo co oa M pyx oee oooo poa oo aa paoy [34]. peee M acepo, aopo pe peccoo aae coea c pepa peaa x oee c oo oepx popa oo a [35].

Oecneeue ooocmu paccompeu euxomouecux onpoco peoaaec, o a ee aey opoc oe peoeo e a, a oe oeoe oeco oeo.

pep (c pe apaa oeo a a opoc) ye pee ceye ye.

C CA co aopa aao yaa.

peoo, o a ae xooecx opoco ae e (ye ooec opoc aee c cooecy ey pao, xapaepy pecoea) aec ep eoopy ycaoy pecoea c oo ex ao paoo aaa yaa [36];

c. ae, apep, [6;

9].

Hao, o a exa opaec a peooee o o, o, eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

ec epea aea epeea eceo cyecy e aaee pa xopoo ee opaa, o pa oy yopoe cooec co cey p o: o pa peecye pyoy, ec ooe oe a ep opoc ee ooe oe a opo (o yepee oo ocpaec a eo p eoe: oaae, o oo epo o cyae, ec pa yaoc popapoa c eoopo opeoc;

o o, a cpoc cooecy pep, oo poa aao e epaype).

Ta e, a A, e yaa ooe a cy a, oa aaee epeee e oee yx ae . p o peoaaec, o epeee oye, o pae epe, o opoo ae.

oc cy ocaoo papoa pao, ca, apep, o y ac eec p epeex , , B, aa oopx oe pa p ae 1, 2, 3 (1 < 2 < 3).

oyc, o a yaoc yopo pa a opa o: , B,. o oaae, o y ac cpeac oo ceye coea x pao (c ooc o eoo opeoc).

Taua OCTME COETAH HAEH OPOEHHX PHAOB Hoepa coe a p a ae p ao B A 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 5 3 2 6 3 1 7 2 2 8 2 2 9 2 1 10 1 1.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa a, ec y ac cpeac oo yoye coea ae, .e. ec ee ocoa oaa, o peoo e o cyecoa aeo epeeo aeaoc aaex e e ocoa (a e, oooc yopoe pao e oaae a cpaeoc x peooe, a oo oop o o, o aaee a e e poopea ), o o ocoeco oo ca oce oepee oo, o peee ypae a (1), (2) oe opaae eoopy cpyypy aex acco.

B [22] ee o apyex cyeceo ea pyex pecoeo.

ep oocc pecoe, ae oe a a x aopo 1-10. ooe aop aac papee . oo aex acco, oeax ae coo aeo epeeo, paccapaec ee o ae acc acc eapyex pecoeo, oope a epa peee oe. Tax acco oe ecoo.

Bco, o exa CA ooe caa, aoy eo accy c aoe epooc ye oece o o aop ca poyepoax a a. 2. Haepoe, oe ca, o aopa aa oepae oe CA, ec c pepo oaoo epooc oay c oaa o o e acc cocee aop: ca e, epoy accy c pepo oaoo ocaoo o o epooc oayc oece aop 1, 2, 3. o poy 4, 5, 6, 7, peey 8, 9, 10.

Aao opao peee A oe oo c ceoae opee, a oa opao popa poa pa. oee oo, oo a ay cya, oa oaec, o papoy oo ocyec oee, e o cocoo.

Coecoe cooae A aopaoo aaa oo a, apep, [17].

eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

aea oao eaucuocmu a aueaucuocm Bco yoyy e cya, oa peee cc e ypae aapcea ae ae epooce, o x e. Bxoo ee oe cy oyee oo, o yp ooo acca (p oo o e ae ae o epeeo) pa oy ace py o pya. Coe eoxooc p aco oao eacoc oy oy pyx coopae. a ea peye ceaoo ocye, oopoy epee e. ec oe, o yeocx oex peoaaec, o eo opa acoc ey aae paa ae x accax eec, o e ca (py coa, pe e o o, o aa aea epeea aco oce c ey aae). ye aa ee aeac oc peo coco ocpoe cooecyx oee.

Oma om acuo oao eaucuocmu (H) Cop o ooy paoooc p AH aac o cpay oce ee eoo ee ay oxo aapc eo. Be ye oop o oo p ax co po: eo apyee o aco oc o, o pee e cce (1), (2) oa cy ca, oe e.

pee eoope pye coopae, ooe p oy o eecoopaoc oaa o oaeoo coe AH. coopae oe e, oope ea ocoe poo aaa [37]. oae o a pepe.

yc aea epeea oece cocooc ya eoc. B aece aaex epeex cya ee ecoe oece opoc, a a oopx yac oe a oe a-e. peoaae, o c ey oe a ocec eo e, o y yaxc pa ypoe oecx cocooce: eoe c co cocooc ocoo ae pae oe, co cpe cepea.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa aooy, c oeae ocoo epao. aa oc , oe oyco peooee o o, o ao yaax py yaxc c ey x oea a pa e opoc poaae. Oao oe oe a, o, ca e, c acce cax yaxc ocaec, ocoy ec aae paoa pya aea epeea apep, ycoc. Cpe cax yaxc yce ye pea aa, eyce xye. B eo oe e, o ce e o ye, pye xye, c ey eec!

aapceoca exa aeo-cpyypoo aaa e ae a oooc axo acc, oopx aae e epeee ca py c pyo. AH ocooe peooee, a oopo apyec c aapce oca exa. Be ye oea, o yeocx oex peycopea oooc eoopoo ocae pac capaeo aco ( ee y aeacoc epeex yp aex acco). Oao peoe aax cceoaee e opaac. papao a coco e cya, oa ee cc oa ac o AH, ae pe cooa ex A, p oopo acoc opeeex pao aex ac cax eae, ec oa oeae peaoc.

B aece cocoa e oo, co oaac o AH , ec co, o ax eo epeex, aoe aocecy poeypy, ocay paoe [38] (pyo oxo oo a, apep, [39]). aop peo aocpoa ay apy xooecx epeex.

Cpoc e epexeoe acoe a oa coco aaex aco, pya oaex, ce x a ocoe oe cooec c oca e ye oc oxoo. Aop papaoa pep, ocoa a ce ooe peoaa, opao pacpeee p yco oao eacoc paccapaex yx eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

pao o cex aex accax. Paccyae pao opao: ec aee oo pep peae a oe (ececeo, peycapaec aae opeeeoo ypo aoc), o cae, o pa ax-o aex accax o ac. x peec o ocax e cocoo yea ao acoc (eo A).

O cocoo oye oe cax epe ex aex accax ec cooae emoa oeueu npuao. peoo, apep, o aoc eca poeypa aa a ocoa ya, o aax epex xooecx pao, B, C, D pa B C oy oao ac. Toa c oo oo ex A paccop ocee a paa e oeo, a e oy epeey BC, pay epe ae, aoe oopx oeae oo epex oox o a cxox ae pao B C. Aop cpo aee acc, ao oopx pa, BC, D ea c. A pa B C oe oy oaac ac.

py eoo oye oao acoc oe cy emo oecmex uuamopo [20;

39]. Ha o e pepe oc eo cyoc. M peoaae, o, ap y c ae ocoo epeeo X, oycoae ao c cex epex epeex, ecye ee oa epee a Y oo acoc B C, a X ecye e eocpec eo a B C, a oocpeoao, epe Y. Moe ocpaaec o y cya. oeco cox aex apaepo opacae.

Ee o cocoo oca aeo epeeo, p oo po ooa acoc aaex epeex oe x accax, ec cooae oueoo aaua (A) [23];

o cao A oo ya, apep, [40]. ya ec acoa aa, paepoc oopo a ey oe oeca aaex epeex, ocoy oce.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa oaec ee aea epeea X. Paccapac yepe aoec ao aaeo epeeo c aeo. , ec xo oyc oay acoc, cae, aaex epeex B C, o oeay e a oey oe, apy c aoec BX CX, aaae ae aoece BC. B cooe c c paa A oyae a aoo yaa x yepx aoec aco paccapaeo ooepo acoo a.

Oe, o peee A c yaao e aa o epaype pooocaec cooa oee aapcea yea, aaex accec [41]. O pecae aeo-accoo oe e oeo oopoc [23].

epecee e cya oca [42]. Ta e o o a peoea o pee oepx popa, oox oao ace pa peao a CA pex ocax cocoo.

yaax e oee ye papaoa ao co yc pae popae ae, ocoo aae. O ca x pee cooecye epe-cc o o a [17]. o cco oepx aeo pee a cae: http://members.aol.com/KMarkus/lca.html.

Cpe oeecex poyo oo aa epca cxoaocec oec CEPT-Copo, oop pe cxooecx apox cy. C oo oaoc a: http://www.effinf.ru/7Ceni/Expert.shtml.

oae o pyo popao-eoeco oece cep ae oo a epee a cae: http:// www.expert-plus.ru/expert_benefits.htm. o ae papao eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

o a poy coae c oo cpoeoo ae o-cpyypoo aaa aoe po o ope c epe cce a ocoe pecoo eopeecoo aa a oppe x poe.

TEPATPA 1. aapce. epee cooo // Aepaca cooo:

epce, poe, eo. M.: popecc, 1972.

2. Lazarsfeld P. A Conceptual Introduction to Latent Structure Analysis // Mathematical Thinking in the Social Sciences. N.Y.: Free Press, 1954.

3. Lazarsfeld P.F., Henry N.W. Latent Structure Analysis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1968.

4. aapce. oece aeaece ocoa aeo-cpy ypoo aaa // Maeaece eo copeeo ypyao cooo . M.: popecc, 1966.

5. aapce.. aeo-cpyyp aa eop eco // Ma eaece eo coax ayax. M.: popecc, 1973.

6. Ocuno.B., pee .. Meo epe cooo. M.: Haya, 1977.

7. Cacece eo aaa coooeco opa. M.: Haya, 1979.

8. Too acca coooecx cceoax. M.: Haya, 1982.

9. Tocmoa .H. epee cooo. M.: pa-M, 1998.

10. Maeo.. Meo aaa poopoa coao-oo ecoo oee aa coaoo ypae (a pepe paoe oo e . ay): Aope. c. a. oo. ay. M.: M AH CCCP, 1984.

11. apaa H.. Bee ooe acee eea opoco cpe // Bec. Moc. y-a. Cep. 5, eopa. 1975. 6.

12. empe.. ocpoee oo c oo oe aex acco // Maeaece eo coooeco cceoa. M.: Haya, 1981.

13. oapocu B.C. Heoope poe epe coax ycaoo // Bopoc oco. 1970. 7.

14. Mupu .. pypo coao-ooecx cceoax.

M.: ac caca, 1985.

15. apue .H. Coao-ooecoe apoae: cce oe.

M.: ooa, 1974.

16. McCutcheon.L. Latent Class Analysis: Sage University Papers Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. 07-64. Thousand oaks, CA: SAGE, 1987.

.. oeo, .H. Tocmoa 17. Dayton C.M. Latent Class Scaling Analysis: Sage University Papers Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. 07-126. Thousand oaks, CA:

SAGE, 1998.

18. nderson T.W. Some Scaling Methods and Estimation Procedures in the Latent Class Model in Probability and Statistics. N.Y., 1959.

19. uco . aop, aeo-cpyyp aeo-po aa // Maeaece eo coax ayax. M.: popecc, 1973.

20. Goodman L.. The Analysis of System of Qualitative Variables when Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. P. 1: Modified Latent Structure Approach // Amer.

J. Sociol. 1974a. Vol. 79. 5.

21. Goodman L.. Explanationary Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models // Biometrika. 1974b. Vol. 61. 2.

22. Goodman L.. A New Model for Scaling Response Patterns: An Applications of the Quasi-independent Concepts // Journal of the American Statistical Association.

1975. Vol. 70.

23. Haberman S.J. Qualitative Data Analysis. V. 2: New Developments. N.Y.:

Academic Press, 1979.

24. nderson T.W. On Estimation Parameters in Latent Structure Analysis // Psychometrica. 1954. Vol. 19.

25. Mupu .. Aa aecex pao cpyyp. M.: Caca, 1980.

26. Moepoae coax poecco. M.: -o PA ..B. exaoa, 1993.

27. Pc . ya oxo aay opoco // Maeaec e eo coax ayax. M.: popecc, 1973.

28. op .M. Ooee ey eco ao cceyeo coco oc // Maeaece eo coax ayax. M.: popecc, 1973.

29. ucuoa T.C., Maca.., Ocuno C.. Cpae aa oe Rasch acceco oe o ooc oea // Maepa oepe Aa aeca opaoa ecpoae. M.: aeco MC, 2001.

30. Maca.. cceoae eoc cce ecpoa a oc oe oe Paa / Tpe Bcepoccca ayo-paeca oepe Oea eoc opaoaex oa exoo. Cac a-ya: -o C A, 2001.

31. Maslak.. Efficiency Estimation of Testing on Rasch Model // International Conference on Objective Measurement. Chicago: University of Illinois, 2001.

32. Maca.., Ocuno C.., uo B.B. popao-aopecoe oeceee aaa peyao ecpoa a ocoe oe Paa // XII Me yapoa oepe-caa opaoe exoo opaoa . Web page, 2002 (http://www.bitpro.ru/ITO/2002/VI/VI-0-906.html).

eu amemo-cmpymypoo aaua aapcea...

33. Applications of Latent Trait and Latent Class Models in the Social Sciences.

Mnster, New York, Mnchen, Berlin: Waxmann, 1997.

34. Greene W.H., Hensher D.. A Latent Class Model for Discrete Choice Analysis: Contrast with Mixed Logit. The University of Sydney and Monash University, 2002 (http://www.its.usyd.edu.au/publications/2002_working_papers.asp).

35. Magidson J., Vermunt J.K. Latent Class Models. Statistical Innovations Inc.

Tilburg University, 2002 (http://www.statisticalinnovations.com/lg/sage11.pdf).

36. ymma . Ocoe ooe aoo aaa // Maeaece eo copeeo ypyao cooo. M.: popecc, 1966.

37. Xec . p aa cacecx cceoax. M.: ac caca, 1981.

38. Garrett E.S., Zeger S.L. Latent Class Model Diagnosis // Biometrics. 2003.

39. Hagenaars J.. Latent Structure Models with Direct Effects between Indicators: Local Dependence Models // Sociological Methods and Research. 1988. 16.

40. nmo . Aa a copeoc. M.: ac caca, 1982.

41. Clogg C.C. Latent Class Models // Handbook of Statistical Modeling for the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Ch. 6. N.Y.: Plenum, 1995.

42. Uebersax J. A Practical Guide to Local Dependence in Latent Class Models.

Web page, 2000 (http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jsuebersax/condep.htm).




2011 www.dissers.ru -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .