ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ ИКТ ДЛЯ ПОЖИЛЫХ:
СЕРВИС-ОРИЕНТИРОВАННАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРА СИСТЕМЫ ДЛЯ ДИСТАНЦИОННОГО МОНИТОРИНГА СОСТОЯНИЯ ЗДОРОВЬЯ БОЛЬНЫХ ДИАБЕТОМ Н.В. Заикина, студент магистратуры факультета бизнес-информатики Государственного университета-Высшей школы экономики, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Е.И. Марухина, студент магистратуры факультета Бизнес-информатики ГУ-ВШЭ, e-mail: email@example.com.
Н.Л. Сергеева, студент магистратуры факультета Бизнес-информатики ГУ-ВШЭ, e-mail: sergeevan@ gmail.com.
Адрес: г. Москва, ул. Кирпичная, д. 33., Fitterer Ren, Research Associate, SAP Research CEC St. Gallen, SAP (Switzerland) Inc.
Проблема старения населения на сегодняшний день особо остро стоит перед развитыми странами. Улучшение качества жизни и медицинского обслуживания приводит к увеличению продолжительности жизни с одной стороны, а также серьезным трудностям, таким как уве личение спроса на медицинское обслуживание, высокие риски развития хронических болезней, повышение затрат на пенсии и здравоохранение, с другой. В такой ситуации ИКТ рассматри вается как инновационный подход к решению подобных проблем. С развитием концепций дис танционного медицинского обслуживания появляется все больше и больше частных сервисов и продуктов, которые, при использовании СОА, могут работать вместе для получения эффекта синергии. В данной статье на примере диабета разрабатывается система дистанционного мониторинга состояния здоровья пациента на основе сервис-ориентированной архитектуры, управляемой событиями. Вместе с детальным описанием архитектуры системы и ее преиму ществ в статье дается обзор рынка дистанционного медицинского обслуживания, его барьеров и потенциала развития.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ Introduction and long-term complication prevention . This means that by improving the healthcare system and developing A major issue currently facing Europe and other de innovative ways for diabetes and other diseases manage veloped countries is the population ageing. Life expect ment the whole situation can be changed.
ancy, for example, in Europe has increased from 55 in Despite the chronic diseases burden, more elder peo 1920 to over 80 today and it is expected to continue to ple prefer to live independently and stay longer at their increase [1,2]. It is projected that the number of people own homes. But 45% of those aged 75 and elder are aged from 65 to 80 will rise by nearly 40% between impaired in their daily living activities . These social and 2030 .
changes require new healthcare models like independ At the same time the demographic dependency ratio ent living and remote medical care management.
(the ratio of the population aged 0 – 14 and over 65 to the population aged between 15 and 64 years) is expect Economic pressure ed to reach 51% by 2050 . This means that the EU will Another significant challenge raised by population have four people aged 65 and above for only two people ageing is economic situation. Together with the growth of working age.
of elder people population with chronic conditions and These changes in society demographic situation are drop in workers/retired people ratio the spending on being driven by a number of factors. On the one hand, pensions, health and long-term care increase signifi those people who were born after the Second World War cantly. Expensive medical technologies and high costs baby boom are getting old now. And on the other hand, for medical care such as ambulances, inpatient or out the current demographic situation is not ideal: based patient care, rehabilitation, community health services, on the EU statistics for every woman there are only 1. medication and etc. change government budget distri children born while the natural replacement rate that bution. Health expenditure in Europe has been rising ensures current population size sustainability equals to over the past decades, and is expected to continue to in 2.1 .
crease. According to OECD Health Data 2006, in 1990, health spending accounted for 7% of GDP on average Key challenges raised by population ageing across OECD countries, and reached 8.9% in 2004. It is Despite the fact that the increase in life continuity is a projected that by 2050 health spending could reach on great achievement for society, it leads to significant so average 10% of GDP in developed countries .
cial and economical challenges.
EU actions to tackle the problem Health situation Coping with increased ageing population is one of the One problem that is directly connected to population key problems that the European society and government ageing is the problem of chronic diseases. Over 50% of have to face in coming years. To prepare for these chal the deaths in the world, ranging from 87% in high income lenges, effective delivery of health and social care will countries to 51% in low income countries are caused by require reorganization of the care processes and depend them . World Health Organization projects that by more on different technological solutions. Currently 2030 the number of chronic disease-related deaths will European Commission and EU countries governments rise to 65% of all deaths worldwide  and elder people support research programs and development of the solu are even at a greater risk group as they are most likely tions for successful ageing problems resolutions, organ to have more than one chronic condition. For example, ize first trials of telehealth and telemedicine systems.
according to a Dutch General Practice, around 79% of Key EU Commission’s programs that address ageing ageing people with a chronic health condition has one population challenges are:
or more comorbid diseases. A Dutch cancer registry also 1.The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Joint Pro found that the prevalence of comorbidity among cancer gramme patients ranged from 12% among patients younger than The AAL joint programme is a new joint research and 45 years to 60% among patients of 75 years or elder . development (R&D) funding activity implemented by Diabetes, lung diseases, several types of cancer and actual 20 European Member States and 3 Associated heart disease are main chronic diseases that population States with the financial support of the European Com faces nowadays . However, recent studies show that, munity based on article 169 of the EC treaty. The overall for example, constant control of the diabetes patient’s objective of the programme is to enhance the quality of health status leads to significant decrease in mortality life of elder people and strengthen the industrial base in БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ Europe through the use of Information and Communi- models and lack of exchange of practical experiences, cation Technologies (ICT). regulatory and many other barriers lead to the diversity 2. i2010 Action Plan on Information and Communi- of limited in scale and expensive in cost solutions and cations Technology slow down market development.
i2010 is the EU policy framework for the information society and media. It promotes the positive contribution Key barriers that ICT can make to the economy, society and personal While analyzing and reviewing the first fragmented quality of life. Part of the i2010 action plan focuses also solutions presented in the market it becomes clear that on elder people. It has not only the objectives of enabling from a technological point of view significant require a better quality of life for senior citizens significant cost ments for the shift to telecare and telemedicine for eld savings in health and social care, but also aims to help erly are established, however, there are still no scalable creating a strong industrial basis in Europe for ICT and solutions and products fulfilling entirely the existing ageing .
needs. There are several reasons that can explain current 3. Sixth and Seventh Framework Programme (FP6, situation.
FP7) FP6 and FP7 are the European Union’s chief instru Market situation ments for funding research projects over the period from 2002 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2013 respectively. Among Plenty of small and mid-size companies develop their others FP6 and FP7 support researches that are con own proprietary services, technologies, devices and nected to ageing problems resolutions [11, 12].
other telecare solutions for elderly . However lack of awareness among ICT industry, government and final ICT for successful ageing users leads to significant number of expensive test and trial projects. While undergoing the lack of transpar As can be seen from the list of key EU Commission initiatives supporting research and development for suc- ency of the applicable rules and regulations and lack of cessful ageing, ICT is considered the needed innovative practical experience exchange these companies bare risk way that can become part of healthcare and help solve of developing telecare solutions for elderly on their own challenges raised by ageing population. According to and hardly can support huge investments needed for a EU i2010 Action Plan the usage of ICT has great poten- shift.
tial for ageing problems resolution while delivering ben- On the other hand, large companies like Microsoft, efits for elder citizens suffering from chronic diseases, Intel and others have entered the field not so long ago companies, European authorities and overall society:
and only start developing their solutions. However, the For citizens – a better quality of life and better health promising trend is emerging nowadays: big companies through prolonged independent living;
active ageing at set up alliances and partner with each other to develop work ensuring that elder workers with great accumulated telecare solutions that can be widely used to solve exist knowledge assets and experience can regularly update ing challenges. For example Continua Alliance, a non their competencies;
increased social participation, and profit, open industry coalition of around 200 healthcare savings in time and cost for medical care.
and technology companies that aim to improve the qual For companies – increased market size and market ity of personal healthcare . By joining forces these opportunities in the internal market for ICT and ageing companies bring investments and knowledge they have, in Europe: better skilled and productive workforce and another example comes from Intel and General Electric a stronger position in the growing markets worldwide.
that in April 2009 announced their healthcare alliance For authorities and society at large – cost-reduc invest in total around 250 million dollars to market and tions, increased efficiencies and better overall quality in develop home-based health technologies that will help health and social care systems, and great accumulated seniors live independently and patients with chronic by elder people knowledge and experience assets .
conditions manage their care from the comfort of their Despite the fact that the usage of ICT for ageing prob home or wherever they choose .
lems resolutions has clear potential for many stakehold ers the market of ICT for successful ageing is in its’ in Adoption constraints fancy and does not yet fully ensure the availability and take-up of the necessary ICT-enabled solutions . Elder people experience problems while facing new Comparatively low market awareness and visibility, technologies. The reasons are most often insufficient lack of established standards, unsustainable business motivation, financial means, digital competencies and БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ lack of convenient training. Even basic Internet access is the programming languages used to develop them or to quite limited for the people at this age: only 10% of peo- address them, of communication protocols that invoke ple over 65 use the Internet regularly compared to 47% them. Services can be easily addressed by any applica for the EU25 on average . Moreover, often products tion that utilizes them consuming the data from this ap and services are not adapted to meet the specific needs plication and producing certain output for the invoking of elder users or are not adequately available, thus limit- application in the end . Such independence of serv ing their adoption rate.
ices from the environment enables the service-oriented To tackle this significant problem, research aimed at solution to be agile and scalable with easy adding or re elder users understanding should be undertaken togeth- moving of functionality.
er with better training and education for seniors on the From another side, the daily routine of chronically ill available solutions.
and elder people consists of a number of simple activities performed in certain sequence. These activities include Regulatory barriers regular vital signs measurements performance, immedi ate documentation of measuring results, medication in Lack of common standards, regulations and con take and other health-related information. As a rule the formity assessment procedures slow down the process activities performed by an elder or chronically ill person of expansion of telecare and telehealth solutions such are triggered by events occurring during the day includ as integrated health and social care ICT systems, and ing the approach of certain moments in time, changes assistive technologies. Different social and health care in health state, initiatives of medical staff. Accordingly, reimbursement schemes, uncertainties about the legal it is possible to describe the typical day of a chronically requirements of medical certification for ICT-enabled ill or an elder person as a process that comprises meas services, privacy and personal security questions reduce urement, documentation and communication activities the potential for collective insurance schemes to cover with each activity being started with a certain event and upfront costs for these services and hamper their devel resulting in another event. Furthermore, the resulting opment and implementation.
events of patient’s actions can trigger activities con ducted by other participants of a healthcare process. For Proposed solution example, an event indicating an emergency situation on Existing barriers prevent market from fast expansion, the side of the patient can trigger the process of com but new approaches develop it further. ICT solution munication initiated by an emergency unit with further proposed in this article connects existing services and emergency unit dispatch or other kind of intervention.
products and by gaining synergetic effect helps solving While taking care of his health, the independent-liv problems of elderly.
ing patient has to perform vital signs measurements with the use of different measuring devices and document the Event-driven SOA results making them available to medical staff for further analysis and treatment plan adjusting. The implemen To manage their health problems successfully elder tation of an ICT solution for elder and chronically ill and chronically ill people have to constantly monitor people makes it possible to automate the communica various parameters of their health state. For this they tion of data from measuring devices to a single storage utilize a number of services provided by healthcare fa place which provides patients with options for sharing cilities. Commonly for each service an elder person has the information with others. To ensure that the solution to visit a different doctor and a different place.
is independent from the devices that are communicat Current state of ICT makes it possible to automate ing data through, the process of uploading data from de part of the activities performed by medical staff at hospi vices to a storage place shall employ the service-oriented tals and integrate the provided services bringing them to people’s homes in a single solution. The concept of in- methodology described above. This way the patient will tegration of healthcare services being brought to the pa- be able to connect different kinds of measuring devices tient by different providers corresponds to the method- provided by various producers. All of the connected de vices will communicate their data to a single information ology of service-oriented computing. This methodology hub through a standardized set of services. By another comprises a set of tools, technologies and best practices of developing an ICT solution that makes use of various set of services it shall be possible to upload the data from services. Services in ICT sense are defined as discrete the information hub to the patient’s personal healthcare pieces of functionality that exist to solve certain busi- record or another data storage place from where the data ness problems. These pieces of code are independent of can be accessed and analyzed by medical staff.
БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ So, from an IT point of view the routine of an elder incurable disease and thus a patient with diabetes has to or chronically ill person involved in a process of inde- receive a lifelong treatment. The ICT solution for people pendent health state management can be described as with diabetes will focus especially on elder people with an event-driven process with the patient consuming var- this condition, since they have not only to cope with ious services on each stage, all of them being integrated problems caused by the disease itself, but also with issues into one solution provided for the patient at home. The brought up by the ageing process.
services utilized in the solution are provided by the de vices used by the patient for health state monitoring and Usage scenario by medical facilities that access the patient’s data and The proposed solution will be utilized by its user for analyze it. According to this view it is proposed that the easier maintenance of health caring routine including solution for elder and chronically ill people shall be de automated documentation of vital signs, reminding of veloped on the basis of an event-driven SOA.
medical activities to be performed, alerting the neces sary medical staff in case of emergency situation, and Diabetes focus providing interfaces for medical information review.
To narrow down the usage area of the proposed solu- A typical user of the proposed solution is aged 60 or tion for the first prototypes it was decided to focus on more and suffers from diabetes. According to the doc patients with diabetes as a chronic disease where imple- tor’s recommendations patient’s vital signs should be mentation of an ICT solution can bring the most benefit constantly monitored.
to suffering people. So, on time when a certain measurement should be Healthcare organizations around the world are pay- performed or a medication should be taken by the pa ing special attention to the Diabetes disease with the tient, a reminder is displayed on his mobile device.
increasing number of diabetes cases in many countries When a measurement is performed all the data from the including Europe and United States. The World Health patient’s measuring devices is automatically transferred Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 180 mil- to the mobile device that the patient carries around lion people worldwide have diabetes. This number is constantly and that is capable of uploading data to a pa likely to more than double by 2030 . Diabetes causes tient’s Personal Health Record system (PHR) for fur about 5% of all deaths globally each year . Accord- ther storage and sharing. Each time the patient takes a ing to 2004 data, in Europe 45.4 million people  medication he registers the intake through the system’s suffer from diabetes mellitus. Since it has been shown interface. Medication intake data entries are stored in that control of diabetes helps to decrease mortality and the patient’s PHR as well.
prevent long-term complications  it is important that The patient’s doctor, his family and the patient him further innovative developments are made in the area of self can access the PHR anytime and review the patient’s diabetes management. Such a development can be an medical information. In case of any alerting changes in implementation of an ICT solution that will automate vital signs the doctor can adjust the treatment plan or part of the activities involved in diabetes management schedule an examination. In this case system alerts the process. patient of the changes in the PHR.
Daily routine of diabetes patients includes the need to During the day the patient constantly wears a fall de take into account a lot of details on their health state. tecting device. With its help the body position is being This requires frequent measurements of blood sugar lev- monitored by the system. If the system registers a fall it el to be performed along with injections, constant con- automatically alerts the emergency unit. The emergency trol of the weight and special diet . Effective diabetes normally tries to contact the patient and dispatches a management also calls for continuous monitoring of the team if needed. The system also monitors all the data up patient’s health state by a treatment specialist which re- loaded by the patient’s devices for any critical values. In quires from the patient a lot of documentation and re- case a peak in vital signs is registered by the system the porting work. doctor is automatically notified. His decision then maybe The issues of diabetes management described above to contact the patient, notify the emergency unit or access and its high prevalence make diabetes a worth-focusing the PHR for further review. The same alerting mechanism case for an ICT solution that will help diabetes patients works if the patient does not perform any activity after a lead their life by reminding them of necessary activities, certain critical time since the reminder being sent passes.
automatically uploading data on their health state to a All the critical times, measurement results values and storage place, tracking patient’s health condition and reminding schedule are derived from the treatment plan alerting medical staff on major threats. Diabetes is an which is formed and uploaded by the doctor.
БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ Functional requirements Functional Components Patient UI Doctor UI Administrator UI For the usage scenario described above to be realized in the proposed solution the functionality of the system HTTP Request HTTP Response for independent living with chronic diseases shall in Web User Components clude the following functions as a basis.
Data transmitting Reviewing results CritValues adm 1. Automated immediate upload of data from measur User authorization Reminding adm Time Analyzer adm ing devices to an information hub that is constantly car Service communication Proxies ried around by the patient.
2. Translation of all incoming data into the PHR data SOAP Request SOAP Request format and automated upload of patient’s data to PHR.
ITISAGE Components 3. Constant monitoring of all patient’s data for critical Data connecting Data analyzing Reminding values and alerting of emergency unit and doctor when Altering Communication needed.
4. Reminding the patient on the necessary activities to Service communication Proxies be performed during the daily routine.
SOAP Request SOAP Request 5. Monitoring of patient’s reaction to reminders and PHR Components alerting the doctor if no action is taken for the critical time.
Exporting from PHR Importing to PHR Adding new user 6. Automated retrieval of the reminding schedule, Request Response critical waiting times and critical values for each vital sign from the treatment plan formed and uploaded by ITISAGE DB PHR DB the doctor.
7. Providing interfaces for the patient’s manual docu Figure 1. High-level architecture mentation of medication intake, automated upload of documented data to PHR.
User interfaces layer 8. Providing interfaces for PHR review.
The user interfaces layer is built as a client-server ar 9. Providing means of communication among the us chitecture. It consists of the user interfaces browser layer ers of the system including the patient, the doctor, the (client side) and web application layer (server side). The emergency unit and users with whom patient decides to client offers the web user interfaces for different groups share his medical records, such as family members.
of system users: Patients, Doctors and Administrators.
Presentation or User Interfaces layer Web application layer represents the server and con This is the top-most level of the system. The main sists of six functional components compiled according function of it is to translate user’s actions into tasks for to the major functions that the user should be able to the systems, collect the data to be processed on the next perform through the corresponding interfaces. These application layer of the system, translate results provided functional components are: user authorization, data by the system into the user-understandable format. transmission, reviewing results, reminding administra Logic or Application layer tion, critical values and time analyzer administration.
This layer is a core of the system as it is responsible for The functional components are connected via Service coordination of the application, processing commands, Communication Proxies with the web services running making logical decisions and evaluations, performing on the application layer. Service Communication Prox analysis and calculations. It also moves and processes ies communicate the data gathered through the user in the data between the two surrounding layers. terfaces to the application layer web services and receive Data layer the result back via SOAP communication standard.
Here the information is stored and retrieved from a da tabase. The information is then passed back to the logic Application layer layer for processing and then eventually back to user. The application layer of the system serves to process all БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
User Interfaces Layer Aplication Layer Data Layer ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ the data transferred between user interfaces and the data nents are invoked by analyzing components and work to storage layer so that the data exchange between these gather necessary information either for the patient or the layers would be possible. The functionality of the appli- doctor for further communicating this information with cation layer includes: the help of communication component. The communi cation component establishes the connection to com calculation and generation of reminders that are to munication server and provides the functionality to send be sent to the user on occasion of necessary medication reminders and alerts in the form of text messages as well intake or vital sign measurement;
as to connect the patient with the emergency unit in case conversion between data formats provided by user an emergency button is pressed by the patient.
interfaces and supported by PHR;
analysis of all incoming vital signs data for the case Data layer of exceeding emergency vital signs thresholds;
The data layer makes use of two databases containing generation of alerting messages and calls in case of all the information on the system users. The ITISAGE critical values present in vital signs or emergency button database temporarily stores the data on user’s vital signs pressed by the patient;
collected from the measuring devices and information communication of reminding and alerting informa needed to send proper reminders to the patient. The tion to the corresponding contacts through integration PHR database serves as a permanent data storage and with SIP API;
contains all the information about system users, their s upport of the system administration process which vital signs history, their access rights, contact data etc.
allows to register new users in the system, retrieve and change information on reminders to be sent, change the Data flow information on critical vital signs values;
This data flow in the proposed architecture typically exporting data to the PHR database and importing starts with both the patient and the doctor providing data data from it;
for the system through corresponding user interfaces.
administration of the user’s PHR account.
The patient is reminded to provide measurement and medication intake data by reminders that are sent to the This functionality is realized on the application layer patient at times defined by the time analyzer based on in the form of web services divided into two groups. The the information provided by the doctor. The incoming first group provides means for data exchange between data is translated into an analysis suitable format by one different parts of the system and data processing, the of the data connectors, processed by the data analyzer other group is working directly with the PHR system and converted with the help of the other data connector writing and reading data from the PHR database as well into a form defined by the PHR system requirements.
as supporting PHR user account administration. Each After conversion the data is submitted into the PHR sys web service has its own network address and can be ac tem with the help of the data importing PHR web serv cessed and used from other parts of the system or other ice. If the data analyzer notices certain events in the data applications. The communication with the web services flow, it invokes the alerting functionality. End-users also is carried out via SOAP standard.
perform data-retrieval operations. In this case the data is As part of its services the application layer contains retrieved from the PHR by the data exporting PHR web two data connectors that convert data between devices service, processed by both data connectors being trans output data format and PHR data format through an ad formed from a PHR-suitable into the form which can be ditional data format used by the solution. The applica interpreted by user interfaces.
tion layer also incorporates analyzing components that are run on the server permanently. The time analyzing Implications component does the work of constantly checking with the data generated from the treatment plan for deter The emerging market of independent living and elder mining the moments when reminders should be sent care has specific requirements with regards to consump to a patient, or when an alerting component should be tion of electronic and real-world services. Independ invoked due to patient’s non-responsiveness to sent re- ent living consumers use supportive services to increase minders. The data analyzing component compares all their independence which are supplied by a diverse set of vital signs data incoming from the user interfaces layer providers from different industries and size (SMEs and with its critical values and invokes the work of alerting large enterprise) typically located in the local or regional component if some of patient’s vital signs go over the ecosystem of the consumers. At the same time inde critical thresholds. The reminding and alerting compo- pendent living is a sector that brings together diverse tar БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ get groups / consumers such as seniors, family, or small limits the number and type of institutions that could service providers with large enterprises from different in- provide independent living and telemedicine type of dustries such as retailers, facility managers, care/nursing services. Logically the government bodies are the ones providers, consumer goods. To enable these stakehold- that can support some of the services such as medical care provision. But there is a room also for other players ers to collaborate in an Internet of Services environment such as large health/nursing services providers that al the previously outlined specific requirements need to ready have all needed certifications to work in the field, be considered. Research into the field of the Internet insurance companies that can create special elder care of Services is still in the early phases of the technology insurance plans to support elder users. Currently medi adoption lifecycle, meaning it is mainly used by innova cal care market is an ecosystem of diverse players already tors and early adopters, such as knowledge workers and so the independent living and telemedicine market that innovative enterprises. To enlarge the user base and make by the nature similar to it could operate in the same way.
IoS accessible to a broad audience the chasm between the early adopters and the large mass of mainstream us Business models ers has to be bridged. Standards for providing, trading, Different business models could be used in independ composing and consuming services solutions are being ent living and telecare market. For the end users these established. The proposed approach to integrate the di services can be fully or partially provided by government.
verse set of devices in a service oriented fashion will ena If government covers only part of the cost patient or in ble an event-driven service oriented architecture thereby surances companies take the burden for the rest of the pervasiveness can be facilitated by enabling interaction cost. Service providers can charge their customers for between self-contained components of disparate ap service provision, for infrastructure set up and mainte plications that can be integrated in a “mix and match” nance etc. To sum up the diversity of the market players fashion based on clear descriptions of the components’ as well as products and solutions brings the possibility of interfaces.
the different business models to be used.
Existing technology such as the SAP Netweaver com Conclusions ponents can provide a technical infrastructure, but a number of operational and organizational questions The solution proposed in this article considers the im need to be addressed such as sensitiveness of the domain, plementation of an IT system that deals with the prob potential players of the market i.e. service providers and lems of elder and chronically ill people helping them business models used.
to maintain their daily routine through making use of reminding mechanisms, automation of vital signs docu Sensitive domain mentation, monitoring of health state and alerting the As the health of the patient is concerned we are fac medical staff in case of emergencies. The solution also ing the privacy and personal data regulations. For differ employs a PHR system as one of its parts which makes ent countries there are quite diverse legal rules and best it possible for the patient to store and share easily all his practices of working with such sensitive data. All these medical data with the doctor or other people.
regulations should be taken into consideration while de The proposed solution is developed with regards to veloping the solutions for independent living and health the principles of service-oriented architecture and management. On the other hand digitalization of the event-driven business process models. Implication health care brings the problem if eInclusion. Elder peo of these principles gives the solution certain benefits, ple living distantly could feel the isolation while using such as scalability, versatility and portability. The fact independent living solutions. In order to eliminate the that the proposed solution is composed from different lack of personal communication for example teleconfer services run on a web server makes it possible to add encing services can be used. To make sure that all new various monitoring devices to the solution, to diverse solutions and services are bringing value to end user and the activities that are supported by the system, to add are developed according to the best practices, regula- other participants of the health caring process as users, tions and target audience demands peculiarities the cer- all done by developing and implementing new services tification process should be established.
on the server. In the same way, by removing one serv ices and adding others the system can be easily tailored Services providers to the needs of the patient, including the change of The sensitiveness of the domain as well as the essence chronic disease put in focus. Running the services on of medical care that is mostly managed by government the web server and storing user’s data in a remote stor БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ age place makes the solution easily portable and highly chronically ill people needed a supporting system. With undependable on the user’s hardware configuration or the implementation of the solution proposed in this ar physical location. ticle chronically ill and elder people would receive the Considering the focus of the solution being on the sup- necessary support for better independent living and eas porting life of elder and chronically ill people its actual ier coping with their health problems at home.
implementation shall be of great social and economic Potentially the solution can be expanded by other impact. It is now acknowledged by the governments of providers developing and implementing new services all developed countries that improving life of elder and for the system. Such additional providers may include chronically ill people especially with the focus on mov- other health caring facilities, like pharmacies, or non ing the patients from the hospitals to self-managing specialized providers who would like to tailor their prod their health at home is economically justified. Chronic ucts to the needs of senior or chronically ill people, for diseases and old population health problems nowadays example, shopping centres. The underlying service-ori already require huge investments. With the share of ented architecture also makes it possible to integrate the chronic diseases accountable for deaths growing quickly proposed solution with other IT solutions implicated in and population on the whole getting older the amount the living process of the users. For example, the solution of investment needed would increase even further in the proposed can be integrated with the hospital’s ERP sys future. The possibility of elder and chronically ill peo- tem for easier billing process or with insurance systems.
ple to take care of themselves at home can shorten the Therefore, ICT solution proposed in this article con number of human resources needed for managing health nects existing services and products, provides ability problems of one patient as well as the amount of time to develop new services and products, and by gaining spent by the medical staff on each patient. However, for synergetic effect helps solving problems of elderly and being able to take care of themselves properly elder and chronically ill.
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10. European Commission. Communication from the Commission: “i2010 – A European Information Society for growth and employment”, 2005 [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2005:0229:FIN:EN:PDF (accessed 1 July 2009).
БИЗНЕС-ИНФОРМАТИКА №4(10)–2009 г.
ИНФОРМАЦИОННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ И ТЕХНОЛОГИИ В БИЗНЕСЕ 11. European Commission Cordis website [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://cordis.europa.eu/ (accessed 1 July 2009).
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