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Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa Taoc ocyapce exec yepce . A. OB CXEMOTEXHA epooe yeoe ocoe cyeo 4 ypca eoo oee

ceaoc 2203 Tao aeco TT 2001 681.32(075) 973.202 92 Peee aa execx ay A E opuo o . A.

92 Cxeoexa: e. ocoe. Tao: -o Ta. oc. ex. y-a, 2001. 84 c.

ISBN 5-8265-0072-7 eoe ocoe coco yx ocox ace, e paccapac opoo-epea aapaypa ooe popoeccopx cce. B epo paccope oco ocpoe epex popo (yepo epox ocopao) eo poee epe popoeccopx cceax. Bo opo ac - cpyype yoae cxe popoeccopo ecox ooe ocoo aop ooe popoeccopx cce.

pecaea epoa yea epc yeoo oco. Paoa ooe ocec aec caec pee apaa. Pcy e aec xapaep ccey ecox ocao. eoe ocoe oeo c cooae copeex oepx exoo.

peaaeo cyeo 4 ypca eoo oee ceaoc 2203 oe cooao caooo opaoa ce Internet.

681.32(075) 973. Taoc ocyapce exec yepce (TT), o . A., ISBN 5-8265-0072- BBEEHE Mpopoeccopa exa ee pooe pacpocpaee peec paec o cex oacx eoeeco eeoc. B acoc o yco cyaa aae, popoeccope cce oy oe co oac py o pya o eeo ae, o aap paepa o cxeoexe. Oao ec eoope ocoooaae p, oee popoeccope cce oo aae. Bo epx o ocea cpyypa popoeccopo ex, aa aapay popay cocae. Bo opx, epeaa opa ocyecec ocpeco epecx cao, oae oce apx.

a cey popoeccopo cce, ee ecpoae oay, oo poo c oo caapo opoo-epeo aapayp, peec ox epox cce. Meo poee epe ocac pe, o o oepac ooe popa oeceee. p o oe ao a cao, oco ocpoe epeo aapayp p x pao, eo poee epe, p pao popoeccopo ooe cce. peaae oce e oce paccope eo x opoco, paax c Cxeoexa Mpopoeccope cpeca cce ceaoc 2203.

Aop paae aoapoc cyea 4-o ypca 1999 oa Cayey A.A, peo E.., ooy C.B., Maey A.., Heaceo H.C. a oooy yeo oepo epc ocea e.

1 MC B MPOPOECCOPHX CCTEMAX X APAMETP B popoeccopx cceax opa epeaec caa c y yco coco ypoe oeco e ypoe oecoo y. aoy oecoy ypo cooecye opeee aao ape. o aao ac o exoo ooe pocxe o aeo ape. B poecce epea opa oece ypo ec, o po oe yco. py coa a popoeccopa ccea pae accy yco ex. ooy paccop opoee oe ycx cao x xapaepc.

yc caa, oe cyae, po ooc pae epece ca epoece eepoece, oe o ope o cao cycoax [1].

opy yco yoca peca o y eoepec ypa. yca exa oeppye c poyo, paeea, peyo, oopa, cyea py a yco. pa aoee aee e poyoe yc. oe poyo yc - eapoaoe. opa opaoo yca oaaa a pc.1.1.

Pc.1.1. opa apaep ycoo caa.

apaep yco opae a epece peee. poe cooo ape ooaa u1, oo u0. Aya UA xapaepye aoee oex ae ooceo aaoo ypo. B eoc peaoo yca xo pe poa cpea cp. Ha pae eoc poa cpea opee c oo ocopaa.

coo ca pe ee ape yca o 0,1UA o 0,9UA o 0,1UA. o cao co cooc opeee y peaoo yca oea aaa oa poecca. B cpaoo epaype oo cpe ep pep poa pep cpea. He pee opy pep poa pep cpea c:

K=(0,9UA-0.1 UA)/=0,8 UA/ [B/c], Kcp=(0,9UA-0.1 UA)/cp=0,8 UA/ [B/c].

Ay eoc u oca a ypoe 0,5UA. p paccope poecco eeppoa oppoa yco, eoc poa cpea e ya.

yc, ceye opeeeo ope, opay ycy oceoaeoc. B epoeco oceoaeoc yc ay ey oao. Cya eoce yca u ay opee epo ceoae T (pc.1.2.). eoc u poo exe oo ae a 1 0 eoc eoo yeoo ypo. Opaa ea f=1/T xapaepye acoy ceoa yco.

Pc.1.2. opa eao oceoaeoc yco xapaepc epoeco oceoaeoc coy ooee apaep: Q=T/u caoc yco, =u/T oe aoe. epoecy oceoaeoc, y oopo u=, .e. Q=2, aa eapo.

2 OCHOBHE XAPATEPCT APAMETP MEPTEHX POPOB B poecce cyaa popoeccopx cce epeo pxoc ep x epece apaep.

epe cya pae pop. a pop ee co epooece xapaepc, yaae oyea ey. ooy epex c oo popo aex o yac xapaepc caoo popa, py coa opeoc popa. opeoc popa oaa cee pacxoe oaa popa coo ae epeo e[2-4]. B cooec c OCT 8.009-84 opeee ceye opeoce: acoma, omocumea u npueea. Paccop x opoee.

Acoma opeoc popa pecae coo paoc ey oaae popa c aee epeo e. Ee pacca o opye:

x = x - x (2.1) e x oaae popa;

x coe aee epeo e. Ta opao, opeee, a coo oe ee oaaoe popo aee.

Omocumey opeoc popa pacca a ooee acoo opeoc coy ae epeo e o opye:

= x / x (2.2) Oocey opeoc oo paa poeax. Ocoo poeo ce opeoce, ec ae coo ae epeo e. Oo pacea opeoce popo coy ee eceoe aee.

pueea opeoc popa o paeoe poeax ooee acoo opeoc popa oppyey ae:

= x / XN (2.3) Hoppy aee XN ec ycoo poe aee. B oce cyae aece oppyeo ae pa epx pay aaoa epe.

co cyaa popo, eca pa. o oy aopaope, oce yco. pop oe cyapoac, apep, yx exox (poocex) ycox c coo cee apeccoc opyae cpe. opeoc epe ooo oo e popa, o pax ycox cyaa, oe oac. B acoc o yco pee epex popo x opeoc e a ocoe, oae p cooa popo opax ycox, onoumee, oae peyae ooe ae oo x e opyae cpe o opaoo ae.

Ooeo xapaepco, opeeeo peea oycaex ocox ooex opeoce, ec acc moocmu popa. B cooec c OCT 8.401 ce epe popa pcaaec cooecy acc ooc.

p opaoe peyao epe ao ya ooee ae cao opeoc peeo ooe. pee oycaeo ocoo opeoc paa e acoo, ooceo peeo opeoc. opa pecae opeoc ac o xapaepa ee opeoc aaoe epe, a ae o yco pee epeoo popa. acc ooc popa opeeec peea opeoce.

pee oycaex ocox opeoce opeec o eco caae:

acoo opeoc:

x = x (a) x = x (a + bx) (2.4) ooceo opeoc:

= x / x = [c + d (|xK / x|-1)] (2.5) e a b ooee ca, e ace o oaa popa;

c d ocoe (ooee) ca, poopoae opeoc oocex aex;

xK oeoe aee aaoa epe;

peeo opeoc:

= x / XN (2.6) e XN oppyee aee.

Hoppyee aee p pacee peeo opeoc pa ae epxe pa aaoa epe popo c yeo oeo aae a, cy eo epxeo pax ae aaoa popo c yeo oeo yp a ceo aaoa epe popo c oapeco epoeco ao.

B cyae paeca acoo peeo opeoc popa, o ce aaoe epe, acc ooc pa cooec c OCT 8.40180 ceyeo pa ce: *10n;

1,5-10n;

2 10n;

2,5 10n;

4-10n;

5 10n;

6 *10n, e n==1;

0;

1;

2;

.... acc ooc popa o cyae paa o co, cooecy ocoo peeo opeoc o ce aaoe epe popa.

epex popo, pee ocox oycaex opeoce oopx pacca o opye (2.5), acc ooc ooaa ooee c d.

acc ooc epe popa pcaa p yce c aoa-ooe o peyaa x oep.

epea ea oe ocoo o pee ec c eee pee. Cooeceo cyecye opeoc epeoo popa cmamueca u uaueca. Caeca opeoc cec o paccope e opya. A aeca opeoc cec a paoc ey opeoc aeco pee caeco opeoc, cooecye ae e a oe pee i.

O ocox apaepo aoo popa ec eo yceoc, cea a ooee ee caa a xoe popa ee epeo e.

ycmumeocm npuopo paa acoo ooceo e. Acoma ycmumeocm opeeec ooee SA = XBX / x (2.7) a omocumea SO = dXBX / dx (2.8) e XBX ca a xoe popa;

x epea ea;

dXBX eee caa a xoe;

dx eee epeo e.

Ee o a apaepo popa ec ea eeu a, cea a paoc ae e, cooecyx y coce oea a popa. pyo eo ce e ee a popa, aoee aco pee a pae, aaec ee peea epe popa a peeoe aee a epe.

C eee pee epooece coca popa ec a opeoc epe. aeco, opaaee eeoc o pee eo epooecx coc, xapaepyec cmauocm uepumeoo npuopa.

O cyaa po e popa epe e ox, e oae. Cocooc popa opeeeoe pe epa apy, peae oyce xapaepyec eo nepepyoo cnocoocm. p o ee ocpy popa e o oc ocao xapaep. opeee epepyoo cocooc popa eo oepa ca oce ooe a aoe cooec c opa peoa.

Cpeoe pop ooeo xapaepyc npooumeocm ycmaoeu noaau, epeo o oea aaa ee e, o oea, oa aya oea oo ac cae e oee acoo opeoc popa.

pox popo oppyec npooumeocm uepeu (acoa opoca). a xapaepca opeeec c oea aaa ee e aaa a epe oo o e e, o oea pecae peyaa epe c oppoao opeoc a aopax popa.

a pop, ae e epe, opee ac ooc cxe.

Moocm, opeea epe popo e, oce cyae aa, o p epe e aoox epex ex cece opee ooc popo oe ec pe pao e, o pee ooe opeoc epe. O peoa epe popa ec aoe coceoe opeee ooc. o ocaec yeee copoe xox ee popa.

Haee cae oc poe pop, oaae co xo copoee.

pop oe cyapoac eee opeeeoo pee p o coxpa co oppoae xapaepc, .e. oaa aeocm. Oco pep aeoc popo c epooc eoao pao cpe pooeoc eoao pao. Bepooc eoao pao opeeec epooc ocyc oao popa eee opeeeoo poeya pee. Cpe pooeoc eoao pao opeeec ooee pooeoc eoao pao popa cy oao a o pe.

a pop oocc opeeeoy accy o pa paa. M paccapae pop, epe oo epece ca. acc popa oo opee o yco ooae (a.2.1) Taa 2. pop cooe ooaee Maoepec pop c o paa epoa pop - ooep c o paa epoa pop epoa ooep epoa opao pop epoaec pop epoaec ooep eppoaec pop eppoaec ooep yo pop Teoo pop c apeaeo poooo epocaec pop epo peopaoae epeo e Bpe y R x oaooe copoee a aee oppeop pop pe p epao ooe a pop pe p opoao ooe a pop pe p aoo ooe a (apep o 60o yo 60o ) ooceo opoao ococ epea e opoaa o opyca caa apee, pea 500B, apep 2B oco o epee (ooa) o oco epee o Tpxa o (oee aaee) coe ooae, aoce a epoepee pop, opeee OCT 23217 78.

3 METO OPEHOCT MEPEH a po pao epex popo peo cooa x po ec cy emoo uepeu. Peya epe oy oye np uu oce cnocoo.

Ec cooe aee e axo eocpeceo ox ax, apep, ep o aepepo, apee oepo, o ae epe ca npu.

B ex cyax, oa aee e axo a ocoa ecx acoce ey coo eo ea, oepae p epe, oop o oceo epe. pep ocex epe o opeeee copoe ooc o epe ae oa ape.

B exe epe pe o cooynx coecmx epe. B epo cyae oopeeo ep ecoo ooex e. ae o ec ypae axo peya. apaep ypae oya p epe. Ec cyecye eoxooc opeee acoc ey eco eooe (apep, pa eco ae) ea, o coy coecme uepeu. Peya coecx epe ae axo o a, oye p epe x e.

Paccop eep eo epe. Cpyypa cxea eoo peea a pc.3.1.

Moo e a ocox acca eoo eocpeceo oe cpae. Bopo acc eoo Meo ee ecoo paooce, Heocpeceo Cpae epo opeeex oe ece a cpaae pooocae Hyeo Coae ea.

epea Meo aee enocpecmeo Pc 3.1. Meo epe oeu aaec o, o aee e opee o ae (oceoy ycpocy) epeoo popa poo ec. p cooa oo eoa epeo pope pocxo poe, o xoa xoy, peopaoae epeo e. B aece pepa oo pec epee ape p oo epoexaecoo oepa.

Meo cpae (emo cpaeu c epo) coco o, o epey ey cpaa c eo - epo. pepo eoa cpae ec epee copoe p oo oca. Meo cpae ee ceye paooc: eo pooocae, epea, yeo, aee coae. p epe emoo npomuonocmaeu epea ea ea-epa, oopeeo oecy a pop cpae, p oo oopoo ycaaaec coooee ey . p uepeuao emoe a epe pop oecye paoc epeo e eco e. Hyeo emo o eo cpae c epo, p oopo peypy e oec oox e a pop cpae oo o y, .e. oa ea ooc oecpye pyy. Ec epey ey aea eco eo, ocpooo epo, ao eo epe aa eoo aee. Meo conaeu aaec o, o paoc ey epeo eo eo, ocpooo epo, ep, coy coae oeo a epoecx cao. Haoee pacpocpaee o eo oy p epe eepecx e.

Co pe paecoo pee oee pacpocpaee oy eo eocpeceo oe, a oee poco eee apa. Bo pe a eo cpae ae ee opeoc epe, o peye ox apa.

Hae ooo ca eoo oaae x ecoepeco. a cyeoc oeo p poee epe, opeoc popo pye aop, oo oop o o, o peya epe oac o cx ae. Ceoaeo, cyecye nopeocm uepeu, .e. ooee peyaa epe o coo ae epeo e.

opeoc epe opee eax epeo e (acoa) poeax, ox o coo ae epeo e (oocea). Acoma nopeocm uepeu x opeeec o opye (3.1), a paoc ey aee e, oye peyae epe x, c aee epeo e x:

x = x - x. (3.1) Omocumea nopeocm uepeu / pecae coo ooee acoo opeoc epe coy ae e, paeoe poeax:

= 100(x / x). (3.2) Ha pae eco coo ae oyc ece aee epeo e, a oopoe pa aoe ee aee, oopoe aeo cepea ye acoo paec coy ae, o oe cooao eco eo. opeoc epe cac ooe, ec aee e, oyeoe peyae epe, oe eceoo ae epeo e, aoopo.

opeoc epe coco cceaeco cyao opeoc.

opeoc ocaac ocoo aooepo eac p oopx epex oo o e e oaox ycox aaec cucmeamueco nopeocm uepeu. Cceaeca opeoc oycoea ocoo opeoc paypo eoop co aaoa epe. ocoe cceaece opeoc c p oepe epeoo cpeca eo epooeco aeca. Cceaece, opeoc oy yee ee epey e pa x oppepyx eeo.

Cyaa nopeocm o opeoc, eac cya opao p oopx epex oo o e e oaox ycox. Cyae opeoc oa cece cyapoo oec a peya epe pax p.

Hapep, ec oopao ep oy y e ey, o peya epe eoao e oy oo pecaa. Oao, peya pa epe oc eoopo aooepoc, oopy oo oca, oyc eope epooce. acoy oe pax ae opeoc aoo epe oo xapaepoa aoo pacpeee epooce.

4 MTMETP Myep - o pop, peaae epe ocox epeex oo ape, a ae copoe. Cyecy a ocox a popo - ooe oeae o py epe. Oo oo popa oocc yep co cpeo aopa, a oea c poo ae. cape cpaeo poco yep pecae coo aepep (pc.4.1 a). Bo cex cyax, oe oo, epec oco o. p paoe ooo aaoe ooceo aoe copoee popa pecae coo aey apyy epeo cxe, o po epa oaa. poe pop ep apee cxee, e, a pao ooe xooe copoee, e apya epey oy cxe. Oao po popa oe pyo ep ycpoca, ee p-n epexo. B ocoe pox popo e cooae aaoo-pox peopaoaee, cxe oya xox aaoox cao, epaopo pox cao pox aopo (pc.4. ).

UBx A o e paop UBx a) Cpeo (oo) ) poo (oea) Pc. 4.1. p ocpoe yepo peopaoae pox oepax ocyec epe ceyy, ooy pop e pe ca cpx poco ape, oope oa ccee p oae. o e oocc epe opeeoo oa, a a pop oaae oo cpeee aee. C oo yepa oo a opoe aa x a, pocxeax p.

Paccop ycpoco, p pao eo poee epe c cooae poeoo yepa 4352 [5]. Be popa oaa a pc.4.2.

1 2 Pc.4.2. Be popa Ha eo ae popa pacoaac opa ypae a: 1 2 o e e a;

3 e oe eeo coa a yo;

4 epeae aaoo epe;

5 o epee poa pao (-, , , M) acoc o a epeo e;

6 pya peyopa ycao y;

7 oceoe ycpoco.

pop epoepe opoa 4352 c aoaeco ao o epecx epepyo peaae, epe c ape ocooo oa, ecyeo ae c ape epeeoo oa cycoao op, copoe ocooy oy.

pop oe pec p peypoa, peoe cyaa epo-, paoaapayp, pox popoeccopx cceax oeex c cycceo peypye aec yco. Hapep, apx oaaex oxaaex epyex poocex pyx, o ce xopoo epyex oex oeex (ocyce poo oec coeo paa ocyce oec aocepx ocao, epa, a a e oec eca apyoo oyxa).

Paoe aece yco pee popa - eepaypa opyaeo oyxa o 10 o 35 payco o ec, oocea aoc oyxa o 80% p eepaype payco.

Ocoe exece xapaepc.

epee ape ocooo oa, B 0.75.. epee ape epeeoo oa, B 0.3.. Copoee ocooy oy, O 0.2.. epee c ocooo oa, A 0.3.. epee c epeeoo oa, A 1.5.. To opee p epe ape copoe, A 0.306.. aee ape p epe c oa, B 0.08..0. paa epeca cxea popa peea a pc.4.3. Cxea popa ae ce opa ypae B1, B2, A1, H, R21;

co a ;

aoepecy ccey Tp M;

yepca y copoe.

epeae B1 ee e py B1.1 B1.2, oypye ca c xox e * V, A - M, a pacopaop TP ao-epecoe ycpoco epe opaae pecop R1-R20. Pecop R21 peaae peypoa oa M ycao cpe popa eyeoe ooee p ee copoe. Pecop R1-R opay eoy, yeay, acoc o peea epe, cy oa, poxoeo epe M. epee o pec yxoyepoo cxeo, oeo a oax VD1,VD2. Pecop R13-R20 opay ee ape pec p epe ape. Pecop R10-R12, R21 opaa o, poea epe epeoe copoee. Heace epeae B2.1, B2.2, B2.3 opee po oa paoy pee epe copoe.

ee epeco cxe popa ae oo opyc. Opa ypae, ocoe ycpoco pcoeee a paee a eo copoe opyca.

epoxece co oa a cxe oepa aoaeco a pacooe aepe c o copo opyca.

B pope pe exa epe (M) aoepeco cce a pacax c yppao ao. To ooo ooe exaa epeoo A, aee ape a ooe pa e peae 15B.

Pacpee peeo epe ocyecec c oo oya yepcaoo ya oaox copoe oepa. Bpee epeeoo oa pocxo o yxoyepoo cxee, oeo a oypooox oax.

Pc.4.3. Cxea epeca paa popa oee ae aaoo epe, ae peeo oycaex ocox opeoce ( opax ycox pee), ae opeeoo oa ae ape a xox eax popa cooecy a. 4.1.

Taa 4.1.

epea pee oeoe aee To aee ea oycaeo aaoo opee, ape, ocoo epe A, e oee B, e oee opeoc % Hapee 0.075, 0.3, 1.5, 0.306 1. ocooo oa, 6, 30, 60, 150, 300, 1.53 B 600, Hapee 0.3, 5.1 1. epeeoo oa, 1.5, 1.02 B 6, 30, 60, 150, 300, 1.53 600, Copoee 0.2, 22 1. ocooy oy, 3, 20 O 30 2 300, 3000 0.8 Ca ocooo 0.3, - 0. 1. oa, A 1.5, - 0. 6, 15, 60, 150, 600, - 0. 1500, 6000 Ca epeeoo 1.5, 6, 15, 60, - 0. 1. oa, A 150, 600, 1500, pee oycaex ocox opeoce popa () paac poeax o oppyeo ae (XN) e peex opeoce o opye (2.6). e XN pa, a oeoe aee aaoa epe aao epe eax a.

aee a oepa epax, e eee: - 58, , M - 67.

Hopa yco pee paccapaeoo popa c ceye e x ae: opoaoe ooee 2o;

eepaypa opyaeo oyxa 205 oC;

oocea aoc 6515%;

aocepoe aee 75030 .p.c.;

acoa c ape epeeoo oa (a.4.2);

cycoaa opa po oa ape, c oeo apo o2%;

apee a cxe, epe copoe o 30O o 3.7 o 4.7B, o 30 o 300 O 11-14B ce 300 O 120-160B ocooo oa;

eoe aoe oe;

oe epeeo cocae ocooo oa ape e oee 3%. Ta opao, pop ee opaey oac pee. B pyx ycox cyaa opeoc popa epe yy e coepeo e ae.

aco aao popa p epex c ape epeeoo oa cooecye ae a.4.2.

Taa 4.2.

oeoe aee Hopaa oac aco, Paoa oac aco, aaoa epe 0.3, 1.5, 6, 30 B 45-60 60 60, 150, 300 B 45-60 60- 600, 900 B 45-60 60- 1.5, 6, 15, 60, 150 A 45-60 60- 600, 1500, 6000 A 45-60 60- Bpe ycaoe paoeo pea oaa popa e peae 4 c oce e. pop oycae pooeoc epepo pao eee 16 aco aaoax epe, e peyx coo a. Hepepa paoa oepa popa opeeec oppyeo oc peex epoxecx coo oa oo opee popa (a. 4.1), o e oee 16 .

o ey oc opoa epec e opyco, a ae apy opaa ypae oypyx peypoox eeo popa opax aecx ycox pee epae eee 1 y ece caeoo ape aee 3 B (ecyee aee) epeeoo oa acoo .

pop epae paopeee epepy, e peae 25-pax ae o oeoo ae aaoa epe, o e oee 50A oceoaex 2 B apaex epecx ex. Bpe epepy 0,2-20 c epao 20c.

p ocyc coa a aoaeco a paopeee epepy (cae o apee) e o pea aaoe epe: o 1 A - Io;

ce 1 A - 2,5(1A+Io);

o 100 B - 5 Uo;

ce 100 B - 2 Uo (o e oee 2 B). Bpe oec epepy e oee 0,5 c epao 15c.

eee oaa, aoe eee ooe popa o opaoo o oo ae peeax eepaypoo aaoa paox yco pee, e peae peea oycaeo ocoo opeoc ( oepa 5%) a ae 10 oC ee eepayp.

eee oaa, aoe eee aco o pa opao oac aco o oo ae aco ceo ac paoe oac (a. 4.2), e peae 1.5%.

eee oaa, aoe e oopooo eeo ocooo aoo o c ye 0.5 T p cao eaopo apae aoo o, e peae 1.5%.

eee oaa, aoe e oopooo eeo aoo o, cycoao eeoc o pee c acoo, oaoo c acoo oa, poeaeo o epe e cyeoo popa, p cax eaopx apaex ae aoo o, e peae 1.5%.

y aoo o p acoax o 1 e oa pea 0,2 T.

eee oaa, aoe e eppoaoo ocoa oo 25 e oeoo oy c popo aoo e popa, o oo axoeoc a pacco e eee 1, e peae oo peea oycaeo ocoo opeoc.

eee oaa, aoe ooee op po c ape epeeoo oa o opaoo ae o e 2-, 3- 5- apoeco cocae, pao 5% o ecyeo ae epeo c oa ape e peae 3%.

aape paep popa 215*115*90. Macca popa e oee 1,2 .

p paoe c popo eoxoo coa ecye oe paa ex eoacoc. p epex ex c apee ce 36 B. Ceye a oa pop p eo ape cceyeo e. Heoyco epeee popo c ooo a epe a pyo, a ae epeee aaoo epe e oe o cceyeo cxe. epe ex c apee ce 200 B. o pooc pcyc pyx .

oee popa cceyeo cxee oo pooc ocpeco coeex pooo, peocaex c popo. oee popa cceyeo e c oo yo eoxoo poo oo pyo, epac a ooy yy ya.

Bopa pya oa cooo o eae poxoe epecoo oa epe opa eoea.

p cceoa epeco cxe pop oe pacoaac a, o p c oaa a cea oacoc pocoe ac cceyeo cxe, axoc o apee.

oee pocy cxeoexy e poe epee pop. Oo ocoe ax popo axoc ceapoaa pocxea, peopaya apee o coo aopo. Be ooo oeca pox popo oaa a pc.4.4.

Pc.4.4. Be pooo popa Ha eo ae popa pacoaac opa ypae a: 1 - oceoe ycpoco (ce);

2 epeae aaoo epe;

3 e oe yo;

4 eo oe epe apaepo pacopo;

5 o epee poa pao acoc o a epeo e.

paa epeca cxea pocoo pooo popa oaaa a pc.4.5.

poo yep coco poaaoooo peopaoae P57B5A c e oppe, opcaecoo aopa -1, xox oypyx ee aape a. ee C1, C3-C5, R19, R20 opee acoe xapaepc A pe peopaoa xooo caa a xo 30 A, epe R17, VD, VD2, R18 C2 ocyae epeoe opaeoe ooceo xoa 32 apee.

Pc.4.5. paa epeca cxea pooo popa ee R12-R16 pecae coo ee opaooo ape 2B, oyeoo ype caaopo pocxe (36-xo, 37 xo). Pecop R1-R4 opay ee xooo ape. R5-R8 opay y ae ape, acoc o c poeaeo oa. B oox cyax, p epe ape c oa, a xo A ocyae aee ape.

Pecop R9-R11 pa po ooo ea ee, eco opoo ea - epeoe copoee R. epeoe a xoe 30, apee peopaoaec o ceceex aopo epeac a xo -1. ep pa ao opoc.

Paccop, a xapaepca oaa poe pop a pepe ycpoc o pa M830M837. Hopa yco cyaa caec eepaypa 235 C oocea aoc eee 75%. pye ae, xapaepe cpeox popo, acopax e yaac. pee epe, papeee ooc popa pee a.4.3.

Taa 4. pee Papeee Tooc ocooe apee 200 B 100 B 0.25% 2 e. cea 2000 B 1 B 0.5% 2 e. cea 20 B 10 B 0.5% 2 e. cea 200 B 100 B 0.5% 2 e. cea 1000 B 1 B 0.5% 2 e. cea epeeoe apee ex aex caa (45-450 ) 200 B 100 B 1.2% 10 e. cea 750 B 1 B 1.2% 10 e. cea oco o 200 A 100 A 1% 2 e. cea 2 A 1 A 1% 2 e. cea 20 A 10 A 1% 2 e. cea 200 A 100 A 1.2% 2 e. cea 10 A 10 A 2% 2 e. cea Copoee 200 O 100 O 0.8% 2 e. cea 2000 O 1 O 0.8% 2 e. cea 20 O 10 O 0.8% 2 e. cea 200 O 100 O 0.8% 2 e. cea 20000 O 1 O 1% 2 e. cea pop ee cpoey ay o epepyo. p epe ape aa cpaoae p 200B eoo ae a peee 200 B 1000B ocooo 750B eoo a ocax peeax. aa epe ocox oo cpaoae p 250B a peee 200 A (a peoxpae) a peee 10A (e peoxpae). p epe copoe aa o epepyo cpaoae o cee 15 c, ec a yax pcycye eoe aee ape 200B.

oco popo oeyec yo poo poo ee cxe.

Bcpoe yep y, ec copoee e eee 1 O. Heoope yep e y epe eepayp c oo epoap a ʻ. aao eepayp o -20 o o o 1370 oC. Tooc epe eepayp 3oCo 150 C 3% e 150 C.

Heoope pop e oooc ep h21E pacopo (n-p-n, p-n-p) p oe a 10A ape oeop-ep 2.8B. Ee oa y popa o cpoe eepaop eapa acoo 50 1000 . Bxooe apee eepaopa o 5B.

5 ETPOHH OCOPA Ocopa oopaae epece ca e ocopa a T. Paa oo- yxyee ocopa. T yxaa ocopa, ooe oopeeo aa a pae a caa, a poeoc a o pee oo ypa ocpeco cpoeoo pop eepaopa.

Paccapae a ao pop yoe ca a epoecx cao eaco o x op. Cxea ayca ocopae ycaaaec a poae paep, oa xoo ca peae aaoe apee, a apaee ayca (.e. ca c ooe opae epexoo) oo pa. B cyae epoecoo xooo caa oce ycao ocopaa a ayc peyeo oe oce ycao copoc paep a pae oec eooe opaee, a a oceoaee ca aaac py a pya. p oae ecpoa popoeccopx cce ocopao oo poep ce peee xapaepc cao, ecpoa eoxoa popaa oepa.

Paccop p ec epooo ocopaa. Xo cpyype cxe ocopao ocaoo co, ye pa ec x popo ocaoo paccope pocey cxey, cocoy pex eeo: yce epao ooeo ape, eepaopa paep G T (pc.5.1).

Pc.5.1 pocea cxea ocopaa cceyeoe apee Ux oo o xoy yce ae a epao ooe ac T. o ece oo ape y ooec o oc opa. Ooee ya o oc accc oycoeo ece ape paep, oopoe eec o pee o eoy aoy. Ooee ya o oc accc ae ec eo ye pee. Tpaeop ya aa ocopao cceyeoo oea. ocoy ooee ya o oc opa poopoao oeoy ae oea, a ooee o oc accc - pee, o a pae T eoopo acae ocpooc acoc Ux(t).

Paep paa ooee apee opae, ooy apee paep opacae o opeeeoo ypo, p oopo y, ac pao, ocae pa paoe ac paa.

pooeoc opacaeo yaca ape paep oea eoc T poo xoa paep. o ooa poo xoa apee paep yeaec o aaoo ypo. o p o epeeaec cpaa aeo, coepa opa xo paep. a pe To opaoo xoa apee paep yeaec o eeoy aoy, ooy paeop ya e ece oeo opa caae ocopay. Bo eae oo a pe opaoo xoa a oyop T oa apaee apee, a o y acc. eepaop paep cpo a, o eoc opaoo xoa a ee eoc poo xoa paep.

p ocopapoa epoecx oea eoxoo, o a a epo cceyeoo ape y epeeac o oo o e paeop. oo cxpopy epo paep c epoo oope cceyeoo caa (pc.5.2, a): epo paep ycaaa pa eoy cy epoo oope cceyeoo caa.

Pc.5.2 Bpeee apa cxpoa Ec Tp = T, . e. ee eco pe cxpoa, o aay epoo epoa paep cooecye Y=0, ae y poepae o o epo cyco. oey aaa opoo epoa paep xooe apee opaaec y, ooy y oaae y e oy aee ec o o e paeop. Taoe ee ya coae eoy ocopay epoa oea Ux(t). Ec eoxoo oy a pae n epoo, o epo paep oe n pa oe epoa cceyeoo oea.

p apye cxpoa (Tp>T, pc.5.2, ) oe aaa opoo epoa paep Y>0 y ooec epx. Cycoaa paeop ya p o e ye coaa c paeope, oyeo a ep epo cyx o ae cycoax px, oo aaex a pae a ce poyo.

cceoa eepoecx ycx ape peec ya paepa. Bo pee eepaop paep aycaec epe a pe yco. oey aaa aoo yca apee paep ee opeeeoe aee, ooy aao aoo yca cooecye oo o e oe a pae. ocoy copoc apaca ape paep ao e ocoa, o paeop ya, ae ce yca, coaa, a pae oae eoa ocopaa yca.

eoc poo xoa ye paep pa ecoo oe eoc yca (pc.5.3, a), Pc.5.3. Bpeee apa paep ooy ocopaa yca (pc.5.3, ) aae oy ac paa. Pe ye paep eecoopae p epoecx ycx apex c oo caoc, ocoy, e copoc paep, oo ycao yo ae paep yca o opoa.

poe eo paep, peycopeo o cex ycaex poeoc ocopaax, cyecy pye paepo, apep pyoa cpaa, peee p epe aox coooe. Bx paepax y ec c ocoo yoo copoc o pyy o cpa, o ooe oya oy o cpae c aepo paa y paep.

Paccop, apep, yxyeo yepca ocopa C1-74 [6]. Ha pc.5.4 oaaa ea ae ocopaa.

Paccop eoope, ocoe, opa ypae opo, pacooee a eo ae ocopaa: 1 pa T;

2,7 peyop ypo axaa paep, ye A ;

3,6 epeae paep (Bpe/e), ye A ;

4,5 epeae a paep (aoaeco, ye oopao), ye A ;

8 epeae acaa ay xooo caa (V/e), poo epeaoo xoo ya A;

9 epeae a xooo caa;

10 peyop ocea a, poc oyca ye. o 8 coxpac eo oa ya .

1 2 3 4 5 epcaoc ocopaa oeceaec ce oa aaax epaoo opoaoo ooe, cae ao o.

p ec ocopaa ocec eo cpyypo cxeo (pc.5.5), a oopo oaa ocoe yoae y x aoc.

Ocopa coco ceyx yoax yo:

- yx aao epaoo ooe, - yx aao opoaoo ooe, - yx ycee ocea, - aopa, apaopa, - cxe oya, - yce aaa Z, - oa a.

Bxo A Bxoa pe. Bxoo a aep e yc. Y paop yce ce Bxoo xo cxpoa yc. Y Bxo ce Bxoa pe.

ocea e yce aep Bxo Z ce ce Z ~220 cxpoa o U a ce ocea Bxoo Cxea yce X oy ce eepaop a Bxoa paep cxpoa Bxoo e yce X Pc.5.5 Cpyypa cxea yxyeoo ocopaa cceye ca oaec aa epaoo ooe a xoy e, cocoy xox paeo, epeaee peo xoo oeo ooe, ae ca ocyae a peape yce. y xox ee peapex ycee o cee o a 40-1 (1).

B acoc o a ceoo oa cocae peapeoo yce oe axoc oyaop (yxaa o), peopaoae (oapec o) pyoe yoaoe ycpoco, oee y peapeoo yce opao caa.

aee ca, peopaoa apaa, ocyae a cepy aep oeca pee cpaaa (aaa) aaa opoaoo ooe. aep oe co y p paoe c oa, paoa peao acae pee. oeca pee cpaaa aaa opoaoo ooe p paoe co cpoocoec oa eoxoa e aep, xoa oe oa 40 2700 (1P71), aea ey coo cceyeoo caa xoo e. C aep ca ocyae a xoo yce Y, oop oyae cooecyy apy cax ac T.

Cxoa peapeoo yce ac cceyeoo caa oaec a yce ypee cxpoa. ce ycee ca epe cxey oya ocyae a xo aaa opoaoo ooe ayca paep.

Cxea oya ooe poo op ayca paep oo pyoo aaa opoaoo ooe. aycae ca a ypee a ee, oac a xoe e aaa, cocoe xox paeo, aeaopa, epeaee opoc a cxpoa. oce poxoe xoo e cxpoaopa, oeo y oppyeo ycpoca, ca oaec a eepaop paep, oop oppye oopaoe eoe cyeaoe (cpoocoecoe) apee ooe ye T poopoao pee.

Bxoe e, cxpoaop eepaop paep oee oe e ceoo oa 40-2 (1P).

Bxoe ca eepaopa paep (oopaoe apee yc ocea) ocya epe cxey oya a xoe yce paep yce yco ocea.

Cxea oya ooe ocyec oay oopaoo ape paepo ocex yco c xoa oa 40-2 (1P) cooeceo a xoo yce paep yce yco ocea oo pyoo aaa opoaoo ooe a cooecye yce oox aao oopeeo. o ooe oya pae pe pao ocopaa oae eo yepcaoc.

ce paep ycae oopaoe apee o e, eoxoo oye peyeoo peeoo acaa opae, ae eo a opoao ooe ac T.

ce yco ocea ycae ocye c oa 40-2 (1P) yc ae a oyop T ooee yc ocea opa ya a pe poo xoa paep.

peopaoa cceyex epecx cao oe opaee ocopae cy aop, oopo coyec yxyea T a 13O16A.

B coca ocopaa xo apaop ay pee, peaae apo oeo ooe aao epaoo ooe oeo paep aao opoaoo ooe.

ce aaa Z ycae oaaee a pae BXO Z ca ee oy ae x a ao T oye peex pocx eo a pae T.

epoae ocopaa ocyecec o ce epeeoo ape, oopoe peopayec capyec cxeo a o peyex e.

5.1 oooa poee epe.

Bce oepa o cceoa apaepo epecx cao pooc o opae op cceyex cao a pae T. Paoe ac paa aoo ya ec yaco paa paepo 60x100 . Paoe ac paa oox ye coee. pay ppeea aa paepo 60x100 , oopa paeea a 6 epax opoax ee, aoe eee - 10 . oe ee a ae paa aece c yx copo, aoap ey yeaec oa a ce apaaca p coee opae cceyeoo caa c a. Ha epax x (opoao epao) a aoe eee pao a 5 ax ee, pacooex py o pya a pacco, pao 2 .

opaee cceyeoo caa a pae T oe oyeo a pee peaoo pee, a pee cpoocoecoo peopaoa ( cyae pee cpoocoecx oo).

coxpae apaepo cceyeoo caa coye oce ee, po cooacoe ae oea .

Bo cex cyax peoeyec oaa ca oc eee oc poo, a a p o oeceaec aea apya cceyeo e.

Ec co caa ee xooe copoee 50 O, o coee ae oaeo oe apyac y xoo oo a oooe copoee, paoe 50 O (poe cpoocoecx). Hoacoe ca oo ay oy oaac eocpeceo a xo oo c oo ae, aaaeoc eepa. o oa aoee yoe cao c acoo e 1 p oee ooe oa ce 1 V/e.

Ec ee ao oayc eoyc, coye ae, aaac c oox copo paea, oco ee a po.

Heoxoo o, o aea a o ecoo caepo oe coa o opa ecox poeo.

oep, aee paccee ep epe ae poopoa acoe caa. Ta opao, oa ac cooacoo opa yce c a peee apaca, oe oepa coeeo aee o ceo ecoo eco caepo, cyae, ec o e coacoa c eo oo copoee.

5.2 poeee epe.

1) ooo ocopaa epe ayx peex apaepo cceyex cao pooe apoy oeo ooe paep aao epaoo opoaoo ooe.

2) apoy aaa epaoo ooe pooe ceye oceoaeoc:

oe xo apaopa a (pae BXO) xooy paey ceoo oa a 40-1 (1) c copoee xoa 50 MO (co ce oa c copoee 50 O o pe e oe cooa). caoe pyy OT-1 Mhz - ooee , pyy APATOP, V - ooee, oeceaee eoxoy ey apaooo caa a paee BXO. caoe aooeae pe pao paep p oee paep 0.5 1ms/e.

poee apoy epaoo paa c oo opao oppepo yce a epee ae ceoo oa, ycaaa opaee apaooo caa cpee ac a paa T paepo 5 ee, p apoe pya aoo ee oea ooe - ooe AP.

apoy cpoocoecx oo pooe o apaopa, pacooeoo oe 40-2700 (1P71).

3) apoy aaa opoaoo ooe pooe ceye oceoaeoc.

caoe pyy BPEM/E oa 40-2 (1P) ooee 12s. oaae apao ca 1 M c xoa apaopa a xo oa a 40-1 (1Y). Paep opae a pae ycaoe 2-3 ee c oo peypo OPP-BPEM/E cooecyeo ya, pacooeo a epxe oe ocopaa, oeec coee aoo epoa caa c eee a paa. ae ycaoe pyy PACTA ooee x10 c oo peypo OPP-PACTA oo e ya oeec coae epoa caa c pa oa oceo opoao a paa T.

4) epee ay peex epao cao pooe eoo apoao a.

o eo epe ay peex epao ocoa a epe ex paepo opae eocpeceo o ae paa T. epey ey ocae o opye:

A=BC, e A - coa ea caa, B - co ee, C - aee ooe epeaee oea ooe (V/E, mV/E) oea paep (BPEM/E), oe epea ee, poa oe paep.

Meo epe o apoao ae ec oco eoo epe aoo ocopaa, oopoo pee op opeoce. Be opeoce axyeo cya - a paep opae (2-4 ee o epa 4 ee o opoa). Heoxoo cpec oy, o epea ac caa aaa 80-90% paoe ac a paa T. Bo cyae opeoc epe ay ocaec o opye:

u = 1.7+8/B, (1) a opeoc epe peex epao o opye:

u = 1.2+15/B. (2) 5) epee e ocooo ape pooe ceye oceoaeoc oepa:

- ycaoe epeae oea ooe aoe ooee, o ceee ya o oa a xo oa ocooo ape pocxoo pepo a 5 ee;

- ec oaee ooeoe ocooe apee, o epe oae caa cece y e pae paoe a;

- ec e epeoe apee opaeo opoc, o cece y epxe pae paoe ac T:

- ycaoe epeae xoa ooee ;

- oce oo a y ye ycaoe epxe e ac paa T, e paae pyy peopae a ooo caa;

- oae ocooe apee ocae, a coo ee ooc y epx o aaoo ooe;

- ey ocooo ape ocae o opye (1).

6) epee e caa a ypoe ocooo ape pooe ceye oceoaeoc oepa:

- ycaoe epeae xoa oa 40-1 (1) ooee ;

- ec ypoe ocooo ape ooe, o epe oae caa, oop axoc a ypoe ocooo ape, cece pyo y ac a T;

- oae ca a xo oa 40-1 (1Y);

- epeae oea ooe oa ycaoe aoe ooee, o opaee axooc peeax paoe oac paa T;

- ycaoe eoc paep ao, o a pae o o ecoo epoo caa;

- yeec, o pya aoo ee oea ooe axoc ooe AP, epe eex ey opae o a o a.

Bey caa ocooo ape oo oca o opye (1).

7) epee oeoo ae ape c yeo ocoo cocae pooe oceoaeoc oepa, yaao . 6.

oce oo, a yeec, o pya aoo ee oea ooe axoc ooe AP, epe eex paccoe o epoaaoo ooe ya a pae T o yo o.

Bey oeoo ae ape pao oe oo oca o opye (1).

8) epeae coca oo aeo pacp oooc x cooa.

Hapep, c oo epeaoo oa yoo acpaa yx- ooaae cce, y oopx xoe ca cex aao o oao. oo a o xo oa oaec ca, p a ao, a a pyo xo - ooepeo ca ocax aao opeeec x oe o aooo a pae T.

C oo epeaoo oa oo cceoa ae ee ape a oo ypoe ocooo ape.

oo a o xo oaec cceye ca, a a pyo xo - ocooe apee o aooo coa o e opoc, o cocaa cceyeoo caa.

ocooe apee ao oecpyec aaec oo epeea cocaa caa.

epea o ooe eao cceoa oee yac yco, B o cyae a o xo oae cceye yc, 5-10 pa pea o ee ca, cooecy acaoy opae. Ha opo xo oae ocooe apee o aooo coa o e opoc, o yc. Peypy ey aooo ape, oo ec a pa T o yaco yca paccapa eo yeeo acae.

9) oaee cax cao pooe ceye oceoaeoc:

- oae cceye ca c oexoa o xoo oa;

- a opo xo oae ca, oo cay oex;

- ycaoe oa epeae xoo ooee ooee , ec ocoa cocaa xooo caa co oa. Ca, oop ocaec a pae T, oe coca oo oe ca e cocae oex, .. oexa oaec.

p oae oex ea ee paaxa e oa pea 1B ooe 0.01 epeaee V/E.

p yee oea ooe ea oex oe e oe ae. Hapep, ec epeae V/E ycaoe ooee 0.2, o ea paaxa ape, oaaea a o xo, e oa pea 12 B.

10) Meo epe peex epao c oo apoax eo ocoa a coa a paep eo o eeo eepaopa apoao aco ocee x ca a epeo epae.

o eo ooe ye opeoc epe peex epao o e, pao cye e opeoce oopo aco ocea. Ta, apep, p cooa eepaopa caapx cao c opeoc ycao aco 1% ce eo a epeo epa, pao 50, opeoc epe coca 2-3%.

apoae e ceye oaa a xo Z.

11) epee eoc poa yca pooe ye epe peeoo epaa ey oa, pacooe a opae caa a ypoe 0.1 0.9 o ay epeoo yca. eoc caa epec aaoo.

oceoaeoc oepa epe ceya:

- oaae cceye yc a xo yce epaoo ooe ycaoe paep opae yca o epa a c paoy ac paa;

- ycaoe ay eoc paep, o epe yaco aa o opoa ao paep, pacooe eo o oooc cepo ooceo epao oc a;

- ycaoe pyo opaee caa a oy x oe a, aecex a ypoe 0.1 paoe ac a;

- epe paccoe o opoa ey oa a opae caa a ypox 0. 0.9 paoe oac a eex a;

- yoe o paccoe a oaae epeaee BPEM/E PACTA.

6 MEPEHE ETPECX BEH BMPOPOECCOPHX CCTEMAX poeee epe epecx cao popoeccopx cceax e oaec ope opao o aaox epe pyx epox cceax. Ho ceye o, o oy eoope ca oo oo c oo popao oep. Ee ao o, o oaee oco cao o eepoece oceoaeoc yco.

6.1 epee ape. B popoeccopx cceax peec e p ape. Hape epeeoo oa pec, a pao, o xox ex oo a. ae ooe cce ocyecec apee ocooo oa. Haoee aco pec ape +5B, +12B, -12B, +3.3B, +2.8B pee 5B. epee ape a o ep a poecca oa ecpoa popoeccopo cce.

a ape pec ece peoa c o pe peeo ee yca. o opeeec e, o p oeo ape ee (pocxe) xo cpo, a p oeo ccea paoae co co.

ocox capoax ape +5B, +12B, -12B 5B oycaec ooee 5% c ecaoc ycae e oee 1%. ae ycpoc a, aco peaoo pee poeccopo (Pentium) epcoax oepax pooc apee 3.3B. aao oycx ee o 3.135Bo 3.6B. epo yca, yaao aaoe, oe e oee 20% o epoa aoo aco poeccopa.

Cyecye eoe ceeco pox pocxe (oopcae BM, Flash -a) e oycaec po pao aao ape. Hapep, EEPROM a AT24C32(64) ec cey p aaoo: 5 5B, o 2.7Bo 5.5B, o 2.5Bo 5.5B, o 1.8Bo 5.5B.

Ta opao, eoopx cyax o ooc ycao ax ape apy ac paoococooc cce ee cpaoc. Ceoaeo, peyec e oo ycao ooe aee ape, o coppepoa eo c yeo opeoc epe popa.

epee ape oo poo po cpeo popo. p o y popa oac eocpeceo oa a pocxe (pc.6.1). Ec cy ax aapo eea ocoeoce oaa aoe oee eooo, o eoxoo a a ee c e e apee a ep apee a paee.

Pc.6.1 epee ape cxee epe pop oe e pee epe ape ocooo oa. pee epe oe a, o o, a y, 1.5-2 paa, e oaeoe aee. Hapep, p epe ape +5B, pee ae 6B, a p epe 12Bpee 30B.

B eoopx cyax epc ae ape a opaox xoax xoax pocxe. Ho ceye o o yco xapaepe caa. Ec pop ee ocoe aoepecy ccey, a cocoe xoo-xoo caecoe, o ye epeo ooe aee caa. pe o e popa, o epe aecoo caa, oy epaoe eoe aee ape.

po ape, cooecye oec ypo, a xoax xoax pocxe e pae ae (pc.6.2).

TT U1 Bx [2, 5]B U1Bx[2.4, 5]B U1Bx 0.7U MO U1Bx U U0 Bx [0, 0.8]B U0 Bx [0, 0.4]B U0Bx0.3U U0Bx 0 B UZ Bx (0.8, 2)B UZ Bx (0.4, 2.4)B a) ) Pc.6.2 Xapaepc xooo xooo ape TT eea (a), MO eea () eeo oex o exoo TT xapaepe e aao ape. o epy oepe cao, c eoxooc oecea, poeae oa epe pacope cxe oecoo eea. Hapee a TT-cxe e peae 5B. B eeax MO, ocpoex a ae oex pacopo, aao ape opeeec poeo ooe o ape a U. Bco oepe apee a oe ec o 3Bo 15B. Cyecy pye exoo ooe pocxe, paoax c oe epoopeee.

6.2 epee c oa. Meo epe c oa popoeccopx cceax ae e, a pyo epoo aapaype. pop ycaoe pe epe c oa, aec oceoaeo, epey e. p poee epe cpeo popa ceye coa opoc e. poe pop, peyae ecoe opoc, oaa opaee ae.

opee cxeo o opeeec oeco eeo cxee, exooe x ooe acoo epee. Ta opao, opee cxeo o, poecce ee pao eec. co a epcoax oepx cce pacca a acae xoe o 10-20 A. Oao peaoe opeee opao e.

pocxe, oex o exoo MO, xapaep ae paoe o, opa 5 A. Mpocxe TT o cee epa ope o 50 o 100 A.

Mpocxe TT coo cee epa (C, CC) ope oee 100 A a o opyc. Ha pc. 6.3 oaa ae xox xox oo cooec c oec coco.

TT I1Bx 50 A I1Bx 250 A I0Bx -2 A I0Bx -50 A Pc.6.3 Xapaepc xox xox oo TT-eea opeee oa peo opacae cyax poo pocxe opooo aa a o poo a. oa o po xoy cpo coa a popoeccopo cce, ae cpaaae aa o oy. opee o aeo peae pao. Ta opao, ep, aee oa oo opee ecpaoc cce.

6.3 epee copoe. B popoeccopx cceax epee copoe peec ae aco, a epee ape. o oycoeo e, o o ae copoe opeeec cpaoc ooeo cce.

B epy oepe ep copoee ey a a, o c opoe aa. p xoe cpo pocxe (pooe) ee copoee oe ao, paec pao y. Oe aco xo cpo oecaop, oee apaeo oa a pocxe. a ooc oaa oeco oo pocxe, oc ecpaoo eea oe oaac epa. Copoee cpao cxe, o a a, cocae ecoo eco O po e popa, ecoo ee opao.

Ceye ae, o cpeo pop, e epe copoe, ee opoc. o xopoo aeo, ec ep copoee oa.

Bo opy oepe epee copoe pe a aaeo poo.

ec ooe aee copoe e ao. aoe cooe oo o y. Ta cocoo opee op pooo pacc eax a, aee, poo pacopo, oo pyx cpex eeo.

epee copoe poo apae oee yo popa epeo e (pc.6.4). pee epe oe ycaoe apaee c yeo oaeoo ae.

Pc.6.4 Coco epe copoe p epe copoe cxea oa oecoea, poo cyae co a cce e a pooe epe oe po oo popa.

6.4 epee peex xapaepc cao. Boec p oo epooo ocopaa. Hacpoa ocopaa pooc cooec c cpye o cyaa. Bxo popa oaec apaeo epeo e. Bpeea apaa aaec a pae (pc.6.5).

Tecpoae ocopao popoeccopx cce oo ocyec, opaoa ecoe epoecoe eee caa epee ccey pe coooo cea.

Ta opao, oo ep acoy oope cao a cex x apeca, o yec ocyc oao. Tec coooo cea oppye epoece ca a cex x apeca, ayc ocopaa ooe c o x.

C oo pocx ec-popa opayc epoece ca pyx oax ceo cce, apep xox opax. coy ocopa, cocac peee apa pao popoeccopo cce. p o a popoeccopo cce acaec eca popaa ecox oa. pepa ccee apeac.

Pc.6.5 ocpoee peex apa c oo ocopaa yxyeo ocopa ooe ocpo peey apay c oeco cao o, e a. oo pa eoop ca aece aoo, cxpopy ocopa o oy cay, ooceo eo ca oaa pyx cao.

yc eoxoo ocpo peey apay oe popoeccopo i popa ecox oa.

Toa ae a cce o oa popa, e epa oaa apeae pepa, oce oaa aae oee cceyeo popa. a, o aae aoo aoo a oe oa, poeccop oppye ca Sync, pae eo aece ocooo. aee ycaaae xo, apep ya A ocopaa, a c, cooecyy cay Sync. aycae popay a oee oaec caeco ap caa a pae ocopaa. ep a ce peey apay caa. Bopo xo, apep ya , ooepeo oae c pyx cao ep ooceo Sync oeee pyx cao.

oaao a pc6.6 peeo apa oe oo oa oceoaeoc ac cao ceya: SYNC, SYNC READY, SYNC WAIT, SYNC DBIN, SYNC WR, SYNC A0(A15), SYNC D0(D7), SYNC F1, F1 F2.

U T1 T2 T3 T F F SYNC READY WAIT DBIN WR A15-A D7-D M Pc.6.6 Bpeea apaa oe oa NOP pa ocopaa ee opaee paep a e oo aeceo aa apa 1-3 oceoaeo oex oa. o cyeceoe opaee po eoxooc ca ye o opoao oc aa oeee cao, pae o pae popa a ecoo oee opox o o oepe.

7 MPOPOECCOP 7.1 MPOPOECCOP i Mpopoeccop i8080, p INTEL, yoao aoe oopca, apae ocpap popoeccop c cpoao cceo oa, peec aece epaoo poeccopa ycpocax opao ax ypae. Oeece aaoo ec pocxea P580BM80A [7].

Mpopoeccop ee paee 16-pap aa apeca 8-pap aa ax.

aa apeca oeceae py apeca ee a oo o 65536 a, ycpoc oa, 256 ycpoc oa. Bocpapoe apeo-oecoe ycpoco popoeccopa oeceae oee apeecx oecx oepa a o a, pecae ooeo oe, a ae opaoy oo-ecx yaoax ce.

B coca oa pecpo xo: 16-pap pecp apeca oa (IP), 16- pap yaae cea (SP), 16 - pap pecp peeoo xpae (WZ), 16-papa cxea peea-epeea ec 8-papx pecpo oeo aae (B,C,D,E,H,L), oope oy cooac a p 16-papx pecpa (BC,DE,HL). paec ce apeece oece ec a a oc pecpe ayyope (A).

Mpopoeccop oe oa o a a. co o, eoxooe oe oa, ac o e a oe o ooo o . Mae oc o a aa. co ao e opeeec oo oeo oa oe o 3 o 5. eoc aa paa epoy aoo aco p acoe 2,0 M cocae 500 c.

Ccea oa popoeccopa i8080 coco 78 aox oa, oope oo pae a py:

a) oa epea ax - coyc epea ax pecpa pecp, a pecp pecpa a;

) apeece oa - coyc coe, a, peea epeea coepoo pecpo e a;

) oece oa - , , caee , cpaee, c;

) oa epexoo - coyc ycox eycox epexoo, oa opopa opaa x;

) oa ypae, oa/oa pao co ceo - coyc ypae pepae, pecpo pao, oa oa opa.

cooe paecoe ooaee popoeccopa a pax epecx cxeax oaao a pc.7.1.

D0-D7 (in/out) yapae aa ax, oeceae ycopo oe opae D0-D7 I8080 A0-A popoeccopa c a () ycpoca RDY HLDA oa-oa (BB) opao ax oa. HOLD D0 a pap ax. B epo ae aoo WAIT INT aoo a o cay SYNC a e ax INTE F caec coo coco (SW), oopoe opeee F2 DBIN aeee oeee popoeccopo cce.

Ucc Coca coa coco cey:

WR Ucc D0 oepee pepa (INTA), SYNC Uio coyec cpopoa oa RST GND popoeccop oa pepa;

D1 - ac o (WO), a ypoe ceecye o o, o ao Pc.7.1 cooe paecoe ooaee popoeccopa i e ye pocxo o opa popoeccopa BB;

D2 ceecye o o (STACK), o a apeco aae ycaoeo coepoe yaae cea;

D3 oepee ocaoa (HLTA), ceecye o o, o popoeccop epe cocoe ocaoa;

D4 o (OUT), ceecye o o, o a apeco aae ycaoe oep eeo ycpoca ocyecec o opa pecpa peyaa a BB;

D5 ep a (M1), ceecye o o, o popoeccop paec ep a oa;

D6 o (INP), ceecye o o, o a apeco aae ycaoe oep eeo ycpoca ocyecec o opa BB pecp peyaa;

D7 paoa c a (MEMR), ceecye o o, o pooc ee coepoo . B oceyx aax o e D0 D7 epeac o oa ae.

RDY (in) oooc, cy oa caa, yaaeo a oooc ecex ax oy popoeccop, a oooc a ex ycpoc py opa c ax. Ca ooe cxpopoa paoy popoeccopa c a e ycpoca oo cpoec.

HOLD (in) axa , peaae oa xooo caa, oop coyec e ycpoca apoca ocya a apeca ax.

INT (in) apoc acpyeoo pepa, cy oa xooo caa, oeceaeo oooc pao pocxe peao acae pee.

F1 (in) ao ca, cy oa e epepaxc yco a (+12B).

F1 (in) ao ca, cy oa e epepaxc yco a (+12B).

RESET (in) cpoc, peaae oa xooo caa, ycaaaeo ypee y pocxe cxooe cocoe.

Ucc1 peaae oa ape coa a (+5B).

Ucc2 peaae oa ape coa a (+12B).

Uio cy oa ape cee a ooy (-5B).

CND o poo ape a +5, -5, +12 B.

A0-A15 (out) apec aa, oeceae apeca ee a oo o a, a a e apeca 256 ycpoc oa 256 ycpoc oa. A0 a pap.

HLDA (out) oepee axaa, cy a xooo caa, eoc oe a ca HOLD oaaeo, o a apeca ax axoc cooeaco coco.

WAIT (out) oae, cy a xooo caa, oepaeo, o popoeccop axoc coco oa.

INTE (out) papeee pepa, peaae a xooo caa, oop pye cocoe ypeeo pepa papee pepa.

DBIN (out) p, peaae a xooo caa, oaaeo, o ax axoc pee pa, . e. popoeccop oae ocye ax o a ycpoca oa pyx ycpoc cce.

WR (out) cy a xooo caa, oaaeo, o popoeccop e a y ax ecee ae ac a eee ycpoco.

SYNC (out) cxpoa, cy a xooo caa, opeeeo aao aoo aoo a. Bo pe ec oo caa opa coco ocaec o e pecp coco.

Ha pc.7.2 oaaa apaa pao popoeccopa.

Boee oa pocxo o a a, coco ax ao.

Paccop a ec yp x.

T1 p oa a pocxey caa RESET a aaec c aa T1. B o ae a apec aa ac apec e epe aa ax oc a coco.

T2 o ae pooc aa xox cao RDY, HOLD caa coco HOLDA. Ec a xoe RDY apee oecoo 0 ec paoac ca HOLDA, o popoeccop epexo cocoe oa (Twait) cocoe ocaoa (Thlt) cooeceo. Ec a xoe RDY apee oeco e, popoeccop epexo a T3.

T3 o ae pocxo p opa a pecp oa pecp oeo aae ex ycpoc o aay ax. B o e ae pocxo aa caa HOLD. Ec a xoe HOLD apee oeco e, o oce ooa aa T3 popoeccop epexo pe HOLD oe ec, yaae p oca oo pea. oce oe aa T3 oe aoe o popoeccop oe epe a T4.

T4 eee oo aa oc ypee oepa popoeccopa.

B o pe e pocxo opae , BB e peyec oa ex ypax cao. oce oe aa T4 oe aoe o popoeccop oe epe a T5.

T5 - eee oo aa oc ypee oepa popoeccopa.

B o pe e pocxo opae , BB e peyec oa ex ypax cao. oce oe aa T5 aaaec.

Thold coco ocaoa popoeccop oe o ec yaae p oca pea HOLD.

Thlt coco ocaoa popoeccop oe o ec yaae p oca pea HLT.

Twait coco oa popoeccop ye axoc o ex op, oa a xo RDY e ye oao apee oeco e.

oee opoo paoa popoeccopa cppyec pee apaa. Ha pc.7.3 peea peea apaa oe popoeccopo oa SHLD. Teep a aaee aoo aa cao popoeccopa oo eo peca p eo pao. B o apae ocycye eee cao READY (xo popoeccopa RDY) WAIT. o a, o copoc pao a e xye, e copoc pao poeccopa.

oaa SHLD aoae ae, xpaec pecpax H L a.

Ceo a oo oa pacoaac a aa apeca o oopoy acac ae pecpo. Caaa coxpaec pecp L, ae o yeeoy a ey apecy coxpaec pecp H.

B epo ao e aec o oa, oceyx yx ax a poeccop oc apec. oye apec ycaaaec a y apeca ax M4, M5 oec ac a M1 M2 M3 M4 M Pc.7.3 Bpeea apaa oe popoeccopo oa SHLD 7.2 MPOPOECCOP I Bcoopooe 32-pap popoeccop 80386 opepoa a eoe oee popa cpee ooaax oepaox cce.

Mpopoeccop ee 32-pape pecp , oope oecea xpaee epeay 32-papx apeco ax. Ha pcae C M eppoa ceep a, aapae cpeca ooaaoc exaa a oep oepaox cce. Mpopoeccop 80386 oycae oopeey paoy ecox oepaox cce [8].

Xapaepe ocoeoc M 80386:

- oc cpyyp, ae oce 32-papx pecpo oeo aae (POH), oopa ooe oeppoa c 8-, 16- 32-pap a.

- ecoe apecoe pocpaco 4a, pyaoe - 64Ta (264), aca paep ceea - 4a.

- Hae cpoeoo ceepa a, oeceaeo oepy pyao a, cpay opaa a cpeca M, 4 ypo a a.

- oa coecoc c M 80286, coecoc o oy c ceeco 8086.

- Hae pyaoo pea M 8086, ooeo o popa oo M c cooae a cpao opaa a.

- Taoa acoa o 33M, copoc oea o acpa p o acoe 66 Ma/c.

- Bcoa copoc oe apeecx oepa p paoe c copoeccopo.

Tecoe oooc M 80386 a caoecpoae poe opaee -a pac cpa. epe pecpa pepa ocya ycoe eycoe pepa o oeoy oy pae a, o oeceae ey oay cce, o ce ax .

cooe paecoe ooaee C M peeo a pc.7.4. Paccop aaee cao popoeccopa.

CLK2 (in) - oeceae ocoy cxpoa pao 80386. a aoa acoa ec ooa oo, o coppoa ype poeccopy aoy acoy, coyey p oe oa yp poeccopa. Bype cxpoca coco yx a: "a o" " a a". Ec eoxoo, aa ypeeo cxpocaa oe cxpopoaa o opaeoo poa caa RESET, oop oece aae peea ycao yepa (setup and hold times).

HOLD (in) - apoc axaa acpa. Bxoo ca apoca ypae acpa o aoo eeo ycpoca. O oe ocaac a c pe, oa acpa ypae pyoe ycpoco. Ca HOLD e ocpaec, oa apoa ca RESET. Ec o ca apoa oopeeo, o RESET ee pope.

HLDA (out) - oepee axaa acpa.

Aoc oo xooo caa oop o o, o M 80386 epea ypaee acpa oe a apoc HOLD axoc coco oepe axaa. p o ece cao, paaae M80386, ec HLDA, pye xoe yapaee (W/R#, D/C#, M/IO#,BE0#-BE3#,A2-A31,D0-D15 APS#) axoc pee coco. apoc o xoy NMI o pe oepe axaa cpyec opao oce c caa HOLD.

PEREQ (in) - apoc copoeccopa. Aoc oo caa yaae a apoc copoeccopa M 80386 o epece oepaa a a. Boe M epecae opa ey copoeccopo a.

BUSY# (in) - Copoeccop a. Aoc oo caa oaae, o copoeccop ce oe oay Pc.7.4 cooe paecoe ooaee e cocoe p ceyy. oa M caaec c oaa copoeccopa, oope C M i oeppy c apeec ceo oao WAIT, aae aoaec poep xo BUSY#, a poepa oec o ex op, oa ca a xoe e cae acc. o cae aoee a oee peye oa copoeccopa.

ERROR# (in) - Oa copoeccopa. Ca yaae, o peecya oaa copoeccopa pea oe, e acpyeo pecpo ypae copoeccopa. o xo aoaec poepec popoeccopo, oa cpeaec oaa copoeccopa, ec ca ae, M 80386 eeppye cee 7 epea ypae cooecye poeype ocya. Ca ERROR# epyec o ae oecoo ypo oe e cxpo o ooe cay CLK2.

INTR (out) - apoc acpyeoo pepa. A ca a o xoe ec apoco a ocyae pepa, oop oe aacpoa o IF pecpa ao M 80386. Oea a ca INTR, M 80386 poo a a oepe pepa oe opoo ae 8-pap eop pepa a oax D0-D7 ea coa pepa.

NMI (out) - apoc eacpyeoo pepa. A ca a o xoe ec apoco a ocyae pepa, oop e oe aacpoa popao. Ocyae eacpyeoo pepa cea pooc poeypo, cooecye xoy 2 a pepa, ooy oepe pepa e oc.

RESET (in/out) - Cpoc. o xoo ca pocaaae ce pooe ec epeo M 80386 cocoe aa. M 80386 cpacaec p aoc caa RESET# eee 15 oee epoo CLK2 (80 oee epoo CLK2 o apoca caoecpoa). Ec ca RESET# ae, o ce ocae xoe ca oppyc.

A2-A31(out) - BE0#-BE3#, A2-A31 - a apeca. xo c pe coco oecea ecy apeca a apeca ycpoc oa/oa. a apeca oeceae ecoe pocpaco apeco a oeo 4 aaa (o 00000000H o FFFFFFFFH) pocpaco apeco oa/oa oeo 64 oaa (o 00000000H o 0000FFFFH) opae ycpoca oa/oa. epea cao oa/oa, aoaec oppyex oecee aoec 80386 c copoeccopo, coyec apecoe pocpaco oa/oa o 800000F8H o 800000FFH, a a opae copoeccopy eoxoo coaee yx yco: ae cooo ypo ape a apeca A31 ae oo ypo a M/IO#. ae cao cpoo ax BE0#-BE3# opee cooeceo e a 32-papo ax, oope yacy eye epeae. o ocoeo yoo aoec c ee aapaypo. oeco cpoo ax BE0#-BE3#, axoxc ao coco, opeee paep oepaa oea (1,2,3 4 aa). oa oec ac a ycpoco oa/oa, epeaae oepa aae oo cape 16 papo ax (D16-D31), o oo oepaa oopeeo epeaec o a 16 papa ax (D0-D15). o ypoae oec oecee oaoo pea ac a 16-pape . poeypa ypoa acaex ax ac o ae cpoo ax BE0#-BE3#.

D0-D31(in/out) - a ax. yapaee c pe coco ax oecea epeeee ax o 80386 py ycpoca. Hae cooo ypo ape a xoax/xoax ax ooaae ae oo oeco e "1" a x oax. a ax oe epeaa ae a a 32-, a a 16-pape aoap oy, o ec oooc ee paepa ax. paoo oe oepa ca cao c ax peyec oeceee eoxox ae pee ycao t21 pee yepa t22 caex ax. p o oepa ac (a ocaoa e) 80386 cea epeae ce 32 papa ax, ae ec eye e paep oea pae 16 papa.

ADS# (out) - Cocoe apeca. Bxoo ca, oepa o a acpa apec (W/R#, D/C#, M/IO#,BE0#-BE3# A2-A31) a oax M 80386. O oec aax T1 T2P.

NA# (in) - apoc ceyeo apeca. peec a apoc oeepa. o xoo ca oaae oooc py ox ae W/R#, D/C#, M/IO#,BE0#-BE3# A2-A31 o M 80386, ae ec oe eyeo a e oepaec READY#.

BS16# (in) - ecaapapa a. ooe e ocpeceo ca M 80386 c 32-papo 16-papo a. p aocoo xooo caa eye e coyc oo ae pap (D0-D15) ax, cooec c BE0#, BE1#. O e oaae , ec eye e a oo BE0# / BE1#. Ec a ca a oax BE2# BE3#, o aoc DS16# po ypoa ao cooa oo ax D0-D15.

READY# (in) - oepee epea. Ca oaae, o ey acpa aepe ae a, opeeee BE0#-BE3# BS16#, p cae. Ec READY# ae o pe a e oepe pepa, M 80386 cpye xoe ae aepae . Ec READY# ae o pe a ac, o poeccop aepae acpa . aee READY# oppyec epo ae cex o acpa, a aee ao ae acpa poepec, oa e ye acpoao aoe aee. a acpa, a a ocaoa e, oe , aepe a cao READY#.

W/R# (out) - Ca W/R# paee ac ypae.

D/C# (out) - Ca D/C# paee ax ypae.

M/IO# (out) - Ca M/IO# paee opae a oa/oa.

LOCK(out) - Ca LOCK# oae opoae e opoae acpa.

Ha pc.7.5 peea apaa pao popoeccopa o aa. Paccop ec poeccopa ao ae opoee. B ao coco epec acpa oe o o: ee ac a;

opoaoe ee ac a;

ee ac oac oa-oa (copoeccopa);

oepee pepa;

a ocaoa e. Apeca i oy yx o oe oeepe. Hae oeepa opeeec a aee caa NA#. p ocyc oeepa apeco ey apec o a ocac oco eee ceo a.

Mpopoeccop aae co paoy e oeepa apeco c aa Ti. ae o ypeey apocy epexo a T1, e cao ADS# oepaec Pc.7.5 acpa popoeccopa i ae apeca. BT2 aoo oepe e. p oeepo opaoe T1 e oepe apeca peye oa, T2 ADS# ae oepae apec eye oa.

p ao cocoe e peyec a oa. Ta Ti o accoe cocoe acpa. Th cocoe oepe axaa acpa. T2i - oceye coco a , ee eco, oa oapye a ypoe NA# eye e , o ee ocycye ype apoc , oa ocyae (i80386 e ac o apec e ycao a ypoe ADS#). T2P - oceye coco a , ee eco, oa eye e oapye a ypoe NA#, eec ype, oa ocyae, apoc (i80386 ac o apec apye ca ADS#). T1P - epoe cocoe oeepoo a .

pa a apae oaa ooe epexo ey aa.

epexo pocxo p oe eoopx yco, apep:

(1) - HOLD ae;

(2) - READY# ae HOLD ae;

(3) - HOLD e ae ec ype apoc, oa ocyae;

(4) - HOLD e ae e ypeeo apoca;

(5) - RESET ae;

(6) - READY# ae HOLD e ae e ypeeo apoca;

(7) - NA# e ae;

(8) - READY# ae HOLD e ae ec ype apoc, oa ocyae;

(9) - READY# e ae NA# e ae;

(10) - (e ypeeo apoca HOLD ae) NA# ae READY# e ae;

(11) - NA# ae (HOLD ae e ypeeo apoca);

(12) - READY# e ae NA# ae HOLD e ae ec ype apoc, oa ocyae;

(13) - NA# ae HOLD e ae ec ype apoc, oa ocyae;

(14) - READY# ae;

(15) - READY# e ae (e ypeeo apoca HOLD ae);

(16) - READY# e ae ec apoc, oa ocyae HOLD e ae;

(17) - READY# e ae.

Ha pc.7.6 oaaa peea apaa pao popoeccopa peax e ac c oeepo opaoo apeco.

Pc.7.6 ee-ac c oeepo apeco oeepoe oppoae apeco o ycaoa apeca opeeee a ceyeo a o oo, a pey oepe a aee caa READY#. oa oo cey apec, popoeccop apye ADS#, ypae xo cao NA#. Baae oec e oeepa T1 T2-T2P. Ec ec oeep, o oec T1P-T2P. Ec e ypeeo apoca NA# ae, o eco T2P oc T2i aepaec oeep . Ta T2i ocyece epexo eoeepoy y.

7.3 MPOPOECCOP PENTIUM MMX poeccop Pentium p Intel oee cee coy pooeoc c oc coecoc, xapaepy aopy epcoaoo oepa. B acoee pe poeccop Pentium ec ocoo oca oeceae poe oooc pao c ye popa oeceee Internet. o cococye coa popaoo oecee c oo peaco pao oooc ocpoee oopaoo eo. poeccop Pentium pacp aao popoeccopo apxeyp Intel, coa oy oac oooce oepx cce. C M oee oee e 3.1 oa pacopo a oo peeo ooe, 32-pap Pentium poeccop xapaepyec pooeoc c aoo acoo 75/90/100/120/133/155/166/200 M [9].

Xapaepa ocoeoc Pentium poeccopa coco e yaoo coea coo pooeoc, coecoc, epa ax apaaeoc. o ae:

- Cyepcapy apxeypy;

- Paeoe poae popaoo oa ax;

- o pecaa paoo apeca epexoa;

- Bcoopooe o ce c aae ao;

- Pacpey 64-oy y ax;

- oepy oopoeccopoo pea pao;

- Cpeca aa paepa cpa a;

- Cpeca oapye oo yoao ooc;

- paee pooeoc;

- Hapaaeoc c oo Intel OverDrive poeccopa.

Cyoc exoo MMX coco ooe apxeyp poeccopa Pentium oe y eo ceax oa pao c yea cee popa oeceee, o yeae copoc pao yea poe oae pooeoc cce eo.

Hoe cpy paea y SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data "oa cpy, oecee ae"). o oaae, o poeccop oe oy y e cpy apaeo ecox a ax. MMX - epoe cyeceoe eee apxeype poeccopo ceeca x86 co pee oe poeccopa 80386. Teep Pentium ee 57 ox cpy pyax pecpo, c oop cpy paoa.

Cyepcapa apxeypa Pentium poeccopa pecae coo coecy oo c INTEL yxoeepy ycpay apxeypy, ooy poeccopy oca ox ypoe pooeoc ocpeco oe oee, e oo oa a o epo aoo aco.

pyoe aeee ycoepecoae, peaoaoe Pentium poeccope, o eee paeoo poa. poae yeae pooeoc ocpeco aa eca peeoo xpae aco coyeoo popaoo oa ax, oyaex cpo a, ae o oooc opaee ee cceo a eoopx oa.

o pecaa paoo apeca epexoa - o ceyee peee ce, yeaee pooeoc ocpeco ooo aoe oeepo oaa, ocoaoe a peapeo opeee paoo aopa oa, oope o oe.

Pentium poeccop ooe o aeaece ce a oee coo ypoe aoap cooa ycoepecoaoo cpoeoo oa ce c aae ao, oop ae oc ao oeep aapao peaoae ocoe aeaece y.

Capy poeccop pecae coo 32-ooe ycpoco. Be a ax a ec 64-oo, yaa oeco ax, epeaaex eee ooo oo a.

Mypoeccope poe, oope coe a oee Pentium poeccopo - xopoo ocyac ocpeco ycoepecoao apxeyp pcao, pae cpoe poae popaoo oa ax, a ae aopa pocxe ypae ee -a yoe cpeca opo eococ ax.

poeccop coep a ycoepecoa, oeceax xopoy ay ax oeceee x eococ - ypeee opeeee oo opo a ce yoao ooc (FCR). Bypeee opeeee oo ooe o eoc ype o poae ax, coy accoay ay cpa, poo, a ae eeo yep epexoa, ooa opee o a opao, o o ocaec eae ooae, cce.

cooe paecoe opaee poeccopa oaao a pc.7.7.

Pc.7.7 cooe paecoe ooaee C M Pentium Paccop xoe xoe ca popoeccopa. Heoope ca ec o popoeccopa peyx oee, x paccapa e ye.

PICCLK (in) - apoae poeccopa o popapyeoo opoepa pepa.

CLK (in) - xo aoo aco.

BF0;

BF1(out) - opeee acoy poeccopa acoc o oea.

INIT (in) - xo aa poeccopa.

APICEN (in) - papeee apeee opoepa pepa (PIC).

DPEN# (in/out) - xo opoo, xo epoo poeccopa.

INTR/LINT0 INTR (in) - apoc eeo acpyeoo pepa. LINT0(in) - paoae p papeo APIC.

NMI/LINT1 NMI (in) - apoc eacpyeoo pepa. LINT1(in) - paoae p papeo APIC.

PICD0 (in/out) - ax 0 - 1 popapyeoo opoepa pepa. PICD0(in/out) papeee coeco pao (opoy poeccopy).

PICD1 (in/out) - ax 0 - 1 popapyeoo opoepa pepa.

CPUTYP (in) - poeccopa - pa epoo opoo poeccopo.

D/P# (out) - aop opo/ep poeccop.

CACHE# (out) - oee a e/ac c a.

FLUSH (in) - oepae cea pao c a (cpoc a).

KEN# (in) - papeee a. Boec cea pao c a.

FERR# (out) - oa oepa c aae oo (aaoe ERROR i387).

IERR (out) - ype oa (internal error). Cyecye a a ypee o: a)ype oa eoc;

b) ype oa yoao ooc.

IGNNE (in) - oppoae poo o. coyec c o NE coa coco CR0.

R/S# (in) - paoa /ocao, coyec po Intel oa.

PRDY (out) - xo "po READY", coyec po Intel oa.

BRDY# (in) - oooc ee cce. o ca poepec T2, T12, T2P.

A3-A31 (in/out) - apeca. Be ccea ypae apeca A5-A31.

BE0# - BE3# (in/out) - opeee aoo a.

BE4# - BE7# (out) - papee pao c a.

D0-D63 (in/out) - 64 ax. Cpo D0-D7 opee a a, D56-D63 - cap a ax.

ADS# (out) - cpo apeca, yaaec aae ooo a .

ADSC# (out) - cpo apeca (o). yoao ee ADS.

AP (in/out) - eoc apeca, epeo poeccop pe pao c e apeca.

APCHK# (out) - opo eoc apeca ( eoc).

EADS# (in) - aop eeo apeca.

A20M# (in) - aca aa oo apeca. ypyec apecoe pocpaco i8086 paepo 1M.

Macpyec eocpeceo Pentium poeccopo, oa oypa a poeccopa.

DP0-DP7 (in/out) - opo eoc ax. DP7 D56-D63, a DP0 D0-D0.

EWBE# (in) - xo ycoo eeo yepa ac.

PCHK# (out) - xo poep eoc poax ax.

PEN# (in) - papeee opo eoc. Aao CR4.MCE.

FREME# (in) - yoaa ooc, poepec ycpoco paoe oaoo pee.

BOFF# (in) - xo aep, pepa cex e aepxc o .

BP[3:2] (out) - opoe o BP[3:0] oa.

BREQ (out) - apoc y ee cce.

BUSCHK# (in) - bus check capye o eyao aepe a .

Paccop p pao popoeccopa Pentium. apaa o epeca acpa peea a pc.7.8. Mae poeccopa coco ao. Ti accoe cocoe acpa.

poeccop Pentium ypae e ypae apeca cocoe xoo, acoc o coco HLDA, AHOLD BOFF#.

caoe BOFF# RESET yy cea ya poeccop opaac cocoe Ti. T1 - ep a , aao oa.

poeccop a o apec ycaaae a ypoe ADS#. T2 - opo oceye a coco oa. B coco T2 pocxo ocyee ax (ec o ac) ae oac (ec o e).

BRDY# - cpe. eec o eoe . T12 - opo oceye a p oeepo opaoe.

Cocoe yaae, o ec a eoex a , o poeccop Pentium aae opo o pe, oa ae epexo ep. BT poeccop Pentium po ece apeca coco, a e ycaaae ADS# opoo eoeoo a , o pe, oa ae epea BRDY# ec cpe epoo eoeoo a.

T2P - o cocoe yaae, o ec a eoex a . BRDY# ec Pc.7.8 apaa o epeca acpa cpe epoo eoeoo a.

poeccopa Pentium MMX Apeca, coco ADS# opoo eoeoo a, poc oa cocoe T12. TD - poeccop o a TD, ec a peyx aax o a eex aa. o epexo ooe, oa ycaoe ca BRDY# ocycye apoae poeccopa. o cocoe yaae a o, o ec o eoe o apeca, coco, ADS# ye ycaoe BRDY# e cpe.

pa a apae oaa epexo ooo aa pyo peeax ooo aoo a.

co epexoo ceye:

(0) - apoco e acpa acca;

(1) - aao ooo a;

(2) - cea, BOFF# - acce;

(3) - oae oooc oepe NA#;

(4) - ec ec apoc poeccopa BRDY#, o epexo T1 (aao ooo aa);

(5) - ec e apoca, o epexo Ti;

(6) - e BRDY#, o ec apoc NA# oep;

(7) - ec BRDY# e ocaoeo apoae;

(8) - ec BRDY# ocycye apoae;

(9) - e BRDY#, p o BOFF# oe acce - a e oe;

(10) - e BRDY#- poeccop axoc coco T2Poa ep epea e aoc;

(11) - ec BRDY# e ocaoeo apoae - poeccop aepae ep e y yce a;

(12) - ec BRDY# ocycye apoae - poeccop aepae ep , o y yce a;

(13) - ec apoc NA# oep;

(14) - e apoca NA# acce.

oee ao paoa poeccopa cppyec pee apaa. Tax apa poeccop Pentium ee ocaoo oo x oo y cooecyx pyoocax ocax. M opac oo y ocaoo poc apaa (pc.7.9, pc.7.10) o e ac e oeepo oeepo opaoo apeco. B epo ae poeccop o apec e a a ADDR oepae x coc cao ADS#. Ca W/R# ee a ypoe, o oaae aao e ax poeccop. Ca CACHE# oaae, o ee pooc a. apoc oeepo opao apeco ocycye, .. NA# ee co ypoe.

Bo opo ae (T2) oo pocxo eocpeceo ee. Oopeeo poeccop oc opo ax DP. Ca BRDY# ee ypoe, aepae a T2. poeccop epexo a Ti, oa ypeeo apoca. Cey a T1, aaec cey a - oa. ec poeccopa aao pey. cee cocae ca W/R#, e a co ypoe.

ae epeac poeccopa a.

oeepa opaoa apeco ecoo coee. Bo-epx, ocoa paoa pocxo c a.

Ca CACHE#, KEN# BRDY# ypa oeo ax. Ha opo ae T2, epoo aoo a, poeccop oyae apoc NA#, epexoa oeepo opaoe. oc ooee a T2.

a oo poeccop e o oceoaeo a aa (T2), o epexo a T12. o oaae epexo oeepo opaoe, oee eaepeoo aoo a aao ceyeo. B aax T2P, TD T2 aepaec opaoa cex paee oyex ax ooe, apep o poeccopa.

Paoa aepaec epexoo a Ti, accoo coco, poeccop oae ype apoc a oee ceye oa.

Pc.7.9 Bpeea apaa o epeca acpa e oeepo Pc.7.10 Bpeea apaa o epeca acpa c oeepo opaoo apeco D0 A 8 OMOHEHT MPOPOECCOPHX CCTEM D1 IO A D2 A Mpopoeccop oa e paoae ccee o. eo pao D3 A3 peyc ooee ee ao eepaop, D4 A4 oppoae epeco acpa, C oa-oa D5 A5 oceoaeo apaeo opaax, aep, opoep D7 A6 pepa .. oeco ooeo ac o ee A7 oopx peaaea popoeccopa ccea. O oxoo pa popoeccopx cce coco epa paee cpoepoax C CC. Ta opao, yeaec oeco B eeo a eax aax. Ho ee, oa ecoo B ycoepecoae, ce pao pcycy ccee. Paccop CS B ecoo eeo: C apaeoo oa-oa, C RD B oceoaeoo oa-oa, C popapyeoo epaoo WR B aepa opoepa pepa. ee pec pax RES B oex oepo, ocac copeex ecoo eeo B e. pec o poex oepx cceax B opo, ypae copa opa.

C 8.1 C APAEHOO BBOA-BBOA C A0 C Bo o apaeo opae opayeae oopeey C epeay ecox opa. Oo oeco 8, 16, 24, A1 C 32 .. B epcoax oepax apae epec ye C pao c pepo, oepo caepo. B poex C cceax ao epec eoxo oa - oa cpex C Pc.8.1 cooe paecoe ooaee C cao ypae. p oo C apaeoo oa - oa popoeccopx cceax opayc ap aayp aeca a cpoox cee. Paccop C i (P580BB55A) ee caapo apae coe opoay epcoax oepax.

C peec aece eea oa - oa oeo aae, coeeo pae epepx ycpoc c acpa ax cce. cooe paecoe ooaee C peeo a pc.8.1 [10].

Oe opae ey acpa ax cce ao pocxeo ocyecec epe 8 pap yapae pexca aa ax (D0-D7). c c epep ycpoca coyc 24 oa - oa, oope cpypoa p 8-papx aaa A, B C. Hapaee epea opa pe pao x aao opeec popao. Ca RES o xoo ca aa C. Ca CS# cy opa C. A yeo ypoe oaae, o pocxee op ocy caa WR#, RD#, A0 A1. o aoy yeoy ae cao pooc ac (WR#) ee (RD#) ax (D0-D7). Hoep aaa (opa) opeeec apec papa A0 A1.

Oo A0 A1 oe cooecy apeca. opy A cooecye oa cao A0=0 A1=0, opy B A0=1 A1=0, oy C A0=0 A1=1. oa A0=A1=1 pae pecp ypaeo coa (PC).

C oe paoa pex ocox peax: 0, 1 2. Bpee 0 oeceaec oooc cxpoo popao ypaeo epea ax epe a eacx 8-papx aaa A B a 4-papx aaa C (C0-C3,C4-C7). Bpee 1 oeceaec oooc oa oa opa epepoe ycpoco eo epe a eacx 8-papx aaa A B o caa poa (caa ypae oeo opae). cao ypae coyec aa C.

Pe pao aoo opa A, B, C opeeec coep PC. poe ac ypaeo coa o pecp, oo epeec pocxey o pex peo pao: pe 0 - poco o-o;

pe - cpopye o-o;

pe 2 - yapae aa A.

p paoe pocxe pee 0 oeceaec poco o-o opa epe o pex aao, cao poa e peyec. Bo pee pocxea pecae coo cooyoc yx 8-papx yx 4-papx aao oa-oa. a aa oe apopapoa a o o.

Bo pee 1 epeaa ax ocyecec oo epe aa A B, a aaa C coyc pea a cao poa. Ec op A B paoa a o, o ca poa yy cey: C0 (xo) IRQb, C1 (xo) ACKb, C2 (xo) STRb#, C3 (xo) IRQa, C4 (xo) STRa#, C (xo) ACKa. Ca IRQ oo cooa opaa oea o pepa, ca ACK oepae oyee ax C o eeo ycpoca, cpo-ca STR# oppyec e ycpoco oepae coc ax a xoax opo A B. ec caa oaae aoo opa o paoae. Ec op A B paoa a o, o ca poa yy e ceyee cooece opy C: C0 (xo) IRQb, C1 (xo) STRb#, C2 (xo) ACKb, C3 (xo) IRQa, C7 (xo) STRa#, C6 (xo) ACKa. B ocax oax apae epea opo A B pacpeeee cao poa oope ye ece.

Bpee 2 oeceaec oooc oea opae c epep ycpoca epe yapae 8-pap aa A o caa poa. cao ypae oeo coyec 5 opa C. : C3 (xo) IRQa, C4 (xo) STR_RD#, C5 (xo) ACK_RD, C6 (xo) ACK_WR, C (xo) STR_WR#. ec RD WR oaa apaee epea oopoo paoae ca.

popapoae C oec oe poco. BPC acaec oo yx ypax co.

epoe coo (pc.8.2a) opeee pe pao apaee epea ax aoo opa. Bopoe coo paoae oo c opo C, ycaaae 1 cpacae 0 aa pap opa C.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 a) ) 1 0 x x x op A, C4 Hoep aee op C0-C C a 0 1-o, 0-o 00-pe 0, 000 C 01-pe 1, op B 001 C 1x-pe 1-o, 0-o 010 C 011 C op B, C0-C op A 0-pe 0, 1-pe 1-o, 111 C op C4-C 0-o 1-o, 0-o Pc 8.2 pae coa C ooey opa o popapoa C apaeoo oa-oa peax 1 2 oo a cpaoo epaype.

B epcoax oepax apae op ceapoa pao c pepo (epec Centronics). Oeoo popapoa e peyec [11]. Haae apeca opo: 378h LPT1, 278h LPT2, 3BCh a eoape ooxpooo ce. a op pepa ocyae p opa.

LPT1 o apecy 378h oec o 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ax a pep o ax c pyoo a ycpoc. ae e eppyc (pc.8.3).

o apecy 379h pacoaaec coo coco pepa D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D (pc.8.4). Coo coco ocyo oo e.

Bo 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Pc 8.3 op ax LPT 0 0 ERROR# (o 15) 0 = oa ypae pepo SLCT (o 13) 1 = pep pa cy ee o op c apeco 37Ah.

PE (o 12) 1 = e ya ACK# (o 10) 0= oo pey ceyeo coa 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 BUSY# (o 11) 0 = pep a oa 0 Strobe (o 1) 1 Pc 8.4 op coco LPT1oa epeaec a AUTO LineFeed (o 14) 1 - epeo cpo INIT# (o 16) 0 cpoc ycaoo pepa SLCT IN (o17) 1 op pepa IRQ Enable papeee aapaoo pepa o ACK#.

LPT1- IRQ 7 (INT 0fH), LPT2- IRQ 5 (INT 0dH).

PS/2 capx ATs 0=o epe op ax, 1=ee.

Pc 8.5 op ypae LPT ae oo opa ocy ac e (pc.8.5).

8.2 C TAMEPA popapye epa aep i8253 (P580B53/54) peae oy aoee ox poe o popoeccopo cce eepa ox peex epao, ypaex popao. Mpocxea oea o n-MO - exoo 24-oo opyce. Hapee a +5B. B coca C xo p 16 papx ax cea c acoo o xoy CLK (CLOCK) o 2 M. a ce oe paoa oo ec popao aax peo. Bce ce ocy ac e. oe epecea oe e o oo-ec opa [10].

C popapyeoo epaoo aepa (T) c ooea popoeccopo cce ocyecec epe 8-papy yapaey y ax D0-D7 o ypaee cao A0, A1, CS#, RD#, WR# (pc.8.6). p yxao oee oepa oc a: caaa acaec caec a a, ae cap. Ce paoa eaco py o pya. epe aao pao a ce popapyec, .e. CS T PC aca ypaee coo CW. o ce aa paoa eo RD eoxoo aca a oea epecea. oce aca a aycae ce. oceoaeoc ac oea ceya:

WR p ooao a cap, p yxao caaa A a, oo cap. oceoaeoc aa ceo A pooa. Hapep, caaa oo aca ypae coa PC cex pex ceo. ae o epe eoxooc cea aca eo oe.

D paee coo CW ee opa oaa a pc.8.7.

D D D 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 D D SC1 SC0 RL1RL0 M2 M1 M0 BCD D opa oa 0 o, 1 - BCD D Pe pao cea: 000 pe 0, 001 pe CLK 1, x10 pe 2, x11 pe 3, 100 pe 4, 101 G pe Out ee ac: 00 pe aea, 01 a a, CLK 10 cap a, 11 a, ae cap a G Out Bop cea: 00 ce 0, 01 ce 1, 10 ce 2, CLK 11 eoyca oa Out G Pc 8.7 opa ypaeo coa Pc 8.6 cooe paecoe ooaee C aepa Ce oy paoa oo ec peo, opeeex popao oae M2, M1, M0 ypae coe.

Peu 0 pepae o ooa cea. oce ac ypaeo coa CW a xoe Out ycaaaec yeoe aee (pc.8.8). oce apy oea DW ce aae a o aoy cpey CLK. p epexoe ae 0, xo Out ycaaaec ey. epeayc pooc p apye ox ax DW. Bxo G papeae apeae paoy cea.

CW=10 DW= WR# CLK G Out N N N 4 3 2 1 Pc 8.8 Bpeea apaa pao cea pee Peu 1 popapye oopaop. Bxo Out eeppye 0 o epoy cpey CLK oce poa G ce aae a. p epexoe cea 0 a xoe ycaaaec 1. oee poa G epeaycae ce (pc.8.9).

CW=12 DW= WR# CLK G Out 3 2 1 Pc 8.9 Bpeea apaa pao cea pee Peu 2 eepaop aco. Bxo Out ee yeoe aee oo eee ooo epoa xoo aco CLK (pc.8.10). epeapya cea e po ee eoc eyeo yca. po G aycae ce a o pao.

CW=14 DW= WR# CLK G Out 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 Pc 8.10 Bpeea apaa pao cea pee Peu 3 eepaop poyox yco. Bxo Out pae 1, oa e aoc oa ooa cea (pc.8.11). p eeo DW a poe (N+1)/ 2 ao yepaec 1 a poe (N-1)/2 ao 0. B ocao pe 3 aaoe pey 2.

Peu 4 popaa aepa cpoa. oce ac CW a xoe Out ycaaaec 1. ayc cea ocyecec oce ac DW. p oce y a xoe eeppyec yc o CLK (pc.8.12), a ce pooae paoa. epeapya DW po epeaycy. Ca G papeae apeae paoy cea.

Peu 5 aapaa aepa cpoa. Ce aae paoa oo o poy G (pc.8.13). Ho po epeaycae ey ce. B ocao pe pao aaoe pey 4.

CW=16 DW= WR# CLK G Out 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 Pc 8.11 Bpeea apaa pao cea pee CW=18 DW= WR# CLK G Out 3 2 1 Pc 8.12 Bpeea apaa pao cea pee CW=1A DW= WR# CLK G Out 3 2 1 0 3 2 1 3 2 1 Pc 8.13 Bpeea apaa pao cea pee ee opa aepa ooo e oaa ceo ocyecec y cocoa:

ye oe oo oepa e oa ceao oa oceyeo e (ee a ey).

p epo cocoe e oecee cax oaa (caec eya opa) paoa cea oa pocaoea ye oa a xo G ape oo ypo (pe 0, 2-4) opoae caa CLK.

Bopo coco e aaec o, o popac oe ca coepoe cea, e pepa poecc cea, ocpeco oepa ac opeeeoo ypaeo coa. B ypae coe pap D5=0, D4=0 yaa, o pooc oepa aea;

pap D7, D6 cya apeco opa aaa;

cocoe papo D3-D0 epao. Coepoe cea p opo cocoe e eaec ceye ope: oepa ac aeae eyee aee cea;

epa oepa e eae coepoe aeo aa;

opa oepa e eae coepoe capeo aa.

B epcoao oepe aep ee epe opa [11]. o apeca 40h, 41h, 42h 43h pacoaac ce 0, 1, 2 PC. popapoae aepa ecoo coee. o cao c ee ypax coax.

epoe ypaee coo CW1 aaoo paccopeoy CW (pc.8.7). Ho oa SC0=SC1=1, ooa opeee ee coco aaa. Ec pooc ee coco aaa (RBC), o peyec ac opoo ypaeo coa CW2 (pc.8.14).

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 op aaa (cea) oce ac CW2 PC, oo poa 1 op aaa (cea) coo coco SW. Eo 1 op aaa (cea) opa aaoe CW (pc.8.7), a cee STAT: 0 a cocoe aao, yx capx . D ooaaec FN 1 - e a cocoe aao cooecye ay epeapy oca.

CNT: 0 ao eyee cocoe, Pap D7 ooaaec OUT 1 e aoa eyee cocoe oaae cocoe xoa. Ta opao, coo coco oaae Pc 8.14 opa ypaeo coa CW2 (RBC) oe epecea, pe pao, opa e-ac, epeapyy oca cocoe xoa.

Ec coe CW1 e peec opa RBC, o paoa c aepo epcoaoo oepa e e oaec o pao c pocxeo i8253.

Taep 0, oepe, cy epe peex epao. Bxoa acoa 18.2 . Taep oe poooope, oop ooeo ypaec epe op c apeco 61h. D0 oo opa ypae xoo G2 (GATE2), a D1 (1/0) ae/ae a.

8.3 C HBEPCAHOO PEMO-EPEATA oceoaea c popoeccopx cceax peycapae oceoaey, o a, epeay ax. o c poo coyec epea ax ey ycpoca, pacooe oo oee, o ec ocooac oeo eeo , ay c oo ocyec a o pacco.

Cyecy a pea c: yec oyyec. B yeco pee oopeeo c epeae ax ycpoca A ycpoco B ycpoco Aoe ocyecc pe ax, epeaaex ycpoco B.

B oyyeco pee peycopeo peeoe paeee pea epea o oo .

oceoaea c opayec acxpo cxpo cocoa epea ax. Acxpoa epeaa ax o epeaa ax ocyecea epeypo. epea ooo coa oe aco coyec oaoa epeaa. Bpe ocye ax epecayeo, ooy aae epeaaex ax oea capo , a oe - coo . Ta opao, oa epea e, a ycaaaec cocoe oeco e. p epeae ax capo , pae y, a coo ee. oa pe oe ooo coooo a ee opo eoc aa. Ea epeaaeo opa aaec apo.

yc eoxoo epea aee 85h. opa apa ae 8 ax, opo eoc, a coox a. Bpeea apaa epea opa oaaa a pc.8.15.

O ap U Cap- D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 eoc cooa 2 co- a Pc 8.15 ap oceoaeo epeaaex ax p cxpoo epeae ax ee oceoaeoo ooa oeo opa epe a ax oc cxpoco. oeco cxpocoo, o a. Cxpoco ee ye y, o ae. cxpoo epea oa coy ooee ca ypae.

oceoae epec popoeccopx cce cpoc a ae yepcaoo cxpoo acxpooo peoepeaa (CA) aaooo i8250 (P580BB51A) [10].

Mpocxea P580BB51A - yepca peoepea, peaae aapao peaa oceoaeoo poooa oea ey popoeccopo ( py ycpoco, oopoe coe apopapoa ay pocxey a peye pe pao) aaa oceoaeo epea cpeo opa. Mpocxea peopaye apae o, oyae o epaoo poeccopa, oceoae oo coo co cye a ae y oceoaeoc oceoae aa c c pao copoc (acaa copoc pea/epea o oceoaeoy aay 64o, aa e opaea opeeec e ycpoca). Tae pocxea oe opaoe peopaoae: oceoae oo coo - apaeoe 8-papoe coo.

epeaaea paea opa p ea oe opopoac a eoc(eeoc).

Mpocxea popapyec a oee o cex pexc acoee pe poooo oceoaeo epea ax paoae yx peax: cxpoo acxpoo. Cxpo pe xapaepyec epep ooo epeaaeo (paeo) opa. ycaoe cxpoa ey epeao (peo) pocxe peo (epeao) eeo ycpoca ee oceoaeoo ooa coo oeo opa oo oc opye coa cxpoco, opaoa 5-8 peea cxpocoa coa ax oao. Bpeee poey ey coa aoc cxpocoa. oeco cxpocoo aaec popao (o a). p opoe eoc oce aoo coa caec opo. cooe ooaee C peeo a pc.8.16.

Haaee oo: D0-D7 - aa ax oea opae ey popoeccopo pocxeo;

RD# - ca e opa;

WR# - ca ac opa;

C/D# - ypaee/ae;

CS - op pocxe;

CLK ca apoa ypex cxe;

Reset - ycaoa cxooo coco;

TxD xo epeaa pocxe;

TxC - cxpoa epeaa;

TxEND - oe epea;

TxRDY - oooc epeaa;

RxD xo pea pocxe;

RxC - cxpoa pea;

SDET - yapae pexca popapye xo-xo;

RxRDY - oooc pea;

DSR (xo) - oooc eeo ycpoca epea D0 CA TxD ae;

DTR (xo) - apoc epeaa eeo ycpoca a D1 TxC epeay ax;

RTS (xo) - apoc pea eeo ycpoca a pe ax;

CTS (xo) - oooc eeo D2 TxEND ycpoca p ae.

D3 TxRDY popapoae C oec o ceye cxee.

D Caaa opeeec pe pao cxpo acxpo, D5 RxD oo pea opa apa copoc epea. ae D6 RxC oppyc ypae coa MI (cpy pea) CI (cpy oa). pae coa oo acac o D7 SDET eeoy apecy C (CI=0, CI= cpoc, MI, CI= papeee oa RxRDY oa). o oy e apecy caec coo coco SW. B RD acoc o oo o copaec ea epeaa WR DSR pa ae SW poepc cooecye . Ec C/D DTR pe (epea) oo paoe, o o eoy apecy C caec (acaec) a ax.

CS Ha pc.8.16 peeo ypaee coo MI. Ec 0 RTS opee cxpo pe, o 6 7 o ycaaac CLK CTS Reset Pc 8.15 cooe paecoe ooaee C CA oo pea. co 2 o 5 cxpoo acxpoo peax paoa oaoo.

cpy 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 oa (pc.8.17) papeae apeae Bop pea: 00 cxpo pe.

pe Acxpo pe:

Acxpo pe, (epeay), ooe 01 aop copoc 1:1;

oeco co :

cpoc 10 aop copoc 1:16;

00 e coyec;

o, 01 1 co ;

11 aop copoc 1: ycao 10 1.5 co a;

ayy oeco ax ape: 00 11 2 co a coppoa ;

01 6 ;

10 7 ;

11 8 apoc Cxpo pe:

oooc opo ax: 1 ec;

0 - e 00 2 cxpocoa ex ype cxpoa;

opo: 1 eoc;

0 - eeoc ycpoc.

01 2 cxpocoa e cxpoa;

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 1 cxpoco ype cxpoa;

SYNC RESET RTS ER T RxEN DTR TxEN 11 1 cxpoco e cxpoa Pc 8.17 opa ypaeo coa CI Pc 8.16 opa cpypea ae coa ceye: SYNC=1 oc cxpocoa;

RESET=1 ype popa cpoc;

RTS=1 apoc oooc pea eeo ycpoca (ooe xo C ee aee 0);

ER=1 cpoc o;

T=1 aya (0 e);

RxEN=1 papeee pea;

DTR=1 apoc oooc epeaa eeo ycpoca (ooe xo C ee aee 0);

TxEN=1 papeee epea.

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