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OE BOPOC METOOO METO COOOECX CCEOBAH E.M. opyoa (Moca) METO HOMHAHX P B cae oe ocoe p cooa ooo eo o pyoo cycc

eoa oax py. B cpae c py aece pyo exa oaa eo pey eca opae. Oca poecc peaa, a ae cea pee eoa oax py.

ee coa: eo oax py, pyoa cycc, py oa aa, pyooe aoece, pyoo poecc, oepaop, oyc-pya, eo e, o op, oaa aa, aa oocoa.

Meo oax py (H) pecae coo exoo pyoo eeoc, opeee opa o cpyyppoao apaeo a coecoe p e pee.

B aa exoo (oae py) o o e pya oaec ea cooyoc o, paoa x ece, o e cyax epaoe aoece eee eoopoo epoa pee.

poeypa poee H opopyec oepaopo (leader, facilitator), oece a cop cex peoe e, coco ecox pax a.

Eaepa Mxaoa opyoa acpaa ocyapceoo yepc ea yaapx ay. E-mail: gem@gorod.org.ru.

Cooo: 4M. 2003. 16.

E.M. opyoa Ha epx aax ce yac H oaa pa o ooc caa co peoe e.

Bocec aa e ocyaec o oeoc, po oc oocoae, o oa oopoo paec oee pe ee py.

epoaao eoa H a papaoaa A. ee o A. a e Beo c e oe poyoc eoc coea pyooee eeepo cpeeo ceo ea [7;

8, p. 466492]. o e aopo, ocoa acca poe, c oop caac a eye ax co pa, a yac, a caa c eepae ox e, oa eo coea pyoy paoy, a ae papaoo oec pacca. aacy eoo pe e py cac aoo yac o pa pa. B pyx cyax ecoo eo py ooo py cycc, e opaa p o a a ee ocax yaco. B xoe copa a yac aa e o cya, o oop. e e xaae pee, o oya ocyaee opoc ae caa coe ee. Meo H peoe a cpeco ycpae o ox pyoce. Ocoa e eo cooa e e o py a opeeey poey c ocey oyee oeo pyooo pee o poe.

B pax oeax o H eac yop a cooa o exoo a cpeca, oeaeo poecc p pee pye. pooc p pecx cceoa, o epax, o peee eo H cococye oa pye e peoe, oope oy aa pac cope oac p cooa pyx ex py oo pao [7;

8, p. 466492;

16].

Memo ouax pynn Hecop a o, o eo H oc oaa co e oc eeee [c. ap. 4, p. 25], o aeeo, o aoap oc exoo, o oe pec pax oacx, apep oeoee, coao paoe, opa oa poeccoax peax [5, p. 147;

9, p. 139].

oco cae, ocex cooa eo H, ocoo acac ee pee oac oca papao e o coepecoa yex popa. py e cep pee eoa H aa ye xyoece o peao eeoc, a ae cceoaecx po paax o ye opo.

Heoope ceac peoey eoy H cce oa e cyeo ooceo pax aceo oy e. eco, o c 1970-x . eoa poo coyec yepceax oye opa o coco poec ca oye. Oao oop epayp oaa, o ocae oo aepaa o pee eoa H o oac eec pae ao. Ec ya peyao ecox cceo a yepceax cpe yeo 10 11 acco [5, p. 147;

9, p. 139]. cceoaece poe oo p aoy oy: eoa H oo cp coco oye oo cyeo, yace H ooyee cy eo, poeypa poee H opaae e oepa opa aepye ae a cyeax x e.

poea. poeo aa o ocoo cceo aec opoc (poey cceoa), a peee oopo o apaea H. poea paaec opocax, oope o epaop opypye ocye c pyo. a pao, o pecae ceo e yax aeax yaco.

E.M. opyoa e. o e oa apa oeo, oope a pecoe a ocaee oepaopo opoc. e pecoe aao opypy yax aeax, a ae oya. Co e oa pe.

y . Hacae a oce e yaco aa ya.

Cpae pee. o cpaee pee poe oo oa oooe peee, oopoe ye po pyo peyae ocye.

poeypa poee H coco 6 ao (a). peaa ooo oaooo poecca opeyec 23 aca.

Teopeecoe oee poeyp poee H aoc ye cppoa pepa cceoa, oope yy a ece paoax1.

a 1. Houaa aa, uu aa oau:

uuuyaoe opyupoaue ue eau pynn (pepa pooeoc aa 1020 y).

Moepaop pecae ey ocye;

p o o o e yec, o ce yac ooc pao o (cey) opypoy poe. oecee oo coc oe e eco epooeoe pyooe a oece (ocyee). Oao, a oo oae (po e) ocyo, ocyee yp py pepaaec oaoe cceoae Opa a y ooe o poeeo ope eape 2001 . Coooec yo opo p ocyapceo y epcee Bca oa oo. B poee pa yace cye -B e C opo H. Mpooa, . Opea, E. Toa. B xoe cce oa poee 3 oae py co cyea ococx y o opace o 17 o 21 oa. B cooec c oe cceoa, opa Memo ouax pynn yaca peaaec oya oe a ocae o poc aca a co oe e ocye. oo a oy yacy aec aea eo copypoa op opoc o poee cceoa, oop oe a ca o aee, o a oce. Ha oe ooc opeeeoe oeco pee. oe aoece ey yaca oo ceo, o ea oex o a poecc pao e. aaa oepaopa a o ae coco o, o ec pyy ypc ea , oppy e a ee py, cocpeoo ee a poee.

Ocoe npuun u ycou peauauu mana1:

1. a pe a oyae e.

2. Oece coycpoaoe epepaeoe ae pec oea peey ocye.

3. Cypoa aoo yaca ocy ox e.

4. aa ycaoy a opeco.

5. cpa e caycx pa.

6. He oyc oype.

7. He oyc oopa.

8. ea oea yaca e py pya.

9. peype opa py.

a cpac epe ee cya, oopx pecoe peo a o ao. Cya co oepe oee a p oa:

(1) o e o, (2) c e o, (3) o aoy ooy o. B ao cae oae, a opao c oo eo H cceoae oy a oe a ep opoc, a a opaoaa poeypa poee py a opao oy poaapoa oyee ae.

Bao oe, o a o oeceoc a coee po yco peaa aoo aa H oc a e oepaopa. ooy ocoe p yco peaa aa, aec, peca co o aau u yuu oepamopa.

E.M. opyoa B xoe epo a oao py pecoea a a opoc o o, o, o x e, ec opeee a. oea a o op opoc ceo aeax;

oeco apao oeo o opaeo (e oee ). o cpeco a pyooo aoec , ceoae o, pyooo ae, o eo oe ee pecoe o o o, o oo e o.

Peya, oyee a ae aaa ye ooe ax yax ae, pecae a. 1.

Taua TO ET BO: HBAHOE MHEHE TO ET BO OECTBO OMHAH ( % o oeo oeca oeo) Cmyem emu, ouu Mooe My o, o poco eo Mya Pao oapeo opac a 2. Oe ueu u npeoeuu no pyy (round-robin):

opama c oyuaue ue, copyupoax a nepo mane (pepa pooeoc aa 2040 y).

Moepaop pooo ope poc yaco c ycc aa o acax apao oea a o cae opoc acae ce caa a oce, o ce yaca. p eoxooc oce cc (coepae) eyeo ya, o o oe ce pec oea. a oepa oopec o ex op, oa ce yac e cay o ooy coopae. Bocec ec poecc pooaec o ex op, oa a oce e yy aca ce oe aoo pecoea. Bo pe o poeyp Memo ouax pynn ooee e o pe, oae aoap oea pyx, ae oy oee. Oao yac cycc e o epao aoecoa (oac) py c pyo. Bao poce, o a yac o cye co caocoeo caa co e (e e aeca co copo ocax). y coco opo a o cyae anpemum ocyeue u papeum moo uuuyay npeemau ue (oe pe).

Oo ocox yu aoo aa ec peoc aee aepao ceo e, opaee oop oe oaac pae oe a ae aaa ax.

Ocoe npuun u ycou peauauu mana:

1. Oece paoe yace oe e.

2. Cococoa oe ( opypoe) poe.

3. oop aoo yaca ocoa (acpaa) coe ee a e pyx.

4. eepcoapoa e.

5. ca oepa: ca e e.

B xoe opo a oao py pecoe o oepe oy co e o o, o, o x e, ec opeee a. Ha oce coppoa e cco oe o. ac e oac py c pyo, o o peo e apa, oope e aca y x aee.

a 3. aa ocyeu u paceu: npoceue ue: o npoc pynn (pepa pooeoc aa 2040 y).

oce oo, a cocae o epee yo (oe o), oepaop oe yec, o ce yac py pao o ce acae a oce y. ec o oo epooeoe ocyee c e pace (yoe) coepa yo. aoy yacy peoca E.M. opyoa ec oooc poc oee e aa opo c oca yaca. a pecoe oe pa coe coace/ecoace c e aca a oce yo. Bce y ocyac o opy. Cxoe o cc y e o oec o y, o ypye py pya caa epac. Oaoc oepaopa a ao ae aaa apaee cycc peype a e cx oe oopx yaco a ocax. oce ao poep aoy yy cca e pcaaec o (apep, co ya aaa).

Ocoe npuun u ycou peauauu mana:

1. Bce e oaoo a.

2. Ha ocyee ao e aec oaooe pe.

3. aa e oa ca co cex yaco.

oce oae ac a oce apao poooc ocyee aoo x, cc p opa yaca py oo oo apaa oea. B oe cce e a oce cxoe oe oec, pypoac, a oopec epac.

ae ocye a opa a o xapaepcax apao, oax x o pyx, a o pax x opa. Oca oo e e apa, oope eceo oea pecae ooe o x cyax opee a, e, oope aa cyao, e eoxooc x aee aae.

Ha ae aaa apa cpypoa o o ocoa , cxo oopx o ec pecoea: o opacy, oy, cepe eeoc, paeoc pa cyyypa, o ype pcpac, acoc o cya p.

Hapep, yp oo caa a o ope, ao o ocyac pyax.

Memo ouax pynn o opacmy:

ooe, cye, o, cap, e.

o noy:

e, y.

o cepe emeocmu:

eycaop, ya, cpeeo opaca, oope aac e pyo, cye.

o npuaeocmu pau cyymypa:

eac (oo eo po-y), oc (oo cae .P.P. Toa), oep, epe.

B aucuocmu om cumyauu:

, oae oa, paye, cpaae o oxe, ocee apa, coe, , oop eeo ea, yo copoa pe (apep, eoe, c y aa y oo-o).

pyue ocoau:

ypa, aoo, aoecoae , oy eeo caa eeo ea, c co ocao.

a 4. aa oocoau: uuuyaa accuuau ue (pepa pooeoc aa 10 y).

C oo poeyp yaoo papoa ycaaaec oocea aoc popeoc aoo ya. Oo o peayec cey opao:

E.M. opyoa aoo yaca poc pa yo, oope o(a) ca ca a oo popapoa x o y a/opaca aoc. ooy poeypy a yac poeae caocoeo.

Oa ax yu aoo aa coco o, o o ooe cea po poo, .e. a yac ee oooc aeo oya co pe, c, ae y a y eo coe eyepeoc, epe e, a a ceye ae ye cocae oo pe, a e cex yaco.

Ocoe npuun u ycou peauauu mana:

1. Aepoa ae a ax opocax.

2. Cpyyppoa paeco opa.

3. ea p oceoo, eoyaoo pee.

4. peypea opoae cx yaco py.

oce ocye pecoea o peoeo pa oyeoc cca aoee x (pacpocpaex) apao, a ae popapoa x ope ya pacpoc paeoc.

poeypy papoa a yac poo caoco eo, aca peya aey.

ec oo cea eoo epep.

a 5. aa ocyeu: ocyeue peymamo oocoau, cocmaeue umoooo pemua (pepa pooeoc aa 2040 y.

Moepaop copae yae pe ooae peya, coca oepyoo pe. ya a oce pcac apepoae a (o) apep, cya yax ao cpe a aoo cye.

Memo ouax pynn Bo pe oo aa pecoea aec oooc cop pepoa oe aoc, oope o pco, o po eoxooc ocea oox ao ee pa.

ac e oooc ae ocy epcoa e oocoa, a ae oye oo pe. e ocye poopee oe oocoa, a ae a oooc ee pa ocy e y, oope oy aoee aeee oeco ooco.

Ocoe npuun u ycou peauauu mana:

1. poc ce ece eca.

2. oop caae yaca cye, ox o e oca.

3. Cococoa pe e, acax a oce, o e e.

4. Oece oooy p pee.

5. Coa yco aoo ea py caa coe yaoe ee.

6. a yaca oyee aepeoc, aoeoc.

7. Mopoa aeey yac apoa pee poe.

8. peoca ceo acpoay ac copax oe pe e.

Ha o ae oao py yac o oepe oy a co papo. Moepaop copae yae pa po, ooae x pcae eca (cpe oey pacpo cpaeoc o pye) aoy cye oeo cca. Bec 5 oya e cye, oope aa ce yaca py. Te cye, oope e pa o yac o, oya ec, pa y. Ta opao cocaec oe pyoo pe cye1.

Bao oe, o cooa a coco oye oooo pea E.M. opyoa oce oo e ocyee oepyooo pea, o pe oopoo yaca aec oooc caa ee o o oy ooaeo papo, ooe poope epcoax oocoax , p eoxooc, ec eae e ee (o o cyae, ec o yy oocoa oepa ce pyo).

Ooae pe pecae a. 2.

Taua TO ET BO: OEPOBOE PEEHE TO ET BO CPEH BEC CEH Mooe, cye , oae xopoy oa 1, ocee apa, coe oep , eye ea opa Mya (ca oece aep, 0, eac, oc) Cpa eo H c y pyo eoa: eoo oyc-py eoo e. ep x oo ca aoee aco coyeo aeceo pyoo exo.

Meo e, peca coo e cpye poee cepx opoco c e oye o ce oecex oeo, e a oype. Cpae aa x eo c eoo H oaae, o oce pe cae coo x ouau. Ba ee a oec ex, a aecex eoo, eo H coeae cee x ococa cpec ea x eocao.

o oox. Coco ocea apepoax ao oe py.

Memo ouax pynn Memo ouax pynn emo oyc-pynn Hae pyoo a ec a eeo yaoo poee oyc-py (). pyooe aoe ce oe cypoa a oe e (oe a), o cococye oye yo opa o pecoeo, apep, epe e o ooy ooo oapa ycy. Oao o e pe eopopyeoe pyooe aoece oe oaac oco eocao . Bo epx, peyae oe oac ( apye) oe e e, o oeo oe pee o epe e eca poooox oe pe.

o ocoeo acaec py, apaex a paoy e, ceecx py1, oa e ec oyee o x e ooceo oapa ycy, ox apyo cy ecyeo oapa ycy ox apao coo a eeoc oapa.

oo e pyooo aoec oe o a o py p. O a ce cayce, yyp e opaoaee pa ey pecoea, o poae pye cx oce, eoe oopa, a ae eocaooe paoopae (papoc) e (oe pe ). oee oo, o oaao, o yac aacy e co caa ae o pe, o ooy oopx o e yepe, o ocae yac c coacc [15, p. 44].

Bo-opx, peya poee cpaeo ecpy yppoa, .e. pecac a cceoae, a Ocoeoc ceecx py ec ocaoo ooe (o cpae , apep, c eoo H) oeco yaco x oaeo oo oe 10 eoe, a ae ae 45 ceopo, eyx c ycc. cycc aa ceop, capac peca pae o pe a ey ece. oceeo ac ocae yac. B pe yae oo paoao pyooe peee (pyooe ee).

E.M. opyoa yaco eeo, eco, eccceo e. aa eocao ec ao e oo c o pe copa opa. Heocao cpyyppoaoc oe ae a y pecoeo yco eaoeoc (eaepeoc ) , a cece, eyoeopeoc.

o poa eyaae eoca eoa , a peoea aepaa eoa poee py ox ep eo H. H pecae coo exy opaoaoo poecca pao pee oe coo ac a aepaa eoy ye pooo py a cceoaecx poe (ax a oc opeeee poe cpae ee pee, opeeee xapaepa opa aox ee cpyyp ypaeecx opao x cce).

o cpae c eoo eo H oaae cey ococa.

1. Boooc ea yax epeco.

B poecce poee H oopc ec ya e a. Bo pe oao a pecoe oy oya aca co c e aoec c py;

oo y x ye pe oo, o caa co c p o e oc epe py yaca cycc. Ta opao, oco yaco py op ypy coe ee (ooee) o aaa cycc. Bo pe pyoo ca oce oo, a ce e aca, ae e eca, ce yaca aec oooc o a oee (oooe) peee py. ocoy ooco ae pocxo o, a o poecc e oe oaa aee ee py. Ceoaeo, oe ea oopoo oee pecoeo.

2. ycya o peao cocooc (peaoy o eay) H, o paaec a oe oece ca ax e, a oece opax oe pe.

Memo ouax pynn 3. poeypa H ooe oece ce yaca c ycc pae oooc caa co e, ocoy o eaoe epco (opoae) opeeex yac o ceeo yy. a cece, yac H oo a oee yoeope peyaa eeoc a ece eo py, e yac .

4. Peya H oee cpyyppoa o cpae c pe yaa ;

o oo, apep, c ooce pa e, oope pecoe oca a epe eca.

o oe oaac a, oa e cceoa ec poypoae ox e o ooy poya ycy.

poecc pca ae ooe poo yp- epyoo aa, o cyae, ec pooc ecoo H.

5. O oepaopa H peyec ee acepca, e o oepaopa . ooy, o-epx, ayc poo H e e, a o-opx, peya H ee cee ac o oc oepaopa.

Memo ouax pynn emo eu Meo e pyoo eo, p oopo pooc ya opoc py yaco (a pao, cep o). aco eo e coyec a eo cepoo poopoa.

Opoc yaco ocyecec c oo ceax ae aoo, .e. e oa cepo oee ocye cac. aaa oepaopa (cceoae) cypoa poo caeco ope, opee e e ooe. Ooee peya coa peoca c aoy cepy c e, o o yo co y ay oey c yeo e pyx yaco py oc p coeo coac/ecoac c oe peee. Ha ocoe ao opa e py, o-pe ey coxpa aooc, ea aee peooe o E.M. opyoa yye coco peea cceoa. ooa poey pa oe oopc ecoo pa (a aaea ooy poa poeypa opoca) o o oce eo o pe , o o oye eoopoo aoo papoca e , o o ocyc aex ee ya x pooax. oce oo a e aa coaa, peya coyc aece pooa1.

Meo H coa, o acao cee o oa opec oea yaco, e ca ye po yoc x pao pye, p oo ee eeo apyea copeoaeoc ocye po a pe, oooe a paoy cocoa pee poe.

o cpae c eoo e, peyeco oeoc eoa H coco o, o o eo pecae cpy e coa yco copyeca pecoeo. O ooe ea aex py pao cee yacoa poecce opeee acca poe (eo p a yacmue, a e poco oea a aey c op opoca, a pocxo p peaa eoa e). B aece eoo opaoaoo cocoa oe pa x epce eo H oycae oooc apepca.

Ocyce aoec ey yaca py cepo aco pecaec a ococo eoa e . Oao eceoc oo ec cepe opa ee. Boooc cycc, oopy ae eo H, a eo pacpe cep peaex aa, a ae oae aeco oyaex peyao.

oycpoa a e pecoea, eceo, ec o aox po poee a H, a e oee opoo opa o eoe e c., apep, [1;

6, p. 373;

10, p. 102;

11, p. 45].

Memo ouax pynn -py. Ho oe o ocex, p poee H oe paop, aae pa pecoeo coaa (, ocec, paa) coe coceoe ee (ooee) co coce e e, aee cypye x pa (ee , yoe) coeo epoaaoo oea (coeo e), pa o ae oeap pyx yaco py.

Ta opao, ocye copax oe oyeo ( eo) oee cooe ee py, ocpoeoe a ya x ax. Ca pace ae oooc ea py oepy coe ae ocop o, o peo pyo (pye) pecoe(). o peye o eo py ap yepoaoo oaaeca pa cox o (e). pyoo poecc ooe, ocya ye coppo ae aae yae e, pa x pacp, cea, a opao, paoy py oee poyo.

peca ocoeoc opae eoa H, oope oy oaac pae oe eax cooa o eo a pae. Meoooece p, a oo px apyec eo H, ececeo, oycoa ce y cooa H: xapaep cceoaecx aa, oo pe oy pee c oo H, oece coca py, pooeoc xapaep ee poee, cey pao oepaopa H ..

Ocoeocmu ucnooau emoa 1. Meo H oe ee, oa e ec pooco ox e opeeee popeo cpe x e / apyo (aec).

2. Paep py e a cee yoeopeoc ya co. Oa paep H 710 eoe. p yee E.M. opyoa ca yaco cee yoeopeoc pecoeo oce py caec [15, p. 44].

3. H, a , cpae o a, o oeco caax e oe pe ooeo oppepye c paepo py. p oece yaco oe 10 eoe, poyoc H , cooeceo, ee eoc c ac.

4. Paep py e a aeco oyex e. o oaao, o aeco e e ex pyax, e paep co cae 7 eoe [15, p. 44].

5. a H oy appoa o eoc aco c o aa cya cceoa. Hapep, ex pyax, e yac e a py pya oec ecoo a epax oe pe, a ocye yoe oe pa oee ay po oee e. Ec pe yae cycc caao eooe co e, o po eypy opaoo yaoo oocoa oo oyc.

Opaueu npu ucnooauu emoa 1. aco ae coo ye e epe coo a eo H. pe, o oocc a yaca (peco ea), a aaa. O opoc: ae ya c a cpyypa?.

2. Be yaco py a pya. aee py e a cpeoc oeo pecoeo o pe ca ocy e;

eooo ooc ea e oopa.

3. Be oepaopa. Xo e oepaopa aeo ee, e cyae, apep, , ye ao oepaop, oo p ee o poee oox py cooo aee ce ca poecca.

4. Copoee cpyype. Heoope yac coco ye pa, copypoa co e ca ocy e, e epo yao pao. ooy ao Memo ouax pynn opaac aoy yacy oce poxoe oepeo o aa (a). aa ocye aa oe oeca eca (aoc) paccapaex poe copa o eo oeca opa o ex pecoeo. Ec a a paoe oeco pee a ocyee cex yo, poeypa aec, yac oep epec poee.

5. Hepaoe oeco pee, oooe a ocyee oo oo ya, opoae eoopooc oeo (pe yao). o a apye oceye cpae e ae x oeao eae. Oeo, o, xo c oo eoa H oo epoa poe, oope c peea ao eeo pye cpoa oe pee, peya o poeppepoa c ocopooc, ocoeo ec o copa a e epo pee o pax py pecoeo.

a, eo H o cpyyppoa oxo copy ax, ocpeco eo aoece axoc o cpo opoe oepaopa py. Oe cycc cee yy coyec oo p eoxooc pace (yoe). B o pe a poecc copa opa paccapaec a pyoa eeoc, ae eaec a yax ycx.

poecc pca e ao ooe ea e oo aecee, o oecee yp- epyoe oe.

TEPATPA 1. Paoa a o poopoa / o pe. .B. ecyea-a. M.:

Mc, 1982.

2. ooooa H.H., ooeea T.B. oyc-py a eo coao cxooecoo cceoa. M., 1997.

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