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aa 21 Cxe ea 21.1 FEIGE-FIAT-SHAMIR Cxea poo oc poep ooc, papaoaa Aoco ao ( Amos Fiat) A a po (Adi Shamir), paccapaec [566, 567]. ...

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Oao opeeex ee (c 126.1 oo oya), ooe oo oya pe poaa py cocoa epea cpec oopo poyo oopoeo eeoc.

ac 121- epee oopye CA 121.1 Oe ooe. epee oopye CA Category XIIIooeoe oeoe capee (1) popaece (a ypaee a) cce, aapaypa, ocpy, oy, epae cxe, ooe popaoe oeceee c oooc oep cepeoc oeaoc opa opaox cce, poe ceyeo popaecoo oopyoa popaoo oecee :

(i)Ceao cpoepoaoe oe ae o opoa popa oeceee oo y eppoa p yco, o ypaee eppoae eocyo ooae.

(ii) Ceao cpoepoaoe, papaoaoe opoaoe cooa aax aocx oepa eex paa, oopoe oo cooa oo ax paa. Ma aocx oepa eex paa a aoaece accoe aapa, caoocyaee eaae yc poca, opoe epa oopyoae poa eaocx paa .

(iii) coyee oo aaooe eo popaeco opao, oopa oeceae eoacoc opa ceyx poex....

(iv) epcoae eeyae apo, cooae oopx ooo oo oopyoa cceax, e oaax o peypoae USML.

(v) C opaee ocya, ae a aoaece accoe aapa, caoocyaee eaae ycpoca opoe epa, oope oecea ay apoe epcoax eaox oepo (PIN) aaox ax, o peopa ecaopoa ocy cpeca, o e oy poa a ec, e ocpeceo e cae c ao apoe PIN.

(vi) Ocyecee oo poepy ooc ax c oo ce oa poep ooc coo e (MAC) aaoo y poep, o ec e o eceo ee, poep o o c ooaee, o oopoe e cooa poa ax, eca pyo opa oo eox o o poep ooc.

(vii) coyee oo cpoae eo ca opoa ax.

(viii) coyeoe oo paoea, aoo eee aaox eeox cce c opa eo ayope, e pooo poa, oopx pooe eppoae opaeo oo eo- ay o y ypaee.

(ix) popaoe oeceee, cpoepoaoe opoaoe a o oyex oepx opee, (apep, pyco).

(2) popaece (a ypaee a) cce, aapaypa, ocpy, oy, epae cxe, ooe popaoe oeceee c oooc eepa pacpocpaex oo ooo oeca cce ycpoc:

(3) popaece cce, aapaypa, ocpy, oy, epae cxe, ooe popaoe oeceee.

125.2 cop ecepex execx ax.

(a) Oe ooe. copa ecepex execx ax eoxoa e (DSP-5), ec ae e ce epyx peoa aoo oya. B cyae aooo a ea peoaaex cy c c o epea paee o peypoa poa cpec oopo cep execx ax.

oo peocaeo ce o execx ax e cycc.

(b) ae. p cope execx ax peyec e, aa paee o peypoa poa cpec oopo, ec ae pea eoxoe aoe ypee aeo a aoe ocpao aeo a, ec ype aa e a aoea. a a aeoae a pyeo, oee ax aeax yye, oa ooe o peypoac paee o aea opo aa CA cooec c 37 CFR, ac 5. cop execx ax, eoxox aeoa pyx cp a ax, ec cyeo op, aaex paee o aea opo aa CA, cooec c 35 U.S.C.

184.

(c) Pacp. ycoo, yaoo oyeaoo pacp execx ax paaa CA o cpa a peyec e, ec ao oye e ooopeo oe. e peyec eaco o op epea execx ax (apep, o, o eeoy, epece, epo cpeca, ..). e pe yec ax pacp, eaex paaa CA p ocee ocpax oaecx cc o cyc.

a aee. B o oyee aoo oe opa. Ec copaeec coppoa p o pa, coey a o eo o ocooac ycya pca, oop o ce o papae c.

B eceoc cop popaecx poyo opopyec NSA. Ec a yo oy ceeco o pa aeo poya peeo oeo opee ( Commodity Jurisdiction, CJ), o peca a poy a oopee NSA oa ocyapce eapae ay a o yee CJ. oce oope oceapaee eo oaae o pc Mcepca opo, oo poe oa ocoeo e epecoaoc popae. Oao ocyapce eapae oa e ac CJ e oope NSA.

B 1977 oy oe A. Meep (Joseph A. Meyer), cya NSA, aca co - ecaopoaoe, cooec c oao cope ea - IEEE, peypeaee, o apyeoe pecaee opao pao RSA apy ITAR. The Puzzle Palace:

Bo eo oa pe. ITAR oxaae c "ecepey opa, oopa oe cooaa, aa poaa cooa, p poepoa, pooce, ooe, peoe, aao peoe, epepaoe, ocpypoa, papaoe, ec, oepe occaoe" epecex aepao, ae a "y exoo, oopa paae opeeeoe yee coae ooe oac, oopa ee aoe oeoe peee Coeex aax." cop eceo a epeay opa a ceo e, a c oo ycx yax cpec, a pae ocye coy, a oopx pecae ocpa .

Ho, yao cey yaoy, aco co pocpaoy aooaecy, aec, peyec, o a, o copaec aca a o-o a ey, acayc epe oopye, caaa oy oopee ocya p ceoo eapaea - a ya epcea o poope epo opae peye oepe Bepxo cyo.

B oe oo NSA pao ec Meepa ecaopoa, paoa o RSA a oyo aa, a apoaoc. po opeaee e o pepo ax ec, xo oe oa ao, o x paoa yea oooc apyeo popa opao oe, e o-y, oy oaoe o oo.

cop popa ocyaec ceye ae NSA [363]:

popaece exoo cac eo a epeco aoao eoacoc, a o oece epec, oee epec epec ee o.

M e coac c ae, cea 7 a 1992 oa a cyax Cyeoo oea, oce ae ca, oope a, o cope ao CA ea aepac pa oaa cooa copeeoe poaoe oopyoae. Ha eeco o oo cyae, oa -a copx opae CA aepaco pe oea oaa cooa aapaypy poa yp cpa, aepaco pe o ee oepe oa oea cooa aapaypy poa a peea CA. B eceoc, NSA cea oepao cooae poa aepaco ece a ao opa a oa, a a pae.

copa pye cpa NSA, eec ac Mcepca oopo, (ece c ocyapce eapae o Mcepco opo pocapae cope e ocax exoo opaoo eoacoc, oaax o ece copoo paeceoo aooaeca Peypoa eyapooo paa opy. Aaoa ccea opo copa ecye o cex cpaax OOM o ox pyx cpaax, a a exoo oceeco cac a. He cyecye oeo apea a cop oox exoo, a c y a paccapaec oeo. p o oe opeoac oy e a ae cce, p oye oopx aapyec e copa o cce a epec aoao eoacoc - a epec ooeco, oeo oeco eoacoc. cope e ac e ac acoc o a aec o aoo oopyoa, peoaaeoo cooa peoaae oo ooae.

Ha aa oaae, o CA pye poo pooce cope exoo opaoo eoa c oc. NSA oope copa ce 90% pooecx poyo, apaex NSA ocyapce eap aeo epoa. cope e a poy opaoo eoacoc, oaae o p c Mcepca opo, ac e yac NSA Mcepca oopo. Cpe x - poy, coy e ae eo, a DSS RSA, oeceae poepy ooc opo ocya oepa ce. Ha cao ee, poo NSA pao ay po yceo ocaa ocae copoo opo a RSA exoo poep ooc. eo ocoeo a p pee poe xaepo eca opoaoo cooa pecypco.

a, aeo, o NSA opaae cop oo poyo poa, o e poep ooc.

Ec copaeec coppoa poy oo poep ooc, oyee papeee opa c eocpae oo, o a poy e e aex epeeo cooa poa.

oee oo, popaeca poeypa poyo poep ooc aoo poe, e poy o poa. cce poep ooc oya oopee oceapaea ( CJ), ccea poa peye oopoo oope ao epc poya ae p ao poae.

e CJ a pec apaa papeee a cop c pa, oa axoe coppoa p o y. ocyapce eapae e papeae coppoa poy c c poae, ae coye DES. Oee ce cea oepx p aepacx oa oooc apo c c, eoopx aocx poe cop oex ooaee CA. Accoa pooee popaoo oecee (SPA) ea epeoop c paeco o o c ae opae a cope. Coaee, aeoe SPA oceapaeo 1992 oy, oe o paa a copx e yx aopo, RC2 RC4, p yco, o a co yeoo a e pec 40 o. opooc oo a paee 7.1.

B 1993 oy aae pecaee Map ae ( Maria Cantwell) (D-WA) o poce oa papaoo popaoo oecee eca aoopoe, oca cop opo a p o paa. Ceaop Mppe (Patty Murray) (D-WA) eca cooecy ceae. aoopo e ae oae oey aoy o opoe a copo, poxoey epe opecc, o yae oeo o paee o c aee NSA. oa NSA o-y eae, oo paae ce yc - oe eoyo pooocoa a yaee opypo. a oceee pe e po pyoo cya, o pya aooaee o-o ceaa eoyo.

B 1995 oy a epe (Dan Bernstein) p oepe EFF oa cy a paeco CA, a c oea paecy opaa ya popaecx oyeo popaoo oec e e [143]. B ce yepaoc, o ao o copo opoe eocyo oc "eooee apope opae caa apyee epo opa". opeo ce yepaoc, o copee poecc opo a copo :

ooe popaa opaa ya e pee cya.

Oeceae co ao poeypx oooce a pa cooec c epo opa o.

Tpeye o aee pecppoac paece, coaa e "epoao pecc ".

Oaae ox yax, pey epoa aoo oyae.

ocaoo aya, o poce e o a, aoe oeee pao, a aoe - e.

Co pocpae, a a apeae oeee, oopoe o aaec (apep, paoop c o cpaa yp Coeex ao ).

peec co poo, apea cop popaoo oecee e coepaeo p o pa, cxo coopae, o popa oe oaea oe.

o apyae epy opay, apea ace ece o popa, a a paeco e ae eco oo aa ye co popaece .

Mo cocoa peae ooo, peocaee a opecco copo aoo a ece, a ocye.

Moo pee, o peee oo ea ae ecoo e, o pee, e oo aoc, e ooo.

Te e eee, ocya oe o eoacoc aeoc (Computer Security and Privacy Advisory Board), oa ocya NIST, ape 1992 oa pooocoa a o, o epecope aoao oe popaece opoc, a copy oy. o aeo, o c opa oa opeeec oo opaa, oea a aoay eoacoc, e yea o pe opaa, cax c pae opo. cae c aoao eoacoc o p aa ea ce ooo, o eo e eoc, o eoxooc epee ye apea.

25.15 cop op popa a pyeo B pyx cpaax cyecye coe copoe opoe pao [311]. pee oop eoo o oo ycape. Cpa oy a ao e opaa a x a, e e aoo, o a o opao opaa cop, op cooae.

Acpa peye a cepaa y oppyeoo popaecoo poya oo o p e oa cpa-copepa.

B aae e opo opa, a opo copa aaoe aepacoy. cop poyo aaa oe opae, ec o e epee opo copa, cooecy A y papee copa opa. B ooe popaecx exoo aaa ceye opa e OOM. poae ycpoca oca o aeope , ac a aacx pa copa. These provisions aao aeop paecex paax copa CA.

a coye cxey epoa oppyex poyo, copep o ao a y Mcepce apyeo opo. Ha ocoe acoo epe apeeoo opaeoo copa opa, poo 1987 oy, a opaae op cop ycpoc opo a pe.

Bo pa e ceaoo aooaeca ooceo opa popa, o cyecy a o, acaec poa cooa popa cpae. poy o cep poa: o o o cooecoa oyoa cea, o pea ce a oa oa peocaea paecy. paeco oe ae apeoa a ycpoca coceoo cooa. oa oa e a poay pop a o pa, e yaaec pooe aaee. ooaee oa e a oyy cooae popa, e eo ooee o o, o ooae o oo epea co paecy eee epex ece oce coo a . o opaee oa oycae ce : ao, ox oa, .. popa , coppyeo CA, eoe peoa ocycy.

epa ceye ooe OOM, pey epoa cop popa. pooc ce a opo oeocyoo popaecoo popaoo oecee.

B pae ec opae opa, o, o oy, o e ae ae.

e, a, o, Hepa Beopa cey ooe OOM, pey e poa cop popa.

B pa, , Mece, Pocc, Cayoco Apa, ca, o Ape, e e ap opo copa opa popa ocycye.

25.16 paoe opoc c poe oc aco oc ? yy o pa cyo? Heoope pea pee paoe cceoa pe e, o poe oc yy cooecoa peoa aox oyx oce oe ac pee, a oepecoe cooae, o peeeoe Eo coe aoo o opoe (Uniform Commercial Code, UCC). Peee pae o o e yxaep (GAD, General Accounting Office), eceoe o poce NIST, yepae, o poe oc cooecy pao caapa pyocx oce [362].

A o pox ocx aa a cy ece 1 a 1995 oa, oecea aoy ocoy c ooa pox oce ccee cyopooca. aop paccapae cooecy aoopoe, a Opeoe Baoe papaaa co ao. Texac opa a ao. oey a oco ao poe o y.

Aepaca peca accoa (Oe EDI opaox exoo ce ay ex ) papaoaa opae aa, oop oe cooa aa poecce aooopeca. A ae c ca poe oc cyecyy oce paoy pacpyypy : E co aoo o opoe, ao eepao peepo cce Coeex ao, oee pao o opaax o cx, oe OOH o opaa eyapoo poa oapo oe OOH o eyapo aoa o oeax o pa oo oaeca. B a e ooe o oece o c oaocx ceppyx opao, opoc oeceoc, a ae opae oa.

B Coeex aax ao o ocx, opaax opox oepax axoc pc a o, ooy o a-opae papaoa ao. Ooaeo e ec eepa a, o ec ce aaec a ypoe ao, y NSA ee oooce ce coa.

ae p o, oa paoc pox oce e ye ocopea cye, x paoo cayc oc a ec eopeee. oo, o poe oc oaa e e eao oo o c, o pyoce oc, o caaa o cooa oca aooo, ae ocope cye oo copo. Toa cy paccop eoacoc cxe oc ece peee. Cyc eoopoe pe, oa oopc oo cya, pee o o, ae eo poo oc ae paep e oaoc, o poa oc a paa aoo, ye eceo a ocoe peyx pee. Booo oo opeyc o.

o ex op, ec a eoea xo cooa poe oc opaa( ao a oyy, pao o paoe, ..), peoeyec, o o oca a yae opa, c oopo o co a ac yye paa e oye, ocae x po oc [1099]. B o oy ee o opeec aop, paep a ce ocae apaep. B e oe, oy e, opeee coco papee copo.

ocecoe Ma ea O cax oacx oeo poo (, ceoaeo, ao ), ec o, o a o yaec ep ee. ae e, cocoo paoe a oe poaaecx e oo ooe oe ( ocyc acoe eop poepoa po ) " oe pao", e oxo cp opeoo pa. Co e coa epao cooa oe aece oe ep eoacoc cce. B peao pe y oa ec ya oe oooce, e cooae ooo poaaa. aco ycex ocaec c oo cp poooo, pocx oe, pyco, epoaoo opo, eco opoea, aaa aya aee a, oo oepaoo cce pax popa, aapax oo, oo ooaee, ecoo ocya, pao cooo, aa coepoo cao, o aeo e ce.

Bcooaecee p pooo c a cpeca, o ca o cee o e ae peacx, pecx pae o o, o eceo yo a, a oy o a pae ypo oopo (o, oe oo, peo opaac c, xopoo ope e e oe ayoo pa). Pocc Aepco (Ross Anderson) po pep popaec c x cce ( aoco ycp), oope e yco epe ypoa peaoo pa [43, 44]. ae oa y oa ec ocy oo poecy, epe ayec eae pe pyx acx c c e oe pococ ocaoo opa, o cea xopoy poccey ecoeo. Co o opo poo oe oa pa eeo , a opao aeo coy o oepaopo [1587].

NSA oe a opoc, oe paeco cpa DES, eo aeo, o peae cc e acoo eeoac, o o o ae e co ecooc. coae, e cyecye pocx pe eo, a cea ccey eoaco, ae aeoe poepoae pec aa eoo o. Xopoe pocce ea oa aoo pyee, e aooo ooae, o o e a ooe o cex ocax aceo eoacoc oepo cce c. Paccop ceye (aepa e ce) "ec ax ypo eoacoc peax cce ", ay oopx ee ocyec, e peopa.

1. eaoe cocoe popaoo oecee. Bce eco, o o e ae, a ca p o paoe oeceee. Copeee cce co, a co c cpo oa, a x oe ope eoacoc. popax oye, cax c eoacoc ea o ee pyee.

2. Heea aa po cp c oao o ycy. B eoopx popaecx po o oax oycaec aooc. cooae aox poooo oe ocoeo oa c , ec o yea oooc eooaoo aaa apy peocaee ycy ooy aoe cce o ocoeo yco cp c oao o ycy. B yc ox cex oepa aooc oe ee - e p oo-o co oye ae oo aox xox oe oce ycox cee, ax a eeo a ce ooa ccea, e oeoy ooae ooceo pyo ( opoo) a pyoacae aap.

3. He eca xpae cepeo. pocce aa oe cepe a (a). coae, copeee oep e ocoeo xopo a ae aex cepeo.

Mooooaece ceee paoe ca oy oa, a x a - copoe poaa. Oeo coe, ooooaece a oy ypae copoep o a pyca, oope opay acxpoy yey cepeo. aee cepep, e oe e ooae, oeo apoy pay (o c. ypoy 5), peca coo ocoeo pyy poey.

4. oxa eepa cyax ce. e ceacox epeex y xopoe co epecayex o. po paoaeo oepa ea, o peoe poee coco pao cooa ee. o peoeo oeco eoo oya co cyae ca popa opao (coyc epecayeoc pee oe oepa oa oa, pacxoe aoo aco aepa, ae ypyeoc oyxa yp opyca epoo ca), o ce o oe yce eae ee cpe, oopx o coyc.

5. Cae apoe pa. oco popaecoo popaoo oecee peae p o e xpae eepa e a ocoe coaaex ooaee apox pa, oope cac ocaoo epecaye eepa xopoeo eoo aepaa, oope ae eo aoac ooy e pey eoacoo xpae. B o pe, a coape cp c xopoo eco poeo opox apoe, o cocoax cp e, coax a ocoe pax ooae apox pa, eco ao. eo oaa, o po acoo eca y oe 1 a a co, o, o oy, ooe co oa po apox pa pyy cy. Oao oa e oe oo, oo a yop o a apoe pa. oa e paepec a ceye, a cpa apoe pa, e oe, acoo o ca c.

6. Hepaoe oepe. o ce ocyoe popaecoe popaoe oeceee peo a ae, o ooae axoc eocpeceo oae c cceo oyec ae cocoo ocya. Hapep, epec popaa, oo PGP, peoaa, o x a poe pa ocya o ooae o aeoy y, apep, c oao oco. Ho o e cea a, paccop poey e a poao o p oe o ce.

To, o poepo cce cae ae, oe e cooecoa opeoc o a peax ooaee, ocoeo oa popa oeceee oo ypa y a eo o eeoac aaa.

7. oxo oaeoe aoece poooo ycy. C poco ycoee cce aco po c xo cpae e, ae pyo o-y o o-y, ae oa pooe aa y aap. ep Internet pacpocpac c oo yaoo c y oe eoo cpe ca popa epea o. Coo ee oooce ao oece popa oa a eoa cec, oope oo y coeo o p?

8. Hepeaca oea ypo pca. cep o eoacoc cpec coeppoa co yc a ypoax, oope eco a oepoa peopaa. coae, o o cp a ae cocex a, e oac peo coaa. Co o o "eoacx" cce o cpoepoao e yea peao oox ec oa.

9. epec, oope ea eoacoc opoo eyoo. Ec yo cooa cpeca oecee eoacoc, o o o yo ocaoo popa, o eceo ooac . Hepyo cpoepoa exa poa, oope pa o a oo a ce pooeoc poco cooa, ee ee coa exa, oop poopye o. eoacoc oo pyee , e ;

eca c, eoe cce eceo a p aoa.

10. Co ceoee peoa eoacoc. a poea xopoo eca o ce, e cace cao c poae poyo ycy eoacoc. oa cyecye poo pacpocpae oe peoae ceoee eoacoc, cpeca pacpyypa, oeceae eo pe a a, yy opo eocy ox poe. aco o poea oa pacp ypo oacoce peax poex, a aco poea poepoa cce, oopx eoacoc e aaaec aao, a oaec oe.

oee o cco ocyee oox ypo oe eo ao y aoo e paepa, p o poea ye ea apoya. o eae x ocoeo py oac, a o o, o e cyecye aoo aecoo cocoa ac o x, poe xopoeo aaa xopoe eepo pao. eco popa oe oya pa cycca.

M e H-op

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