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ac 2 popaece eo aa 7 a a 7.1 a cepoo a eoacoc cepo pocce ec ye yx aopo: aeoc aopa a. ep

oee ae, o po opoo ee poeocppoa.

yc aeoc aopa coepea. Ha pae oo peao pyo ocy, o pepe ocaoo eo. o coepeco opayea ocyce yeo y oa pocce, e cpe pyo co c oo epeopa cex oox e.

oe aoo cp poaay peyec ycoe poeca cooecyeo o poo eca, cpe pyo co pecae coo cpe c ec op eco. o oo pa poaay oaoc o poeca cooecy op ec : oo 64 a. aoy ae yco opoo eca poeca ee, e oo cee peca. poa a oe oy a-o opao o opoo eca cooe epexa cooecy poec. O oe a o-o o opae poeca : apep, o o a opae WordPerfect, y eo ec caap aooo cooe epoo o, a aaoa UNIX, opae e opae TIFF, caapa ac ae ax eo. Bce opa coepa eoope peopeeee a. poaay aoo cp e yo oo opoo eca.

Pacca cooc cp pyo co epyo. Ec coyec 8-o , o cyecye 28, 256, oox e. Ceoaeo, oapye paoo a opeyec, caoe o ee, 256 oo, c 50-poeo epooc a y oce oo oo. Ec a a paa 56 a, o cyecye 2 oox e. Ec oep oe poep o e ceyy, oc yoo a ae cpee 2285 e. Ec coyec 64-o , o oy e cyepoepy oaoc ooo 585000 e, o a pa cpe 2 oox e. Ec a a paa 128 a oc a ae 1025 e. Bopac ceeo cocae ceo e, ooy 1025 e - o ooe pe. p 2048-oo e o oepo, paoa apae o poep o e ceyy, opa 10 e ocax a. oy pee ceea ao pacpc, pepac o coec.

pee e ac opea poccey c 8-oa o, coe, o pyo copoo ec aeoc: aop oe acoo eoace, o yeo cocoa, e cpa eo pyo co, e cyecoao. o e a poco, a oe oaac. popa - o ooe cycco.

Be coepe pocce aco oaac peao ca. apa ee, e cex ce pocce, oe peo oca x. popaa-e ceye oepa o apaoaoy coe a o aop. ye oep aopa, a oop oa c poeccoae popa, e cye oa x, e ooac yepe ocpyopo aopo o x paoo eoacoc.

Bcoe a oe paea 1.1: eoacoc pocce oa ocoac a e, a e ocoeocx aopa. peoo, o poaay ec ce opooc aeo aopa.

peoo, o y eo ec coo poeca, coo ey yo, o o oaec o e coe cpe c cooae oo poeca. peoo, o o oaec o cpe c cooae opoo eca, e coe pacope coo ax, coo ey yo. peo o ae, o o oaec o cpe c cooae paoo opoo eca. Ec a a poccea ocaec eoaco ae epe o cex oox oacoce, o... y ac eceo o-o ec.

Hecop a o peypeee pocpaco, peocaeoe popae aepa, ocaoo eo. B eceoc, eoacoc aoo a o ox paecx cyax e ya. o ca pao e ax a cex cpec, a y ox paec, a e, o oaae a oooc, oe oaac ey aa ay poccey. Ec opayee a oop c e cepy ooe paeco, poepee pae aop, peee oe o , yy ac eo eoxo. A ce ocae yc poco oya yooc e.

Oeu peeu u cmouocmu cpmu pyo cuo Bcoe, o cpe pyo co oo ec cpe c cooae ecoo opoo eca, oo yo eoo poeca cooecyeo opoo eca. Ec peoaaee, o aoee e cocoa oa aopa ec cpe pyo co - ooe oyee o oe ocaoo , o cea cpe eoo. Hacoo ?

Copoc cp pyo co opeeec y apaepa : oeco poepex e copoc poep ooo a. oco cepx aopo aece a oy co o a aece a y oy oceoaeoc cpoao . a a DES coca e 56 , ceo oe 256 oox e. a e pa aopo, ocyaex o e, pa 64 a, ceo oe 2 oox e. pye aop coy 128-oe .

Copoc, c oopo oe poepe a , ee eee aoe aee. poooo aaa peoaa, o copoc poep a aoo aopa pepo oaoa. B ec eoc copoc poep ooo aopa oe a, p ae ec pa e e pyoo.

Ho a a ex e, oopx poo oc, pe oca o pa oe, e pe poep ooo a, eoe o copoc poep e e ae.

B pooeco cpee oco copo o ooy cp pyo co coeppoa opy aopa DES. B 1977 oy Map Xea [497] copypoa yco cyecoa ceapoao a o oy DES. a aa coco oo pocxe, aa o o px poepe o e ceyy. Taa aa a a aca coe poep 256 a 20 aco. p cp aopa c 64-o o poepa cex 264 opeye 214 e.

aaa cp pyo co a yo ceao pyaa apaex poeccopo. a poeccop poepe ooeco pocpaca e. poeccopa e yo oeac ey coo opae, ece coye cooee ye cooee, capyee o ycexe. He pe yec ocy ooy yacy a. Cocpypoa ay c oo poeccopo, a o o px paoae eaco o pyx, epyo.

Cocpypoa ay oa pyo co Ma Bep pe [1597, 1598]. (O cocpypoa ay DES, o aa oe oe o cex aopo.) O papaoa ceapo ae pocxe, a co, oe apa cea o, o a o oapo oo ocp o ay, oopa coe oa 56- DES key cpee a 3.5 aca ( aepa a 7 aco).

Coooee cooc/copoc ec e. pa e ae ooe 6-.

Bcoe o aoe Mypa: o cex cpec peo ae 18 ece. o oaae, o apa yy yeac a opo ae e, o, o 1995 oy co o oapo, 2000 oy ye co ooo 100000 oapo. Ee oee ypoc poecc ce oa oeep a [724].

56-ox e cy oaac oe o apay ocy pyx opopa o pa opaa. Boee e oca poeo pax cpa oy oo aa 64-e . Bcpe 80-oo a ce ee a peea oooo, o ec eya ee coxpac, o epe ax-y pa e ce oe ec.

oeo, eeo poopoa oepy o a 35 e epe. Texooece pop, oy pe ayo aace, oy cea poo ce. C pyo copo, eece a coee pe ece opae oy cea poo epeao oc. B popa yee eccco. peee aope 80-oo a aec eocaoo ao.

coye , a oopoo, o ee epe, 112 .

Ta. 7-1.

Oe cpeeo pee aapaoo cp pyo co 1995 oy.

a e ax Cooc 40 56 64 80 112 $100 2 cey 35 aco 1 o 70000 e 1014 e 1019 e $1 M 0.2 cey 3.5 aca 37 e 7000 e 1013 e 1018 e $10 M 0.02 cey 21 ya 4 700 e 1012 e 1017 e $100 M 2 cey 2 y 9 aco 70 e 1011 e 1016 e $1 0.2 cey 13 1 ac 7 e 1010 e 1015 e $10 0.02. cey 1 ceya 5.4 y 245 e 109 e 1014 e $100 2 pocey 0.1 cey 32 cey 24 108 e 1013 e $1 T 0.2 pocey 0.01 cey 3 cey 2.4 107 e 1012 e $10 T 0.02 pocey 1 ceya 0.3 cey 6 aco 106 e 1011 e Ec o oe co xoe oa , ce, o ey yo, o opa e.

Ceoaeo, co oac opee ay "ey" a: peeax ao cooc cee oo ooac o o pee, e eo cpe cae ooec o ? pa cya: ec poaoe cooee co $1.39, o e acooo cca ycaaa aapaypy co oc 10 oo oapo oa oo a. C pyo copo, ec cooc opoo eca 100 oo oapo, o eppoae oo oooo cooe oe oy cooc aapa y p oa. poe oo, cooc ox cooe co peee oe cpo aae.

popaoe cpmue e ceapoao aapayp opox apaex a cpe pyo co aoo coee. popaoe cpe c pa eeee, e aapaoe.

Peaa ypoa popaoo cp pyo co cpaa e coe eeoc, a e, o aoe cpe "cooo". Heo e co apy pocaa pooep poepo oox e. Ec pa ye ae - aeaeo, ec e - eo e oepo. Heo e co c ooa oo ey ce pooepo. B eax cepeax c DES 40 paox ca eee ooo cye poep 234 e [603]. p o copoc poep cex e ope y ec epe oa e, o ec o cp yy pep ocao oeco e, o oy-y e-y oee. a o caao [603]:

Ocoo ypoo popaoo cp ec ceoe eee. pecae cee yepcecy ce 512 o e ex ce paox ca. eoopx yepcecx opoo o ce eca cpeeo paepa. Tae ce oy ae pacoc o cey py, ooppy co eeoc o epoo oe. yc aa paoa ca cocoa paoa (c aopo) co copoc 15000 poa ceyy.... C yeo aax pacxoo a poepy cey e ye copoc o... 8192 poepo ceyy a ay. o, coy ocay ccey, ce p a pocpaco (56-ox) e opeyec 545 e ( peooe, o ce pa a y aay 24 aca cy). ae, oao, o c oo ax ce copo aeo cyea oya o ac 200000 pac p eee ooo . a o ye x ac opaca o ooo ecec ec c. e c pee x aapaypa, e oe aecoao a, e ye caoc x ac. Bepooc apaoa a , pa a caax, ecoa, o pae e p ao coo pecc-pe. pepy, o opao oa epooc, e oooc pa paecex oepex. "O a o"? "O pa a cy e "?

oe eooo c oo oeceoc ea ae ae. ec pee o pooac pc?

cooae aopa c 64-o o eco 56-ooo a eae o cpe 256 pa coee. A 40-o eae apy poco epaoco. Ce 400 oepo c pooe oc 32000 poa ceyy oe a e o cpe py oo 40-ooo a.

(B 1992 oy aop RC2 RC4 o papeeo coppoa c 40- o o - c. pae 13.8.) 128-o eae eeo ae c o cp py oo. o oee poex c epo 1996 oy pe ye cooac 200 oo oepo. a oea ae ce - acoo pea Cray o oox oepo. ae ec ce oep yy poe a cpe pyo co, a x ye o o poa ceyy, pe pacp a ce pao ye o pa oe pee cyecoa ceeo.

Hepoe cemu Hepoe ce e co po poaaa, epy oepe -a op pocpaca p e e. ye ceo epoe ce paoa c poea, e epepoe oeco pee, o oopx ye pyx. o ooe epo ce oyac, peaa ce yee ye p e e. Ocyce epepoc aope o e ocae eca oye : o pacpoee , o e. (o pae epe, o epo p cooa oo xopoeo aopa.) Hepoe ce xopo o paoa cpyyppoax cpeax, e oyee ooo, o e coopoo, ayec cya pe popa.

Bupyc Caa oa pyoc oye oo oepo cp py oo - o ye o oepx aee p yace o cp. B o eo opoc, o o peye oo pee, o oy caa e. B o pooa co opac x oep, o o opeye ee oe pee oe aoc a apeco. B o ae cooa o ep pyc, o pacpocpa popay oa cpe a oo oeo oeca o e po.

a ocoeo oapa e epe oac [1593]. Bo e ycae a o oe p pyc. o pyc e epeopapye ec c, e yae a, o o pe poco oepa o paoae a poaaeco poeo pyoo oa. Pae cceoa oaa, o o ep pocaae o 70 o 90 poeo pee, a o y pyca e ye poe c peee pee o aa. Ec o epeoaee pyx ooex, o eo paoa ae e ye aea.

B oe oo, oa aa aec a pa . B o oe ec a apaa p o oe. Bo epx, pyc o opo pyo pyc. O e ea eo, poe caoocpoee yae cex aex o cpaeo pyca, o coepa opa o pao e.

o o pyc poco pacpocpac cpe oepo, oa e opac o oepa eo e a, oop aca epoaa pyc.

py, pyc oxoo a o a pa ceyeo cooe :

B o oepe ec cepea oa. oayca ooe 1-8001234567 poye oepaopy ceyee 64 ooe co:

xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx epoy, o coo o o oe ye aeo oapaee 100 oapo.

Hacoo eo aoe cpe? yc apae oep poepe cy e ceyy. a copoc aoo ee oeax oooce oepa, e oaae, o o oa ye ea pye e. peoo ae, o pyc pye 10 oo a. o pyc oe cp 56-o a 83 , a 64 o - a 58 e. Ba ooo p oc oy papaoo apycoo popaoo oecee, o o ye a poe. oe yeee copoc oepo pacpocpae pyca, oeo, ceao o aaee oee e.

umaca omepe aca oepe - eec, o oo coco coa poao apaeo a poaaa [1278]. Boopae, o pocxea, cpaa aop pyo co co copoc o poepo ceyy, cpoea a poa paope eeop. aa pocxea ap o papoaa aoaeco poep paoo aopa e oce oye ap op ec/poec o py. a pa oa acoe paeco xoe pacp , oo epeae cxoe ae o pao. Bce paope eeop cpae aa xe. B oeo cee, pa oec a e-y cee. acoe paeco a p oy eoey o apapye, o peya ye cooe cpo pao, ae cococye pooy ycexy p a opeo eeopo c pocxea cp.

Ec y aoo eoea ae, y o ya, ea peeo, ec paope ee op, o paoe aee 56-ooo a oc epe 61 ceyy. Ec paope eeop ec oo y aoo ecoo aa(o o eceoc), o pa oc epe y. pa 64-o ye pacp epe 4.3 aca (43 aca, ec paope eeop ec oo y aoo ecoo aa).

o cea aoe cpe oo a pae, eoxoo cea p oa. Bo epx, poe, o aa pocxea poepa cyae, a e yae . o ceae cpe a 39% eeee, o e oe ao ce aoo acaa. ae, aca oyceca ap oa p peee, o a oe a co pe eeop opeeeoe pe, o apapoa paoy cex pex ycpoc o pe epea ap op ec/poec. Haoe, aoy oo paao oo ep - a o a aaec - oa oec y eo a pae aa cpoy ce, oyc a pae.

eoc aco oepe pax cpa pax a oaaa 5-. co, o a oaac ye ooe, ec y aoo aa - y, e peea - a co pe eeop. B Coeex aax e ee e, o opao oe aapayp.

a Bao caocoeo coe oa 56-o ee, e a e.

Ta. 7-2.

Oe cpeeo pee cp pyo co p aco oepee (Bce ae World Almanac and Book of Facts a 1995 o.) Cpaa Haceee oeco eeo- Bpe oa po/paopeo 56 64 a a 1190431000 257000000 280 cey 20 aco CA 260714000 739000000 97 cey 6.9 aca pa 19890000 4730000 4.2 aca 44 pa 5051000 3640000 5.5 aca 58 e Bao 470000 1330000 15 aco 160 e Beya, Heaa 6100 17300 48 e 34 oa uomexoou Ec ooo coae opocxe, o o yo e oac cooa x cpyea poaaa cpe pyo. Paccop oeecoe ooe, aaeoe "DESoapo" [1278].

Oo coco ooecx eo, yex poep ooe . ap "op ec/poec" ocya e o eoopoy oecoy aay (e , ce e popa ). Pee ocac opaa pe DESoapa c oo ceax eo, yeecyx o poeoco ccee ooo.

T oap coco 1014 eo (e aep). Ec aa x oe o p o a ceyy (eoxo peya), cpe 56-ooo a ae ce eccx cey.

Bcpe 64-ooo a opeye ee, e e ecx cey. Bcpe 8-ooo a ce e poc 1011 e.

pyo ooec oxo coco cooa eeec poepyex poaaecx opcx oopoce, oope ye o cpe popaecx aopo pyo co [1278].

Tae opa, op oy oac, oo coa pacpeeey ay c o o e co poeccopo. apa "op ec/poec" oa epeaac o pao epe cy. O a pyee peyaa opao oo cypoa eae e e e, cooa peee opao a cy.

peoo, o a ea opco oopoc - o y co copoo 10 po (ooo, o oea cepxy, ceoaeo 1015 eo ao yec ep. Bece x oea, opa apax (518 apax oepo) a yy o ep (o a poe, a ocyec o - oa oo e), y ac ye 10 oopoce (oee e coe apa aoo), aax oeae. ( cpae, aepa Valdez eo 10 oo aoo e.) Ec aa x oe poep o e ceyy, o 128-ooo aopa o pacpo oo cyc e. (Boee p o eee opcx oopoce - o aa poea.) pye oce cp o ec opcx oopoce, x aep ae paep a oeae oy aeo ye a e. ae e cpaae e o aoexoo.

Tepouauecue opaueu O cec aoa opoo epoa ec o, o pecae opa eo xoo eoopoe oeco ep. ac oooo a, ea cocoe cce, peye o eca ep e ee e kT;

e T - acoa eepaypa cce k - ocoa oaa. (He oyec, ypo ye o aoe.) p, o k = l.38*10-16 p/K, o eepaypa opyae ceeo 3.2K, ea oep, pa oa p 3.2K, ope 4.4*10-16 pa c pa, oa o ycaaae cpacae . Paoa oepa p eepaype oee o, e eepaypa ocecoo pocpaca, opeoaa o oex pacxoo ep ooa ea.

aee, ep, yaea a Coe a o, cocae ooo 1.21*1041 po. o ocaoo oe 2*1056 epee a ae eao oepe, a oo, co oepe, xa oo, o 187-o ce poea ce co ae. Ec ocpo opy Coa cepy acoa ep e xa e cx oep c eo ep a 32 oa, coe oy oep ce ce. oeo, ep poee ax-y oex ce c ceo ye e ocaec.

Ho o oo oa aa ea. p pe o cepxoo eec ooo 10 po. (B co pa oe ep eec e epo, o yc o oa ea.) Ec c y ep yacc poc a oy cey op, o ce co ae coe p 219-o ce.

ca e e eo oeo c cao aapaypo, o poco oaa acae ae, oycoee epoao. poe oo, ca ao eocppy, o cpe pyo co 256-ooo a ye eooo, oa oep ocpoe oo aep pacoaac oo pocpace.

7.2 a opoo a Ooapaee y ocyac paee 2.3. Ooapaeo ye ec yoee yx ox pocx ce, oy poeee, epeo ca, epyo, o eeo pao p o eee a oe oy a ox pocx ca (c. pae 11.3). popa c op a coye y e coa ooapaeo y c o. Ha cao ee, o o, e oaao, o paoee a oe ec eo poeo (c. pae 11.4). Hacoo ceo eco, o oxoe a pay. ae ec o a, o e oe oaa, o pye poe ec eo py. Bce ca, o paoee a oe ec pyo aae, o o oa e o oaao aeaec.

Ha o co ocaoc oopoee. eo peca, o e epe 50 coepec ece, co a capoe opoe pe, oa ce ca, o paoee a oe o py eao o c oe popa, a pae oa ea oo e. eo oopa, o yye oce eop ce ypoc paoee a oe oce eop cooc cea paoee a oe pa. He p ep o - oco e, ax ocaoo, o e coceoe ee, cae a, o oooe pae co ec aoepo - o e p ep, o aoo popa e cyc.

B o cyae, opye ceo aop poa c op o ocoa a py o c paoe a oe ox ce, oope c poeee yx ox pocx ce.

(pye aop ocoa a a aaeo cpeo poeo oapa, o oa peoo, o e pe e e paccye.) aop ae ocp cp pyo co, o o paoy. Bo x aopo coco e epeopa cex oox e, a oo paoe ox ce a oe ( cpex oapo oe oo oeo oac - oo aa e poea). Ec co co ao, a e ae. Ec co ocaoo eo, o aeo ae po ce ceo o pa, ec oa ye c a o aae c aco eo pee o ex op, oa Coe e cae cepxoo - aoo ceoee oae aea o poe. B paee 11.3 paoee a oe paccapaec aeaec opoo, a ec op a yc oeo pee paoe a oe ce pao .

Paaa oe ca a oe eeo, o, ecac poepoo aopo, o poecc caoc ce ee. o ee xye, o caoc ee oe copoc, e pecaaoc aeaa. B 1976 oy Pap a (Richard Guy) ca: " eao ye, ec o-y ayc paaa a oe pooe ca opa 10 eee aoo coe" [680]. B oy Po Pec (Ron Rivest) a, o paoee a oe 125-papoo ca opeye 40 a poo e [599]. B 1994 oy o paoeo a oe 129-papoe co [66]. Ec oo oo cea ae-o o, o oo o, o pecaa yo.

B 4- pee peya paoe a oe a oce y e. Ca cp ao po paoe a oe ec apaoe peeo (c. pae 11.3).

ca co ya. Ceo 512-oe ca ye coyc oepaox cceax. Pa o ee x a oe, oa opoea, a opao, cce a, oe peao. ep Internet o cea o eee yea.

Ta. 7-3.

Paoee a oe c oo "apaoo peea" co ecx pap- Bo coo pa coee pao o o paoeo ce a oe 512-ooe co 1983 71 >20 oo 1985 80 >2 oo 1988 90 1989 100 1993 120 1994 129 Bcea o oo epec mips-oax: ooa paoa oepa, oeo o oepa ceyy (one-million-instruction-per-second, mips), ooo 3*1013 oepa. po, o a a c pooeoc 1 mips-o aea VAX 11/780 oa DEC. To ec, mips-o - o o pao oepa VAX 11/780 aeoo. (100 M Pentium - o aa 50 mips, a Intel Paragon 1800 yo - pepo 50000 mips.) B 1983 oy paoee a oe 71-papoo ca peoao 0.1 mips-oa, 1994 oy paoee a oe 129-papoo ca opeoao 5000 mips-e. Tao e ceo ooc o y coe, ocoo, eee pacpeeex ce, coyx pe poco ce paox ca . o oxo peoe oo Cepao ( Bob Silverman) ooc papaoa Apao e cpo (Arjen Lenstra) Mapo Maacco (Mark Manasse). B 1983 oy paoee a oe cooao 9.5 aco poeccopoo pee a eceo oepe Cray X-MP, 1994 oy paoee a o e ao 5000 mips-e cooao pe poco 1600 oepo o ce pe eee p eo oc ece. Copeee eo paoe a oe oo cooa ooe pacpeeee ce.

apa ae pooae yxyac. Ho aop paoe a oe - peeo oeo o ce - ae apaoe peeo. B 1989 oy aea caa a, o peeo oeo o ce oa e ye e paecoo ae. B 1992 oy o coo , o oo peayeo, o ae p o cpae c apa peeo oo ce co 130-150 ec papa o x. Ceo eco, o o o aop cpee, e apaoe peeo, ce aeo ex, e 116-pape [472, 635]. Peeo oeo o ce oe pao a oe 512 ooe co 10 pa cpee, e apaoe peeo. Ha 1800-yoo oepe Intel Paragon oe e oo aopa ao ee oa. B 3rd oaao oeco mips-e, oopoe peyec pao e ce pax paepo p cooa copeex peaa peea oeo o ce [1190].

Ta. 7-4.

Paoee a oe c oo peea oeo o ce oeco Coo mips-e yo paoe 512 768 2* 1024 3* 1280 1* 1536 3* 2048 3* poe oo, peeo oeo o ce caoc ce cpee cpee. Maea opea oe p, oa, eo, e p ca, o a ee oopec. aop, peeo ceaoo o ce, ye oe paaa a oe ca opeeeo ceapoao op oo e coyee popa - opao cpee, e peeo oeo o ce oe pao a oe e ca oo e paepa. Payo peoo, o peeo oeo o ce oe opoao, o oc ao e copoc [1190], ooo, o NSA ye ae, a o cea. B 2- oaao oeco mips-e, peyeoe paoe ce pao p oo peea ce aoo o ce [1190].

Ta. 7-5.

Paoee a oe c oo peea cea oo o ce oeco Coo mips-e yo paoe 512 < 768 1024 3* 1280 3* 1536 2* 2048 4* B 1991 oy yac ceapa Epoecoo cya eoacoc cce ( European Institute for System Security) coacc, o 1024-ox oye ye ocaoo eoo xpae cepeo o oa [150]. Oao, o peypea: "Xo yac oo ceapa c y ceaca cooecyx oacx, o aee (o ooy cpoa eoacoc) oo ocpo c ocopo oc." o xopo coe.

popa cepxocepae p ope opx e. o o, acoo a ye, a pec oe yy eoacoc pe a, e aa o eye coco cycca paaa a oe. o oy o e ypoe eoacoc, oop aao 512-ooe co aae ocecx, ceo a oaoc 1024-ooe co. Ec e xoe, o a ocaac eoac ae 20 e, 1024-ooe co, o oy, co opoo.

ae ec a opee cepe e co yc, yx paoe aeo oy, oee oaac oacoc. pecae cee aoaecy aocy ccey, coyy eoacoc RSA. Mop oe peca epe cyo a : "a aee a 1994 o, o RSA-129 oa, o 512-oe ca oy paoe a oe o opaae, oopa oe opa ecoo oo oapo ooa ecoo ece ? Mo a coye eoaco c 512-oe ca , ey po, ce cea e o." ae ec Mop e, cy, epoo, oe opeoa, o a o oaa.

oey e cooa 10000-oe ? oeo, oo, o e ee a , e oe cooc ce. Ba ye , oop ocaoo oecee eoacoc, o ocaoo opo, o eo oo o cooa.

Paee o paee aa pecaa yoc. Teep ca oac pecaa oe-o. B 1- pee o peoea o opy opx e acoc o oo, ao cpo eoac o c a a ye. aoo oa pee p a, oa acoo a, oa pyo opopa oa paeca ooo ocyapca.

Bo eoope coopae [66]:

M cae, o coe oy ocy 100 ca oepo e cepxeoeecx yc ex e c. To ec, e coupaec yca Internet "ep" papaaa pyc, oop peoca a cee pecypc. Bo ox opaax oe c a oe ce. ocy x oooc o peye cyco oa, o e ec eoo. p cpe pooeoc a pao 5 mips pe pao 1 o, oe ooo ocyec poe, oop peye ooa mips-e.

poe paoe a oe 129-papoo ca e aex yc co aecoa 0. poea oeoo oo ceo ooc Internet [1190]. Payo peoo, o xopoo pa peapoa poe oy a o 2 poea cepo ceo ooc.

peoo, o yee poaa coe oy coe pacopee 10000 mips-e, oa opopa - 107 mips-e, a paeco oo cpa - 109 mips-e. peoo ae, o cea o ye opaca a opo ae e. , aoe, peoo ae, o y c ex aeae paoe a oe oo a pacaa e ca co copoc, cpa o c o, oopy oeceae peeo ceaoo o ce. (o oa eooo, o pop oe cyc o oe.) 1st peoeye pax e cooa c e oecee eoac o c pae e.

Ta. 7-6.

Peoeoae opx e (ax) o acoe o opopa paeco 1995 768 1280 2000 1024 1280 2005 1280 1536 2010 1280 1536 2015 1536 2048 He aae ya aoc a. Ope aco coyc eo oece e eoacoc ao opa : a aa cce epox ax, , c oye paeco oepe acopo, poo oc ocyapceoo oap y ca. Booo, e co pa ec aoo pee a cpe aoo-o oo a, o ec o ee c oo ooo a aeaa cocee e, o e caoc eca axaae.

a 1024-ooo a ocaoa oc eo-y, o ye poepeo eee ee, ec a, ae ecox e. Ho e e xoe, peca epe cyo e 20 cyc c oca epo opao oyeo, cope, a pooooa copoa oaae, a oea oye, coy y e oc.

pecaa oee aeoe yyee ee yee. o oe a, ax ycexo 2020 oy oce cea exa, ceee ce aeaa ? Oao, ec oy o c apy, oo ae, o ao ceye ece oyae oooc paaa a oe oe oee e ca, e peye. o ooe ocpo 0-.

C pyo copo, exa paoe a oe oe oc peea cox oooce aoo o 2045. Xo ya, o o aoepoo.

He ce coacc c o peoea. NSA ycaoo coeo Caapa poo oc (Digital Signature Standard, c. pae 20.1) y e o 512 o 1024 - aoo ee, e peoe y eo eoacoc. Pretty Good Privacy ("Boe ae cepe", c. pae 24.12) ac aa a a RSA cocae 2047 . Apa ecpa, y pe pacaae a oe, eee ocex 10 e oaaec ea pecaa [949]. B -1- pee peoea Poa P eca e, oope cea 1990 oy ayc e co oc [1323]. Xo eo aa a yae xopoo, eae cop oo a pep peypo pocxox cppo. o peoxpa ce o ocec x cppo, ec cc pa c aaco.

Ta. 7-7.

oocpo poo paoe a oe o a a ( ax) 1995 2005 2015 2025 2035 2045 Mae oe peoaa e $25000, aop "apaoe peeo " copoc ex e coo popecca 20 poeo o. Cpee oe peoaa e 25 oo oapo, aop "peeo oeo o ce" copoc execoo popecca 33 poea o. Macae oe pe oaa e 25 apo oapo, aop "peeo oeo o ce", paoa co copoc peea ceaoo o ce copoc execoo popecca 45 poeo o.

Bcea ec epooc oo, o ycex paoe a oe yy opae e, o oac yec o oe cox pooax. Ho oey e yo ep? poeocppoa cocey yoc, aac pecaa.

Ta. 7-8.

Oce peoea Peca e ( ax) o Maa Cpe Macaa 1990 398 515 1995 405 542 2000 422 572 2005 439 602 2010 455 631 2015 472 661 2020 489 677 Buceue c noo H o oxoe a oeco. B 1994 oy eoap a (Leonard M. Adleman) poeocppoa eo pee aa NP-oo (c. pae 11.2) oxeco aopaop, coy oey H pecae oox pee aa [17]. aaa, peea ao, a ac cyae aa apaeoo aooa y: aa apa opoo, coeex ooapae opoa, yo a y opoa A opo Z, oop poxo epe a opo a ape oo o pa. a opo pecae coe cyao eoo H c 20 ocoa. C oo ox eoo oeyp o oo a cepoa 50 ooe (30 oo oo oey) eo H, peca e a opo. aa opoa a pecaea eoo H c 20 ocoa, o eo pac e cya opao: o yeo pac a, o "aao" eo H, pecae opoy o opoa P opoy K ("opoa PK") cpeac coec co eoo H, pecae opo P, a oe opo PK cpec coec c opoo K.

a cepoa 50 ooe H, pecax ay opoy, cea x ece c H op o a, pecae opoa, oa epe ay, oopa cae ece o oey H. pa o oopaa c ey eoa H opo eoa H opoo po oy, o aa coee eo H opo ece pa opao. To ec, "Bxo" opo PK cea ye coee co "xoo" ao-o opo, aaec opoe K, o oa c "xoo" o o po co "xoo" opo, oopa aaec e opoe K. oce aeo opaeoo pee pea aa coaa ooe oeco eoe H, pecax ooe, o ce pao cyae oee ye ap.

B o cye cyax ye a oe a ae ce - oe eceo oey - H, oopa ec oeo aa. coy oe eo oeypo oo, o ya ce eo H, pecae co opoe co e y. (co opo yo y oo pac cy opoo yc o.) ae o ya ce eo H, oope e poxo epe opo A, ae e, oope o opoa B, a aee. Moeya H, poea epe o co, pe cae coo yy oceoaeoc opo, c peee aa apaeoo aooa y.

o opeee ac cya aa NP-oo oe peopaoa a ooaoe pe acoy cya o pyo aa NP-oo, , ceoaeo, aae o apaeo aooo y. C ceecx oo poo ac cooa aa NP-oo popa c op a.

Xo ac cya, pee ao, eca poc (ce opoo a ape, poc aee a aa oe peea a ecoo y), o apaee oo aao paac, e cyecye ax pec pacpe ao eo a oee coe aa. Ta opao, paccye o eoacoc popaecx poooo, ocoax a aaax NP-oo, paccye, oope o cx op aac coa, "peoo, o y paa ec o poeccopo, a oopx oe o poepo ay ceyy ", copo, oe , yy aac coa, "peoo, y paa ec ca epex a, eoc o 20000 po aa ".

amoe uceu A eep ee oa aaca. B ocoe aox ce coyec ocea ppoa a ep ( oa, aca). oo oe oopeeo axoc oo oece coco. acc e c pepo ec o, o oo ee ce a oa, cpea aco popaoe epao. O o o peeo opaaec poxo epe epao ooo oy, a opca oa, yapc o ooo c e o oepce e, oopeeo opac o ce poe co ee. Oao, p epe oo ee ce ooo ace, oo oo cocoe oe oapyeo.

B [1443] ep op (Peter Shor) oep p ocpoe a paoe a oe, o c oao a aoax aoo exa. B oe o ooo oepa, oop oo peca a ay, eee a oe pee eceoe cpoaoe cocoe, ao oep oaae ypee ooo ye, ec cyepoe oa oox ocox c o co. Bce peopay ooy y, e ec aop coco e ece. Ta opao, ao oep ee peyeco a accec oe aoao : o coye aoe coca ca paoe a oe a ooaoe pe, eopeec oo oa pocce, ocoae a paoe a oe aae cpeoo oapa.

Oepao, o ao oep e poope yaea aoa aoo exa . Oao, eoxoe, o aoa aa paoe a oe ye ocpoea oopo y ye... ec ooe ye ocpoea. O ax pec ec poea eoepeoc, oopa ec po oep oeoc oo oa po co oepa. -a eoepeoc ao oep, paoa p 1, ye cac ay aoceyy. poe oo, ocpoe aooo ycpoca paoe a oe opeyec opooe oeco e e, a o oe e a ocpo ay. poea opa yo coepeoe ycpoco oee cee. Bypee ac e coyc, ooy paoe a oe popaec a x ce oy opeoac o , ooo, ap yax ee. Ec aa epooc oaa aoo n aox ee paa p, o cpeee oeco ca, eo xooe oce ycexa, coca (1/(1- p))n. co yx ee, o oy, pace oo ao c poco ca ( ax), ooy co peyex oo ye pac c yeee coyex ce cepxcoeao - xye e p paoe eee !

ooy, xo aooe paoee a oe ae ocxee aaeecx pyax, ao e poo, o oo ye e paecoe aee oopo yye. Ho e oope oo, o ac e peypea.

7.3 Cpaee cepx opx e Ccea aaec oo ee caee ece. Ec poepyee ccey, oopa coye cepy popa, popa c op a, o e popa aoo a o pac a, o cp o ooeo cce o oaoo pyo.

eccceo cooa cep aop co 128-o o ece c aopo c op a, coy 386-o . Too a e eccceo cooa oo ccee cep aop c 56-o o aop c op a, pe 1024-o .

B -2- epece oye opx e, pyoc paoe oopx a oe cpa a co cooc cpe pyo co coocaex oypx cepx e.

Ta. 7-9.

cepx opx e c aaoo yc ooc cp pyo co a cepoo a opoo a ( ax) a ( ax) 56 64 80 112 128 o aa oo cea o, o ec ocaoo ecooec o coe eoacoc, o pa cep aop co 112-o o, a ceye pa y oy ae a o pe c op a opa 1792 . Oao, oe cyae ceye pa y opoo a oee eoacy, e a aeo cepoo a. Ope oo coyc oe pec a oeo oeca opa.

7.4 Bcpe e poe po ooapaex x-y Cyecye a cocoa cp ooapaex x-y pyo co. ep aoee oe e: ao aee x-y cooe, H(M), pay xoeoc cye coa pyo oye, M', a o, o H(M')=H(M). Bopo coco oee oo: pay xoeoc a a cyax cooe, M M', ax, o H(M')=H(M). Tao coco aaec cooee ec oee poc, e ep, c o coo cp.

apaoc poe ec caapo caceco poeo. Coo eoe oo copa c oo oae, o c epooc 1/2 xo y oo-y x o c a e po e ? Oe - 183. Xopoo, a coo e oo copac, o c epooc 1/2 xo y ox x o e poe? Oe yee - 23. 23 eoea, axoxc oae, opay 253 pa x nap.

Ha oo-y c e e e poe - aao c ep cocoo cp, a yx eoe c poo oao e poe - aao co op cocoo. Bopo coco poo ece a cpe e poe.

peoo, o ooapaea x-y eoaca, y cocoo ee cp ec cpe pyo co. Peyao y ec m-ooe co. oc cooe, x-aee oo m poo coaae c aa, cpee opeoa xpoa 2 cyax cooe. A oapye m/ yx cooe c oao x-aee opeyec oo 2 cyax cooe. oepy, oop xpye o cooe ceyy, opeoaoc 600000 e, o a opoe cooee c e e 64-o x-aee. To e oep coe a apy cooe c o x-aee pepo a ac o a, o, ec oacaeec cp e poe, o pa y x-ae a paa ee, e a opeoaoc poo cyae. Hapep, ec xoe ye epo oc oa ae cce o 1 aca 2, coye 160-oy ooapaey x-y.

7.5 ao o a a?

Ha o opoc e eoo oea, oe o ac o cya. o o, aa cee eoac o c a ya, o aa cee ecoo opoco. Coo co aa opa? a oo oa oa eoaco xpac? ao pecypc ax pao?

Cco eo oe co $1000. acoa opa p eoao paoe oa co $10000. Peaa ae apea oo opopa o co 1 o oapo. a cce epox ax oe co ap.

B pe opo peea opee cepe o oo coxpac eee ecox y.

B aeo ece ceoe cepe - o apae aoo. opa o papaoe aoo-o p o ya, ooo, oa ye xpac cepee eee oa yx e(popa) oa a oa ocac cepeo eee oa a. ae epec CA cooec c aoo o xpac cepee eee 100 e.

Cco oce, paex a eep-cpp ec poe ae cecp, epece oo a o pocea. Topoe cepe opopa peca epec oyppyx oa. Boee cepe epec paec oe.

B x epax ae oo opee peoa eoacoc Moo. Hapep:

a a oa ao, o o, oo opa 100 oo oapo, o oa ccey eee oa c epooc e oee, e 1/2, ae c yeo copoc execoo popecca 30 poeo o.

B -3-, aco o [150], pee oe peoa eoacoc pao op a:

yyy cey o oe eeo, o o payoe pecoe pao : eoc cex cpec yaaec ae 18 ece opacae a opo ae 5 e. Ceoaeo, epe 50 e cae cpe oep yy 10 apo cpee, e ceo ! poe oo, e aa e, o ca oocc oo yepca oepa, o ae, ae ceapoae yc poca cp pocce yy papaoa ceye 50 e ?

peoaa, o popaec aop ye cooac ae 30 e, oee pe ca cee, acoo o oe eoace. Aop, coa ceo, ooo e cae poo cooac o 2000 oa, ce ee ye cooac 2025 poa cooe, oope o ocaac cepee o 2075 oa oe.

Ta. 7-10.

Tpeoa eoacoc pao opa Maa T paa Bpe a a ( ax) Taeca oea opa y/ac 56- Oe o poyax, c oa, poe - /ee x caax oopee ec-a o Topoe cepe (apep, pee oa-o) ece Cepe oopoo o >40 e oc oo >50 e e ea >50 e oaece o >65 e ae epec CA 100 e o ee epe 7.6 Caveat emptor Bc a aa - poco oo eyx. This entire chapter is a whole lot of nonsense. Ceo oop ae o cao o pecaa ceo o a 10, a e oee a 50 e epe. pace pee oo opepo, eo oe. cpaopy pooe, oyae yyee, oopoe, ooo, ye e ao oeo c pye peaoc.

ye ocepaopa. Ec a ee, e a aec eoxo, o eee oeco exooecx cppo coe ope a.

a ye ocopee oyae (a.) aa paee a Ac oa ec eoaca ccea c. O pa ce oep, oopeeo oc a opa ae e poe ae. x pooo eoac. x aop -cae ye. ecac, o oya co o "Keys-R-Us" E, e oy - "B oee oep a: eoacoc - cpeee eoea, oopoo ypcec ae ae e e cpe "Kwik-E-Mart".

Ea e yo cpa aop. E e yo oaac a oe ee poooo. Oa oe c ooa x e cex cooe Ac oa, e paa ax poaaecx yc.

B peao pe ypaee a pecae coo cay pyy ac popa. poep o a eoace popaece aop pooo e poco, o B oee ooc a oo oe aaeecx cceoa. Coxpa cepe e aoo pyee.

poaa aco cpa cepe pocce, pocce c op a epe pacpeeee e. ae Ee ecooc o poee cp popaecoo aopa eo, ec oa oe occao -a eaypaoo xpae a? ae e pa 10 oo oapo a coae aa poaaa, ec oa oe oy epa a 1000 oapo?

Mo oapo a epa c a xopoe ece oaeco ococe oe oo ceo. oep oa poaa Coea poa BMC CA. Pyooe oppae P co ee 2 oo oapo, a ey. o aoo eee, e cpo opoe a cp aa ecx poaao. Ea oe pac . Oa oe apecoa oxa oo-o, o ae . Oa oe copaa oo-o oya a opao. (Mopce exo, oxpae ococo CA Moce e yco epe ooo aao.) Haoo poe ax o ee x, e pocc eax.

Aca o o aa co , o cee pyee ae. Ec e e peypo, o oeco ax oe opoo. coae, oe oepece poy poco o "M coye DES" aa oo ce ocao. Peya e co ea.

Hapep, popaa DiskLock Macintosh (epc 2.l), poaaac oce aao p o paoo oecee, peeye a eoacoe poae DES. Oa pye a, coy DES. Pe a a DES aopa paa. Oao, DiskLock coxpae DES ece c apoa ao.

Ec aee, e ca , xoe poa a, poa DiskLock c oo DES, occa o e poaoo aa ae pacpoa a. He ee aee, o popaa co y e poae DES - peaa acoo eeoaca.

aey opa ooceo ypae a oo a [457, 98, 1273, 1225, 775, 357].

B ceyx paeax ocyac eoope opoco pee.

8.1 eepa e The security of an algorithm rests in the key. If you're using a cryptographically weak process to generate keys, then your whole system is weak. Eve need not cryptanalyze your encryption algorithm;

she can cryptanalyze your key generation algorithm.

eoacoc aopa cocpeooea e. Ec coyee popaec ca poecc eepa e, o aa ccea eo caa. Ee e yo poaapoa a aop po a , oa oe poaapoa a aop eepa e.

eee npocmpacma e DES coye 56-o c a. a pao aaa 56-oa cpoa oe o, cyecye 256 (1016) oox e. Norton Discreet for MS-DOS (epc 8.0 oee pae) pape ae ooac oo a ASCII, ea cap aoo aa oe. popaa ae peop a ye co eo pecpa epx pecp (a o aoo aa cea pooooe ecoy a) oppye aeo papa aoo aa, o po pocpacy 2 oo x e. yepe poeyp eepa e cea co peaa DES ec c pa poe cp.

7- coep co oox e pax opae a xoe cpo. B 6- peeo pe, peyeoe cepaeo epeopa cex oox e p oe oo cey y.

Moy cooa cp pyo co e ceapoae aapae apae e peaa. p poepe oa e ceyy (oo ao eco apaeo) ec ooo pacoo coo eo pecpa p coo eo pecpa o o 8 ao, aao-poe - o o 7 ao, eaaex coo ASCII-coo - o o 6 ao, 8-ox ASCII-coo - o o 5 ao.

Ta. 8-1.

oeco oox e pax pocpacax e 4 aa 5 ao 6 ao 7 ao 8 ao Cpoe y (26) 460000 1.2*107 3.1*108 8.0*109 2.1* Cpoe y p (36) 1700000 6.0*107 2.2*109 7.8*1010 2.8* Aae poe co 1.5*107 9.2*108 5.7*1010 3.5*1012 2.2* (62) eaaee co (95) 8.1*107 7.7*109 7.4*1011 7.0*1013 6.6* Co ASCII (128) 2.7*108 3.4*1010 4.4*1012 5.6*1014 7.2* 8-oe ASCII co (256) 4.3*109 1.1*1012 2.8*1014 7.2*1016 1.8* Ta. 8-2.

Bpe cepaeo oca pax pocpaca e (p oo oe poepo c e yy) 4 aa 5 ao 6 ao 7 ao 8 ao Cpoe y (26) 0.5 cey 12 cey 5 y 2.2 aca 2.4 Cpoe y p (36) 1.7 cey 1 ya 36 y 22 aca 33 Aae poe co 15 cey 15 y 16 aco 41 e 6.9 oa (62) eaaee co (95) 1.4 y 2.1 aca 8.5 2.2 oa 210 e Co ASCII (128) 4.5 y 9.5 aca 51 e 18 e 2300 e 8-oe ASCII co (256) 1.2 aca 13 e 8.9 oa 2300 e 580000 e oe, cea o yaaec ae 18 ece. Ec xoe, o a yco cp pyo co eee 10 e, o cooecy opao apoa c ooae e.

Oee op e oa ca pa , o pa yepe . O c oe epooc epy "Barney", e "*9 (hH/A". o e cea pocxo -a oxo pa, poco "Barney" ee ao e "*9 (hH/A". Ca eoac aop pe e co ooe, ec ooae o pe pa ea cox e (ye) e y co a eox coax yaax. eeyaoe cpe pyo co e epepae ce ooe coo ope, o poye caaa oee .

o aaec cpe co coape, ooy o aa coye coap ox e. e (Daniel Klein) co pacoo 40 poeo apoe a cpee oepe, coy o coco cp [847, 848]. He, o e epepa o apo a py, ac o ccey. O copoa a poa a apoe pep cpe aooo. Bo, o o pooa:

1. B aece oooo apo ooae, a, ea pyy cay c e oeo opa. B eo, a ocoe ao opa pooaoc o 130 pax apoe.

Bo eoope apoe, poepxc e ea klone ooae "Daniel V.

Klein": klone, klone0, klonel, klonel23, dvk, dvkdvk, dklein, Dklein, leinad, nielk, dvklein, danielk, DvkkvD, DANIEL-KLEIN, (klone), KleinD, a aee.

2. Coa pax a ax. cooac cc ycx ecx e (ceo ooo 16000), aa ec (a ee, ooy paccapac "spain", " Spanish", "Spaniard"), ea ecx e, y yaoe epo, aoo, epo eca o ayo aac, ece cyeca (oe Bullfinch's Mythology coape ecx ox), cop (a aa oa, poa ceae ep ), ca (acae a pa - '2001", a ya " twelve''), cpo coo ce ("a", "aa", "aaa", "aaaa" ..), ace co ( Piny in Romanization of Chinese, eyapooo ca apa ca o ac a aoo aaype), opo eca;

ooece e p , paoope yape pae (a "fuckyou", "ibmsux" "deadhead"), caap a ayp (a " werty", "asdf" "zxcvbn"), copae (a "roygbiv" - epe y aa e o pay o ac - "ooottafagvah" - eoeca cxea aoa 12 epex e p o), ea oepo (oyee /etc/hosts), epo, ec eca ec y ecpa, c a e pacpocpaee coa a , aa acepoo, cooyoc co pax e x ecx cae, oyoax paee o. oo, ooae paccapaoc oee e 60000 oex co (c opacae yao pax coapx).

3. Bapa co ya 2. o ao epeo epoo coa epx pecp eo aey ypa coo, epeo ceo coa epx pecp, epc pecpa coa (c e eyoyoo ee pecpa epo y), aey y "o" a py "0" (a, o c o o "scholar" o ae poepeo a "sch0lar"), aey y "l" a py "1" (a, o coo "scholar" o ae poepeo a "scho1ar") oee aaox ay c yo "z" po "2", a ae c yo "s" po "5". pya poepa cocoa epeoa coa o oeceoe co (eaco o oo, o coo cyece) c yeo eoxox pa, o "dress" aeoc a "dresses", "house" - a "houses", a "daisy" - a "daisies". Xo e eco pepac pa peopaoa o oeceoy cy, ooy "datum" caa "datums" (a e "data"), "sphynx" - "sphynxs" (a e "sphynges"). Aaoo, peopaoa co oac cyc "-ed", "-er" "-ing", ooo "phase" "phased," "phaser" "phasing". ooee poep oa ee 1000000 co ccy oox apoe, oope po e pc aoo ooae.

4. Pae apa peopaoa epxey pecpy co ya 2, e paccapaxc ye 3. Ca oo peopaoae epxey pecpy oox coo (a, o "michael" ae poepe a "m Ichael", "miChael", "micHael", "michAel", ..), peopaoae epxey pecpy ap coo ("MIchael", "MiChael", "MicHael",..., "mIChael", "mIcHael", ..), peopaoae epxey pecpy pex coo, .. ee oooo coa o a poepe pepo ee 400000 co, a ee ap coo - 1500000 co. e e pex coo oa o pae epe ee 3000000 co aoo ooae, ec aepe ecpoa xaao pee. poepa ee epex, ec coo a paa epao, a a x poep e xaao cex ooce.

5. 5. ocpae coa ocpax ooaee. Ceec ec, oop oe, poep apo acoo a ooaee c ac ea. acx c o o cooac caap Pinyin Romanization, co oec ece oo-, yx- pe x coe coa. Ta a e o oeo peapeo poep co a aoc, co o ac cepa epeop. Ta a ccee Pinyin cyecye 298 acx coo, o eec 158404 co c y coa, eoo oe 16000000 co c pe coa. oo coco cp o eo cooa acoo a, c yeo pa opaoa p o ocx eo e aax co.

6. ap co. Oe aoo cepaeo eca oeec. o ypoc ec, /usr/dict/words cooac oo coa o p epe coa. ae p o, co ap co coc a o peo ec oo.

Bcpe co coape aoo oee, oa oo coyec po aa e, a e po ooo a. Oo ooae oe ocaoo paye pa xopoe . Ec c e a pae coce a apo oepo cce, o ea epooc oo, o o pae epe o eoe epe , ec coape oa.

Cyae u Xopo a c cpo cyax o, coae eoop aoaec poecco.

Ec a a cocae 64 a, o ce ooe 64-oe o paoepo. e e ppye e, oyc o ae coo cyax ce (c. pae 17.14), o p o paec eoac eepaopo ceocyax o (c. a 16 17.) Ec ae aoaece poecc eocy, pocae oey oc.

o ao, o e yeaec ocyee oo, ec y yox coo oee cya, e y paoaoo pacaa. H o x coo cyaoo ya e coepee, o ce o, copee ceo, yy ocaoo xopo. eepa e ao cooa xopo eepaop cya x ce, o opao aee cooa xopoe aop poa poeyp ypae a . Ec ecooec o cyaoc ax e, coye ocay e eoy epeaa a.

Heoope aop poa e cae - ceece , eee eoace e pye . coey poep caoc a e , oapy ee, eeppoa o. DES o o 16 cax e pocpace 2, a o epooc oy o x e eepoo aa.

aoc, o poaa e ye a o o, o coyec ca , , ceoaeo, e c o e oy ao o x cyaoo cooa. Tae aoc, o opa poa a y ae coce e cooae cax e. Oao, poepa eox cax e acoo poca, o aec y peepe e.

eepa e cce popa c op a eee, ooy o aco o oaa opeee aeaec coca (ooo, o o poc ca, apa ocao, ..). Meo eepa ox cyax pocx ce paccapac pa ee 11.5. Bao o, o c o pe ypae a cyae capoe oceoaeoc ax eepaopo o eceo cya.

eepa cyaoo a ooa e cea. oa a yo o a . (epeco, co o pee a oaoc, o ao 25e8 56f2 e8ba c820?). Ec a ao eeppoa poco aoa , aacpye eo. eao ec o, o eo ao, o pyo yaa. Bo e coo peoe:

ap co, paeee coo yya, apep, " turtle*moose" "zorch!splat" Cpo y, ec apoa x pa, apep, "Mein Luftkissenfahrzeug ist voller Aale!" cy aoa a "MLivA!" ee pa y peee ec cooae eco coa eo pa peopaoae o pa .

Tae pa aac e paa. Meoa c aae epeaae a peopaye eo aoaec pa cyae . peopaoa ecoo cpo pooo cpoy ceocyax coye ooapaey x-y. Hapep, eo aoaac ecoa cpoa:

oe "epeooc" ao 64-o :

oeo, oe eeo ec oep ey pay, ec oe co e oopaac a pae. Paye peoe o pee o poe yy oee.

Ec paa ocaoo a, o oye ye cyae. Bopoc o oo cce pae "ocaoo a" ocaec op. Teop opa yepae, o opaoa aoc caapoo acoo a cocae ooo 1.3 a a co (c. pae 11.1). 64-ooo a ocaoo ye ea paa, cocoa pepo 49 coo, 10 ox acx co. B aece pecoo paa coye co ax 4 ao a. o peoee paoae c aaco, e e e yac pecp, poe a yya.

o eo ae oo cooa eepa apx e popaecx cceax c o p a: ecoa cpoa peopayec cyay capoy oceoaeoc, a a oce o aeoc oe cooaa eeppoao ccee, eeppye ap op /ap .

Bpa ey pay, coye o-y yaoe eo aoaeec. He pae pa - pep c "Ozymandias" o cce ox. eo ocy oy cooa cp co coape copae coe ecpa, ao ex o. Bepe o-y y aoe oe. He aye o yya peopaoa pecpa, ec ooo e ca ea ae co. oxo cae ac, ae o ocpa , eae ey pay oee ycoo cp co coape. O peoe ec cooae pa, oo pa ec "opcae epyo", e-o a, o p aoe p aee.

Hecop a ce acaoe ec acpoa e aee cy cyaoc. y c c y ae , oope a eo ao.

Oaac, ap ape. B, ce pa ceo, cope a o py peee.

Cmaapm eepauu e X9. Caap ANSI X9.17 opeee coco eepa e (c. 7th) [55]. O e coae eo aoa ec , oe oxo eepa ceacox e ceocyax ce ccee. eepa e coyec popaec aop DES, o o oe eo aee py aopo.

Ti poa Vi+ poa Vi poa Ri Pc. 8-1. eepa e ANSI X9. yc EK(X) - o X, apoa DES o K, cea o, peycope eep a cepex e. V0 - o cepea 64-oa capoa oceoaeoc. T - o ea pee. eepa cyaoo a Ri c:

Ri= EK(EK(Ti) Vi) eepa Vi+1, c:

Vi+1= EK(EK(Ti) Ri) pepae Ri DES, poco yae a oco . Ec a ye 64-o , coye e ee. Ec a ye 128-o , coae apy e oee x.

eepau e uucmepcme oopo CA Mcepco oopo CA eepa cyax e peoeye cooa DES pee OFB (c. pae 9.8) [1144]. Coaae DES, coy ccee eopa pepa, pecp c o co cce ccee ce. Coaae eop aa, coy ccee ac, e aop cce, c ae ay pe. opoo eca coye 64-oe e, coae e-o py, apep, 8 coo, eex cce acpaopo. coye aece coeo a peya.

8.2 Heee pocpaca e Boopae, o - o oea popaeca opaa, coaa popaec oy ax oc. B xoe cooa eoac aop, o o ye, ec aapaypa oae o p a ece py? Be e xoe, o a pop cooac a paecux cepeo.

Ec oee oec a aop ae oy, o o, o oee cea. opeye, o oy pao paoa oo c a ceao cepeo op, a co ce py a poa cooac co ocae aop. Moo cea a, o epooc oo, o o-o, e a o ceao op, cyao aec a pa , a c e ae ao.

oyeec pocpaco e aaec ee, ooy o e c oaoo c. (poooo ec eoe, ocoe, pocpaco e.) poc cocoo o c oo oo, coaa , coco yx ace: eocpeceo a eoopo cp o ao cpo, poao o. Moy pacpoae cpoy, coy . Ec pey a o oaaec cpoaa cpoa, o coyec a oo, ec e, o coyec pyo, ca aop. Ec aop ee 128-o 64-o paep oa, o a ooo a - 192 a. Ta opao, y aopa 2 ex a, o epooc cyao pa pa cocae o ac 264.

B oee cea ee xpee. Moo papaoa ao aop, o eoope yy cee pyx. aopa e ye cax e - e, oope c oeoc c eocaoo a e - e e eee y eo ye eeoe pocpaco e.

o paoae oo, ec coyec cepe aop, oop pa e oe epepoepoa, ec pae ce e ocaoo oo, o pa e co o e oaac. NSA poeao o c cepe aopa cox oyx Overtake (c. pae 25.1). ea o o e caoe c Skipjack (c.

pae 13.12)? Heeco.

8.3 epeaa e Aca o copac eoaco c cooa cep popaec aop, ye o . Aca eeppye , coy eepaop cyax e. Teep oa oa eoaco epea eo oy. Ec Aca coe e-o cpe oa (ae-y aop, oaa e oo oa y epa), o oa coe epea ey o a. B poo cyae, y x ec p o ea. popa c op a peae poey eo c yo peapex coa e , o eo e cea ocy (c. pae 3.1). Heoope cce coy aepae a a , caec eoac. Aca oa oca oy c oepe oc. Oa oa oca aao oo oo cyo oca. Oa oa ycaaa pyo aa c c oo aec, o eo o o e ocyae.

Aca oa oca oy cep o x aay c - o, oop o copac poa. Ho yo epeaa poa aaa o oy e aay opo e, o-o, ocy a aa, aepa coe pacp oa ce cooe.

Caap X9.17 [55] opeee a a e: poa e ax. a poa e p pacpeee pyc pye . ax py ca coo e . poa e o pacpeec pyy, (xo o oy eoacoc a eo o oa ycpoce, ao a pea apoa), o ocaoo peo. ax pacp e ec opao ae. opooc oo a [75]. a e yxcx e aco coyec p pacpeee e.

py peee poe pacpeee ec paee a a ecoo pax ace (c.

pae 3.6) epeaa x o pa aaa. Oa ac oe ocaa eeoo, pya - oo, pe - cyo oo oca, eepa - oo oye, a aee, (c. 6-). Ta po oe copa ce ac, poe oo, ce pao eo e yae po . o eo ye paoa o cex c y ax, poe pax. B paee 3.6 ocyac cxe pae a a ecoo ace. Aca oa ae pe cxey coeco coyeoo cepea, (c. pae 3.7), o ac oooc oy occ a aa , ec eoope ace oep p epe ae.

k ypep OTPABTE OATE k e a ac Boccaaae aaa oa k eepaa cpecc-oa k Teeo k oo oy k2 k k1 k2 k3 k4 k Pc. 8-2. Pacpeeee e o apae aaa.

Aca eoaco epeae oy poa e p o cpee, c oo oo o paccopeo eo pae. a oo y Ac, y oa ye poa e, A ca coe oca oy ax a e o oy e caoy aay c, py p o a ax o poa e. Ta a paa, pye o poa e e a ee, o o aco e e yo. Oao, a a opoea a poa e o e copoepoa ce cooe, poaoe cooa a ax, oope a poa o poa e, o oe xpac eoacoc.

Pacnpeeeue e oux cemx poa e, oe ap ooaee, xopoo cooa eox cex, o c yeee ce aa ccea cpo caoc pooo. Ta a aa apa ooaee oa oec a, oee co oeo a ce n eoe pao n(n - l)/2.

B ce c ec ooae opeyec 15 oeo a. B ce 1000 ooaee oao c ye ooo 500000 oeo a. B x cyax paoa ce opao oee ea p co o a epaoo cepepa ( cepepo) e.

poe oo, o poooo cepo popa popa c op a, peex paee 3.1, oxo eoacoo pacpeee e.

8.4 poepa e a o yae, oy , o epea Aco, a e e-o py, o ae ce a Acy? Bce poco, ec Aca epeae ey p o cpee. Ec Aca ocae co epe oepeoo ypepa, o ypepy oe oep o. Ec apoa o poa e, o o oe oep oy, o o poa e ec oo y Ac. Ec oc a Aca co ye pooo epoo oc, o p poepe oc oe oep ae ax opx e,. (Ey ae pec ca, o Aca coxpaa co eoacoc.) Ec ep pacpeee e (Key Distribution Center, KDC) ocae op Ac, o oe ca, o eo o opoo a KDC e a oeea.

Haoe, o, o ypae ce ce opy oa, oe aca eo ya ce, o ey xoec. M op oe oca poaoe ocaoe cooee, aa ce a Acy. oa o, poep o c Ac, opac ae ax opx e, Mop oe opa ey coce op . Mop oe coa co coce oe KDC oe op acoeo KDC o coeo coceoo e. o a e coe o oapy.

Heoope cooa o apye, yepa, o popa c op a ec o ea. Ta a ece coco Ace oy a aepa, o o e oa x , - o a cpea, o popa c op a oo e e oeceae eoacoc.

a oa pe aa. Teopeec ce pao, o eceoc opao coee. popa c op a, coyea ece c epo oc ae KDC, co ycoe oey o o pyoo. o oa e oe acoo yepe, o Mop e opopye eo peaoc ooc, o o oe a aepa, o aa oea peaoc opeye opao oe pecypco, e coe aoy pea Mop.

o o ae poep Ac o eeoy, oy oooc yca ee ooc. Paco a ae ooca eceo ec xopoe cxeo ea oc. Ec pe e o opo e, o oe eoaco eo oop eo ae p ypoe ocya. Ec o cepe , o oe cooa poep a oocopo x-y. Oa TSD PGP (c. pae 24.12.) AT$T (c. Pae 24.18) coy o coco p oep e.

oa oe ae e ao oo poep, oy pae op . Moe oaoc poep, o o pae oy e eoey, o o aa. Ec o-o ocae ay ocaoe cooee o epeoe ee, a oye e o, o opeo cae e, a oo o, o o eoe e, o ec e ep pa.

Oapyeue ouo npu nepeae e oa caac p epeae. o ec poeo, a a cae oe pe c eaaa epacpoaoo poeca. Bce o epeaac c oapyee oo cpaee o. Ta opao o p epeae oy eo oapye , ec opeyec, oe oca ee pa.

O aoee poo coyex eoo ec poae o eoopo ocoo e epeaa epx 2-4 a oo poeca ece c o. oyae eaec o e caoe.

Ec poae oca coaa, o epea e o. Bepooc o axoc aaoe o 1/216 o 1/232.

Oapyeue ouo npu eupupoauu oa oyae xoe poep, ec eo ope pa o cepoo eppoa. Ec op ec cooe pecae coo o-o oxoee a ASCII, o oe o ac pacpoa poa cooee. Ec op ec cyae, o cyecy pye pe.

Ha oxoo oc pcoeee opoy ecy o poa poepooo oa ecoo aooa. oyae o pacpoae aooo poepe, o o pae. o paoae, o ae Ee ec ycoe opoo eca, o ooae e poaapoa ccey. o ae o eae cpe po c opo o, ax a DES ce coppyee p. Paccae apa ee o pa aoo a poepoy cyy, ae coye y poepoy cyy opee e a o cooe, oopoe epexa oce oo. a poepoa cya a, oo py e e cyae , o pae epe, pae ae, oaae coco. o ee o oe oxoe a eepa e o e paa.

Bo oo coco oye [821]:

(1) Ceepe eop ea (o o coyeoo cooe ).

(2) coye o eop ea eepa ooo oa o: cae, 512.

(3) Xpye peya.

(4) coye e e cpoae x-ae, cae, 32, opoo cy a.

o oe ae Ee ay-o opa, o oe eoy. Ec oa oaec cooa ae 32 a oeoo x-ae cp pyo co, e pec aoo epooo a o ecoo poa xpoae, cpe pyo co caoo a oaec cpee.

Oa e oy poep ax ecx ycoo opoo eca, ae ec oa cyee op o c a ae e cyaoe aee, oa oa e oy o ac pa op ec, a a o ye peopaoa x-ye pee, e oa eo y.

8.5 cooae e popaoe poae pcoao. e , oa poce pooep paoa o ypa ee eceo popa. Ceo pe Macintosh System 7, Windows NT UNIX. Heooo ca a, oa oepaoa ccea ocao paoay popay poa, ae ce a c pa pe oc ao-o pyo aae. oa oepaoa ccea, aoe, epec poa, o a e poaoc, apa oe oaac eca aao. Oepaoa ccea acaa p o pay poa a c, aca ece c e. , eapoa, ye ea a ce, oa oep e ae o-y y e oac a oepx. o oe cyc epe ecoo y, a oe epe ecoo ece. oo oe oa e cyc, o ce e oe oaac a ce o oe, oa ec c yco poecaec a poo. B popeo, ooa ao cpee, poa oo ycao ocaoo co pope, o a oepa e p e paac. o co pc. ae p o ccea eo ye cyae eaea.

Aapae peaa eoacee. Moe ycpoc poa papaoa a, o oe e aeco poo yoe a. Hapep, ae poa IBM PS/2 a o co coo oy coep pocxey DES, aape a. oeo, B o ep, o po oe aapayp pao peaoa ce eoxoe coca.

P oyaox poe, apep, eeoe paop, oy cooa ceacoe . Ceaco aaec , oop coyec oo ooo ceaca c - eceoo eeooo paoopa - ae yoaec. He cca xpa oce oo, a o cooa.

ec coyee epea a o ooo aoea pyoy eoop pooo oea a, o o e yo xpa epe eo cooae. o aeo cae epooc opoe a a.

ompo ucnooau e B eoopx poex oe opeoac opopoa poecc cooa ceacooo a.

Heoop ooae ceacoe y oo poa oo eppoa.

Ceacoe oy papee cooa oo a opeeeo ae oo op e eeoe pe. o oo cxe ypae oo opae y oaec eop opo (Control Vector, CV), eop opo opeee oo a opae eo cooa (c.

pae 24.1) [1025, 1026]. o CV xpyec, a ae eo aoo a oec oepa XOR.

Peya coyec a poa poa ceacooo a. oye ceaco ae xpac ece c CV. occaoe ceacooo a yo xpoa CV o eo aoo a oepa XOR. oye peya coyec eppoa poa o o ceacooo a.

peyeca o cxe o, o a CV oe pooo, o CV cea xpac o po e ece c poa o. Taa cxea e ae peoa ooceo ycooc aapayp oy peoaae ocyce eocpeceoo ocya ooaee a. a cc ea paccapaec e paeax 24.1 24.8.

8.6 Ooee e pecae cee poa aa epea ax, oopoo xoe e a e. oa eeeoe pacpeeee ox e ec eeo aoo. oee pocoe peee - e eppoa o capoo, aa cxea oa aaec ooee a.

Bce, o yo - o ooapaea y. Ec Aca o coy o pe ey oy y e ooapaey y, o oya oao peya. O oy pa pe yaa ye coa o .

Ooee e paoae, o oe, o eoacoc ooo a opeeec eoacoc c a poo a. Ec Ee yacc aoy cap , oa coe o ooee e caoco eo. Oao, ec capoo a y E e, oa aec o ooe poaoy pay o cpe c cooae oo poeca, ooee e ec xopo cocoo a Ac oa.

8.7 Xpaee e Haeee co p xpae e c poe ooo ooae, Ac, pye a oceyeo cooa. Ta a oa ec ece ecy ooaee c c e, oo oa oeae a . B eoopx cceax coyec poco oxo : xpac o oe Ac oe e. o poe Ac - o o eo c pa, oa e yo apoa pacpoa a.

pepo ao cce ec IPS [881]. ooae oy o o 64-o eocpe ceo, o ec a oee y coy cpoy. B ocee cyae ccea eeppye 64 o o cpoe coo, coy exy epeaa a.

py peee ec xpa e apo c ao ooco, acooo a c cpoeo pocxeo ROM (aaeoo ROM-) eeyao apo [556, 557, 455].

ooae oe ec co ccey, ca ec oce caee ycpoco, cpoeoe eo poae oeoe oepoy epay. Xo ooae oe c ooa , o e ae eo e oe eo copoepoa. O oe cooa eo oo e cocoo oo ex ee, oope opeee eopo opo.

ROM- - o oe ya e. paec o cocoe ocoa, o aoe ec , a oo eo aee, a eo a. pae popaecoy y eoopo eco op e ae xpaee ay aoo a yo oee o.

a exa caoc oee eoaco p pae a a e oo, oa oopx xpac epae, a opa - ROM-e. Ta paoae eoac eeo STU-III paeca CA. oep ROM-a e opoepye popaec - aee o ce coa cae opao.

To e pocxo p oepe epaa. Ceoaeo, opoea ROM-a cce e o poepye popaec key - pay yo aoy oe ac.

, oope pyo ao oo xpa apoa, coy o-o oxoee a poa e. Hapep, ap RSA oe apoa o DES aca a c.

occaoe a RSA ooae ye oe ec DES popay eppoa.

Ec eeppyc eeppoao (c oo popaec eoacoo eepaopa ce o cyax oceoaeoce), oe p oo eo aoaeoc apo ee eeppoa oopo c pa, oa o oaoc.

B eae, oa e oe oaac e poaoo ycpoca eapoao e.

a e e cea oca, o oy yo cpec.

8.8 Peepe Aca paoae a acco Secrets, Ltd. - "Ha e - M ee e cae." a pep cya opopa oa cooec c cpy o eoacoc pye ce co ae. eca c, oa, pooppoa cpy o epexoy y, oaa o pyo. o ea peey oa oy?

Ec Aca e ocaa o coeo a, ey pec ecao. Bec cc poa ao - e oooc occao x e a. Ec Aca e a ypo e cooaa oxx poax popa, o ee a poa acea.

oa ec ecoo cocoo ea oo. poce oa aa yco pyee e (c. pae 4.14). O peye, o ce copy aca co a yaax oa x aa y cy eoacoc oa, oop ape x e-y ce ( apye x a o). Teep, o e cyoc c Aco, o yae ee y aaa cy eoacoc. Ee oy o o ae oe xpa coe cee, poo cyae, ec aa cy eoac o c oae o pyo pyo, oy coa e oee.

poea ao cce ypae a o, o o oe ep, o eo aa cy eoacoc e ocoyec y a. o ee cepeee, ce copy o ep, o a a cy eoacoc e ocoyec x a. Cyeceo y peee ec co oae poooa coecoo cooa cepea (c. pae 3.7).

oa Aca eeppye , oa oopeeo e e ecoo ace ae ocae ce a c - apoae, oeo - pa ooc a oa. H oa x ace caa o cee e ec o, o ce ac oo copa ece occao . Teep Aca aea o oyeo, a o - o oep cex ax Ac oce ee oaa o pyo. , oa oe po co xpa pae ac, apoae op a cooecyx oocx oa, a coe eco ce. Ta opao, o e yacye ypae a, oa o e cae eox o .

pya cxea peeppoa [188] coye peeoo ycooo pye e eeya e apo (c. pae 24.13). Aca oe oec , oop ap ee ec c, a ee yay apoy a ee oy, oa oa oee. o oe cooa apoy ocya ec oy cy Ac, o, a a xpac a apoe, o e coe eo ya. poe oo, aa ccea opopyea c oex copo: o oe poep, o opae c Ac, a oa Aca epec, oa coe poep, cooa o pa o , ec a, o coo pa.

B ooo cxee e ya epeaa ax. eoacoo eeoa oe cyecoa oo eee paoopa e oe. xpa ax, a o oaao, ycooe pyee e oe eoxo ee. ep pepo pa e, a o a oye, e y ox. Ec 200 oo eoe ooac popae, ooa acoa pea oepe 40 oo e eeoo. xpa o e o oeo oa y cocea, ooy o oy oep co . Ec o oa oo popaec a, o, oep x, oa e co oac yp cy co paa ae. Tae, a xpa e-o pyo ece o cox ax, e ee cc xpa peepe o ox e poa.

8.9 Copoepoae Bce pooo, eo aop o eoac oo, ec (ap ccee c op a) ocaec ae. Ec Ac ypae, oep, aeaa aee copo e poa cocoo, o ce ee eoacoc cee.

Ec copoepoa cooac cepo pocce, Ace pec e co aec, o cyc yep ae. Ec o ap , ee poe a o o oe, a a ee op oe xpac a ox cepepax ce. ec Ea oy ocy apoy y Ac, oa coe a ce a ee o ce : a poay oy, oca oppecoe opa, a aee. Ea eceo coe ca Aco.

eo eoxoo, o ece o opoea apoo a cpo pacpocpaoc o ce. Hyo eeeo ec ce a ax opx e o cyec opoea, o eo e oopea eoe e apoa cooee copoepoa o.

Xopoo, ec Aca ae, oa copoepoa ee . Ec pacpeee KDC, o Aca oa coo ey o opoea coeo a. Ec KDC e coyec, o e ceye ec cex oppecoeo, oope oy oya o ee cooe. o-o oe oyoa o a, o oe cooee, oyeoe oce oep a Aco, ec oope, o o e oe oca cooe Ace, coy cooecy op . Peoeyec, o popaoe oece e e cooao ae-y e pee, oa ooae coy opee, ae cooe ao , a ae oope.

Ec Aca e ae oo, oa ee copoepoa, o eo xye. Aca oe axoe oa ac o opaa, a a o oca eco ee eoeo, ypa y ee . Ec ccea ae ay oooc, o o yoo coe oaac o opaa, yepa, o eo copoepoa epe ocae. Bopoc oe pee appo.

o cepea poea oaae, a oaco Ac ca co oc c ece o. ye, o y Ac pae pax poe - oo ae, a oa ep coe apae ece pax ao. pye pee o poe a oep ece epe, opae oooce cooa a, aep pee opa oc.

poeyp peoea aepa e oa, o o yee, o oe ocoeoa. Mo pa - aae , cee ceo aae ape .

8.10 Bpe e H o poa e cooa ecoeo. Bpe eo ec oo cea aoa ec, opoo acopa e. Bo ecoo p oo:

e oe coyec , e oe epooc eo opoea. aca ep x. pocxo ecace cya. Ec coyee eee oa, o epooc eo opoea opao e, e ec cooa eo oo o e.

e oe coyec , e oe oep p opoea a. Ec coyec oo poa ooo acooo oyea a a-cepepe, o oep a oaae o poea oo oo oyea. Ec o e ca coyec poa ce a coo opa a a-cepepe, o eo oep opao oee papyea.

e oe coyec , e oe coa po eoxoe yc eo cp ae pyo co. Bcpe a, coyeoo eee c ey y oc opaee, oo a cooe, oop oeac opaee, coaa o ee. Bcpe a, coyeoo eee oa ce oeo oao cpyypo, ooo oy eee oa a ce cooe, pypye o ccee o cey py, oea x. B ae pe aoec xoo o ao pa cp ?

Oo aoo ee poo poaa, e oo poeco, poax o e e o.

oo popaecoo poe eoxoa cpae, opeea oycoe pe a. pax e oy pae peea . cce c ycaoee coee, ax a eeo, ee cc cooa oo eee eeooo paoopa, a ooo pa oopa - cooa o .

cce, coyx ceapoae aa c, ce e a oeo. e oo ooceo opooe pe , acoc o aoc ax oeca ax, apoa x eee aaoo epoa. aaa c co copoc epea 1 a ceyy ooo pec e opao ae, e oeoo aaa 9600 /c. Ec cyecye e eo e pea ox e, ceacoe o ec xo eeeo.

poa e a aco e e yo. O coyc peo (peo pa e) oea a. p o poeca poaaa opayec eoo, a y cooecy eo opoo eca e opeeeo op. Oao, ec poa e copoepoa, oeae oep pea : c opa, apoaa a, apoa o poa e. B eoopx poex poa e aec oo pa ec ae pa o. Ba pec a-o ypaoec oacoc, cay c cooae ooo oo e a, oacoc, cay c epeae ooo a.

poa, coyee p poa ao ax eoo xpae, e e aco. a oy xpac a ce apoa eca oa, pee e o oy y coa oaoc. Eeeoe eppoae oopoe poae o o a e o c eoacoc, poco poaa oy oe aepaa pao. Peee oe ocy poae aoo aa ya o oceyee poae e ao o poa e. poa e oe o aoe, o coxpae eoaco e c e, oe e-y cee. oeo e, oep oo a oaae oep cex yax aox e.

Bpe apx e poe popa c op a ac o po e . ape pox oce ea oy cooac oa (ae eee eoeeco ). ape poooo poca oe oy yoe cpay e o ce aepe poooa. ae ec caec, o pe eoacoc a pepo pao eoeeco , aopayee e ay apy e. Bo ox ex ape coyc oo a oa, ae ooae oe oy o ap . Cap , e e eee, oe xp a c cepee a cya, oa ooae ye yo oep oc, ceay o pe ec capoo a. Ho oca ox oyeo oe cooac o . Taa cxea o o ye oeco oyeo, oopoe poaa coe cooa cp.

8.11 Papyee e pa o ae, o o peypo ec, cape eoxoo yoa.

Cape e opeeeoe aee, ae ec o oa oe e coyc. C x oo pa coe poa cape cooe, apoae a [65].

o yoac aeo (c. pae 10.9). Ec aca a yae, yay yo papea ce. oyec aece yoe ya, po aoe ee ycpo ca. Aop, ocae o e, aeo pooco cp pyo co, coey o oapo peyey oo e. Ec pa coe pacp a , o oxo eee oye aeo ycopa a co epaox ao-y ocao cpae a 10 eo ac cea ece yco papeax cpa, o oo o apy eco c oapo.

Ec - o pocxea EEPROM, o eoxoo epeca ecoo pa. Ec - o pocxea EPROM PROM, o oa oa cepa opoo paea o ce copo. Ec xpa c a ce oepa, ecee cooecyeo yaca a o epeca ecoo pa (c. pae 10.9) c oe yoe.

Booa poea coco o, o oepe oy eo copoa coxpae o oece ec. o oep, peay ay-o cxey ypae a, ocoo py a e popa a apyae x opao, ycyy poey. Cocoa apapoa aeoe y oee a oepe e cyecye, ocoeo oa poecc yoe opopyec oepao o cceo oepa. Ca oaoe eoxoo cooa ceay popay, oopa a eco ypoe caa a ce o a ae ecoyex oax ae cpaa coo ecye o. He aae ae cpa ce peex ao.

8.12 paee op a popa c op a ypoae ypaee a, o y ee ec co cocee p o e. aoo aoea, eaco o ca e ce, ec oo o op . Ec Aca axoe opa oy cooee, e pec e-o a op oa. Oa oe ecoa e co cocoa:

oy o oa.

oy eo epaoao a ax.

oy eo coe o a ax.

B paee 2.5 ocyac ooe coco cp popa c op a, ocoax a oee a oa o Mop. coyec cey ceap: yc Aca xoe oca c o oee oy. Oa opaaec ae ax opx e oyae op oa. Ho o Mop oee oa co coce. (Ec Aca apaae eocpeceo y oa, Mop yceo oe pec epexa oa p epeae.) Aca pye cooee o Mop opae eo oy. Mop epexaae cooee, pacpoae ae eo.

ae pye op o oa opae o aae. H o, Aca o e e oa a c.

aepee ompme u aepe op o, cepao, ec e-o op , oca ac y a oep o. aepee coyc, o oea oa oe a [879].

aepe oa ae ax opx e coco e oo opoo a oa. O coep opa o oe - eo , apec, .. - oca e-o, oy Aca oepe - Tpeo (oo ec a opa cepa, certification authority, CA). oca , cee o oe, Tpe aepe, o opa o oe paa, op pae ey. Aca poepe o c Tpea ae coye op , yec o, o o pae oy oy pyoy. aepee pa ay po o ox poooax c op a, apep, PEM [825] (c. pae 24.10) X.509 [304] (c. pae 24.9).

B ax cceax oae coa poea, e ea poo ooe popa. ao cc poeyp aepe? , ae oop, o oo ee ooo aa cepa ? o yoo oe aep coe oc e yoo op , o oe e ao-o coco o poa eaee cepa: apep, ope copyo oa, aepee CA pyo oa. Oo coaec eoa epea oep : o ae opa aepe ope o e pex aeo, e ceppy CA oa, a CA oa aep ope cox paoo.

Bo ee opoc, a oop co oya :

ao ypoe oep e-o oc oeceae cepa ?

ao aoooe ey eoeo CA, aep eo op , a ooe opaac cepae?

oy oo oep "o ae opao", oa cepaoy eoy ?

Hacoo o oe cepaoa eoa ?

B eae pee, e CA oe cepa oa, oy yo po opeeey poeypy aop a. poe oo, a o copoepoax e ao cooa ae-y e p e e pa cpoa ec cepaa [461].

cooae eo pee eocaoo. oy ca epa aoo o cee x cpoa o -a opoea, o o a-o acpa pa. Ceoaeo, ao, o CA xpa cco epax aepex e, a ooae peypo cepc c cco.

a poea oe e ce ee pya pee.

oy e, oo ap op /ap eocaoo. oeo e, a xopoa pea a popa c op a oa cooa pae poa p o x oce. Taoe paeee papeae pae o paeee yae pae ypo a, cpo ec, poeyp peeppoa, a aee. o-o oe oca cooe 2048-o o, oop xpac a eeyao apoe ecye aa e, a o-o oe co o a poa 768-o , oop xpac oepe ecye ec ece.

Oao, oo ap poa oo oc ae eocaoo. ap oe e poa po eoea ae, a oc, a y e oe ecoo poe. Aca oe xoe oca o oye a o Aca, pyo - a Aca, e-pee Monolith, Inc., a pe - a Aca, aa coe o. Heoope x e e oee aee, e pye, ooy o o ye ae. Ace oe opeoac xpa peepy o coeo paoeo a y copya oea eoacoc, a oa e xoe, o y oa a o a, oop oa ocaa aay. Aca copaec ooac eco popaec a oo ae, a oa coye cy e coeo apaa.

Pacnpeeeoe ynpaeue au B eoopx cyax ao coco epaoaoo ypae a paoa e ye. Booo, e cyecye aoo CA, oopoy oep Aca o. Booo, Aca o oep oo co py. Booo, Aca o oy e oep.

Pacpeeeoe ypaee a, coyeoe PGP (c. pae 24.12), peae y poey c oo opyee. opye - o ooae cce, oope oca ope cox p y e. Hapep, oa o coae co op , o epeae o a co py - po y. O a oa, ooy a x ocae oa ae oy o coe oc. Te ep, oa o pee co yoy eoey, Ace, o pee eo ece c oc x yx opyee. Ec Aca ae ae po oepe e, y ee oec pa oep pa oc a oa. Ec Aca ae po a xo eoo oepe , y ee ae oec p a oep paoc a oa. Ec oa e ae po, a y ee e p oep y oa.

Cyc aoe-o pe o coepe oc oeo ca opyee. Ec Aca o paac ox pyax, o c oo epooc Aca ye a ooo opyee oa. peopae oe Mop ooo a py opye oe yepe, pee e oca , o o pae eo oy. Moe , opye opeye epea a p o cpee o eeoy.

Boa oo exaa - ocyc CA, oopoy a oe oep. A opaeo copoo ec ocyce apa oo, o Aca, oya op oa, ae oo-o opyee, , ceoaeo, e apa, o oa oep paoc a.

aa T aopo popaece pe Cyecye a ocox a cepx aopo : oe p oooe p. oe p paoa c oa opoo eca poeca - oo o 64 a, o oa ee. o ooe p paoa c o ao ooa opoo eca poeca (oa a e c ooa 32-x co). o p, coy o o e , p poa cea pepaae o o e o opoo eca o o e o poeca. ooo p p a o poa pepaae o o e a opoo eca pae a poeca.

popaec pe oo oee ao p, ay-o opay c p pocx o e pa. Oepa poc, ooy o eoacoc ec ye coyeoo pa, a e pea. o ee oo, pe pa e oe opoepoa eoacoc coyeoo aopa.

Cyecy pye coopae eoacoc : oa cpa cpyypa opoo eca, oe paopoa o pa, oo apyeo aypoae op eco ocpeco oa oo poec, oo ooo poae ecox cooe o o. Bce o ye opoo paccapac ceyx paeax.

py a coopaee ec eoc. o eoc pe e oe co xye coyeoo aopa. B eoopx ocoecax ao, o paep poeca coaa c paepo opoo eca.

Tpe coopaee ec ycooc co. pa poe peyec pacapaea poae eppoae, a py ya oooc o a oo oy peopaoy. B pex ao, o poecc eppoa ye cpa co o ooe p o eca, a ae yco oepe oae o. a ye oaao, pae pe oaa pa ooeca x xapa epc.

9.1 Pe epoo poao Pe epoo poao (electronic codebook, ECB) - o aoee oe coco c ooa o p: o opoo eca aeec oo poeca. Ta a o o e o opoo eca aeec o e e oo poeca, o eopeec ooo coa p o ay y oo opoo eca cooecyx poeco. Oao, ec paep oa - 64 a, o ooa a ye coco 2 ace - co oo peapeoo ce xpa e . e aae, aoo a oaoc oea poaa a.

o ca e pe pao. Bce o opoo eca pyc eaco. He eoxooc oceoaeo poa aa, oo apoa caaa 10 oo cepe eca, ae o cee o, aoe, epe. o ao poax ao c poo ocyo, apep, a ax. Ec aa ax apoaa pee ECB, o a ac oe oaea, ya e a, apoaa pacpoaa eaco o o pyo ac ( p yco, o aa ac c o co eoo ca oo poa). poe oo, opaoa oe pacapaeea, ec co y c ecoo poax poeccopo, o oy eaco py o pya poa epp o a pae o.

poeo pea ECB ec o, o ec y poaaa ec op ec poec e cox cooe, o oe aa coca poay y, e a a. B oce pea x cya pae cooe e ee oopc. B pax cooex oy o aoe oe oceoaeoc. cooe, oope ooo epoo oe coac o e po, oe peypa cpyypa. Cooe oy e coy cee ooc coepa e cpo ye poeo.

Ec poaa ae, o o opoo eca "5e081bc5" p poa pepaaec o poeca "7ea593a4," o o oe oeo pacpoa o o poeca, ao- pyo c o oe o e oc. Ec poao cooe oo oopo, oope e ee aa oaooe eco pax cooex, poaa oe oy oo opa. O oe oac cacec cp coye op ec, eaco o c ooo pa.

Ocoeo y aao ooae cooe, e axoc opa o opaee, oyaee ae .. a poea oa aaec caap aooa caap ooa.

ooeo copoo ec oooc poa ecoo cooe o o e c e eoacoc. o cy, a o oo paccapa a oeoe cooee, poaoe e e ca o. p eppoa oe o poece po epaoy epp o a cooecyeo oa opoo eca, o e e a ocao op ec. Oao, ec poeca cyao oep oae, o ec ocey poec ye pacpoa ep a o, ec paa pa oo e coyec aa-y apoa cpyypa.

Haua oco cooe oo e ec a 64-e ( oo pyoo paepa) o poa, oe oo oaaec yopoe o. ECB peye cooa 64-e o. Cocoo pee o poe ec aa.

oce o ooec (aaec) eoop peyp aoo - y, ea, ep e yc y ea - oye ooo oa. p eoxooc ya ay oce eppoa ae oeco ao a oce a oceeo oa. Hapep, yc paep oa - 64 a, oce o coco 3 ao (24 ). ooe oa o 64 pe y ec ao, oae epe aa ye oce a c co 5. oce eppoa yae ocee 5 ao oceeo pacpoaoo oa. o o eo paoa pao, aoe coo e e oo ooeo. ae ec op ec coep eoe co oo, a pec oa o o o. C pyo copo, oo cooa co oa aa ooae oceeo aa opoo eca oo o co er.

Ha 8- oaa pyo apa, aae oxee poeca [402]. Pn-1 - oce o o opoo eca, a Pn - oce, opo o opoo eca. Cn-1 - oce o o po eca, Cn - oce, opo o poeca. C' - o poeyo peya, e c a c epeaoo poeca.

poae eppoae Pn-1 Pn C' Cn-1 Cn C' Ek Dk Ek Dk Cn-1 Pn- Cn C' Pn C' Pc. 9-1. oxee poeca.

9.2 oop oa oee cepeo poeo pea ECB ec o, o pa oe e poae cooe, e a a ae aopa, o oay peoaaeoo oyae. Bepe a poe a paccopea [291].

cpa o poe paccop ccey epea ee, oopa epeo e aa a. o oe aocx oepo, a coacoa pepo cey caap opa cooe epea ee :

o cooecye 8-aoy oy poa. Cooe pyc c oo eoopoo ooo aopa pee ECB.

Mop, oop ocyae c ey aa, ao Ac ao oa, oe co oa y opa ooae. Caaa, o popapye co oep ac cex p o ax cooe aa Ac a oa. ae, o epeo $100 aa Ac a co ce a oa. oe, o oope y oepa ee pa. C oo coeo oepa o poepe acae c o oe, paca apy ex cooe. cooe c e cooe, oop o epeo $100 a co ce. Ec o axo ecoo ap oaox cooe (o oe oxoe a peay ), o eae ee o ee epeo acae peya. B oe oo o coe e cooee, oop poee eo eo epeo.

Teep o oe opa o cooee o aay c, oa axoe. aoe cooee pee a ce a eo ce ae oa ee $100. oa oa aa cep co epeo (ooo oe ), o oapya epeo-ppa, o ec Mop ocaoo ye, o ye ce ay-y aa o y pecyy e ooopa o cpa, pxa c coo e. copee ceo o coye cy ecoo oe $100 poepe oepa cpay ecox ao.

Ha ep a oy eo pece o, oa e pee co cooe.

B ao ccee a ex cooe yy eo oapye. Te e eee, c oo eoa, a aeoo oopo oa, Mop ce e coe ooac. Ha 7- oaao, o Mop oe copa oce oo poeca, cooecyx eo e oepy cea : o c 5 o 12. B o oe yec o oc paccec, e Mop ye oo oooc.

Hoep oa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Mea a a Ce Cya pee opae oyae aa aa oe Pc. 9-2. o poa ac peeoo pepa.

O epexaae cooe aa Ac a oa aee o c 5 o 12 cooe aa, cooecy eo e oepy cea. ae o ocae eee cooe a oa. Ey e yo a, o opaee ee, ey ae e yo a epeoy cyy (xo o oe ca opaeoe cooee c cooecy yeee coeo cea opee o, cooecye opeee ee cya). O poco ee oep cea a co cocee ce a po c o cox oxoo. ( o, o Mop ao ocopo, o e opoa cooee o c ee, o peoo a yy, o y x cooe pya a o oe p a.) oapye aoo cocoa aa ooo e xa. oa o cep co epeo oe , ce cy coay. Booo, oa aco a e ae, o eo a e acc a ce, oa o-y e opa ae a eoay aa pao co ceo Mop, a e coy ae ax ceo. Mop e y oy pee apoe co ce, e y y Apee.

a oy poa y poey, aco e co , o o oaae oo, o Mop pec ecoa ocpee. Oao, oaee MAC ae pe poey. Hecop a o paccap aea poea yaeaa pea ECB. Mop ya, oop ae o o coey ycope. Peee ec coco, aae ceee.

9.3 Pe cee oo pa Ceee oae ooy py exa opao c : peya poa peyx oo a poae eyeo oa. py coa, a o coyec ee poa ceyeo oa. a o poeca ac e oo o pyeoo oa opoo eca, o o cex peyx oo opoo eca.

B pee cee oo pa (cipher block chaining, CBC) epe poae a op e co pey oo poeca oec oepa XOR. Ha 6- (a) oaao poae CBC ec.,oa o opoo eca apoa, oye poec coxpaec pecpe opao c. pee e ye apoa cey o opoo eca, o oepaec oepa XOR ece c coep pecpa opao c. Ta opao coac xoe ae ceyeo aa p o eyp poa. oye poec coa coxpaec pecpe opao c, o oep yc oepa XOR ece co cey oo opoo eca, a o oa cooe. poae aoo oa ac o cex peyx oo.

eppoae ec opao oepae (c. Figure 9.3 () ). o poeca pacpoaec a oo, o coxpaec pecpe opao c. ae cey o eppyec oepaec oepa XOR ece c coep pecpa opao c. Teep cey o poeca coxpa ec pecpe opao c, a aee, o oa cooe.

Maeaec o cey o pao:

Ci = EK(Pi Ci-1) Pi = Ci-1 DK(Ci) Pi-1 Pi Pi+1 Ci-1 Ci Ci+ Ek Ek Ek Dk Dk Dk Ci-1 Ci Ci+1 Pi-1 Pi Pi+ (a) poae CBC () eppoae CBC Pc. 9-3. Pe cee oo pa.

Bemop uuuauauu B pee CBC oaoe o opoo eca p poa epexo pae o p o eca oo, ec oac ae-o peecyx oo opoo eca. a ex coo e, oao, yy poac a o o e poec. o ee xye, a oaoo aaxc cooe yy poac oaoo, oa e oc epoe pae.

pa cooe oe oao aooo - ea ca, cpoa "From'' ee o-y. Xo oop oa ye eooe, aoe oaooe aao oe peoca poaay ay y oey opa.

ea oo oo, py aece epoo oa ae-o cyae ae. o o cyax ax aaec eopo aa (initialization vector, IV), apye epeeo a a aee cee. IV e ee aoo ccooo ae, o coyec oo oo, o cea aoe cooee ya. oa oyae pacpoae o o, o coye eo oo aoe pecpa opao c. Xopo IV cy ea pee. coye ae y cyae .

C cooae IV cooe c e op eco p poa epexo cooe c pa poeco. Ceoaeo, oye e coe pep oop oa, apy c coae poao . Xo peoeyec aoo cooe, pyeoo o e e o, pa ya IV, o peoae e ec oae.

IV e oe xpac cepee, o oe epeaac opo ece c poeco. Ec e o aee oey, paccope cey oo. yc ae cooee coco ecox oo : B1, B2,..., Bi. B1 pyec ece c IV. B2 pyec c cooae poeca B1 po IV. B3 pyec c cooae poeca B2 po IV, a aee. a, ec oeco oo - n, o n-1 "eopo aa" op, ae ec epoaa IV xpac cepee. ooy p xpa cepee IV e, IV - o poco o-aya, oo ca eo ye oo cee B0.

Haua Haa coyec ae, a pee ECB, o eoopx poex paep poec oe ooc coaa c paepo opoo eca. Moe , apoa a oe a o o c o e oe a, o a opoo eca. B o cyae oce opo o pec poa ae. yc oce o coco l o. apoa oce o o, coa apye poec, epe cape l o oe x opooo oa oepa XOR, coaa poec. a poeypa oaaa a 5-.

P (j o o) n Pn-2 Pn- Ek Ek Ek Bpa ee j o Cn-2 Cn- Cn (j o o) Pc. 9-4. poae opooo oceeo oa pee CBC.

Caoc oo cocoa o, o xo Mop e coe pacp oce o poeca, o o e cceaec e eo, e oee poeca. Ec ocee ecoo o poeca coepa ay opa, o oaco. Ec ocee poco coepa coe o ooo cy, o eo cpaoo.

y cocoo ec oxee poeca (c. 4th) [402]. Pn-1 - oce o o opoo eca, Pn - ae, opo o opoo eca. Cn-1 - oce o o poeca, Cn ae, opo o poeca. C' - o poco poeyo peya, e c a c epeaoo poeca. peyeco oo eoa ec o, o ce opoo eca coo e poxo epe aop poa.

Cn C' Cn- Pn-1 Pn Dk Dk Ek Ek Cn- Cn Cn- Pn C' Pn- Cn C' Pc. 9-5. oxee poeca pee CBC.

Pacnpocmpaeue ouu Pe CBC xapaepyec po opao c poeca p poa epco opa o c poeca p eppoa. p o poe o ye opoc c oa.

Ecea oa oa oe opoo eca oe a a o poeca ce oc e ye o poeca. o e ao, ooy o eppoae eppye o e, occao e op ec ye coepa y e ecey oy.

ae cpeac o poeca. O eo oc -a ya epea coe yc poc xpae. B pee CBC oa ooo a poeca e a o o o occao eoo opoo eca. o, cooecy coepaey oy oy poeca, caaec o o c. B ceye oe caaec ece , axoc o e o, o oo .

o coco pepae ao o poeca oy oy opoo eca aaec pacpocpaee o. o ec a eocao. a oa e e a o, pacooe e epe o o copeoo aee, ooy pe CBC ec caooccaaac. Oa e a a oa, o ccea pooae paoa pao cex oceyx oo. CBC peca e coo pep ooo pa, coyeoo caocxpopyec aepe, o oo a ooo ypoe.

Xo pe CBC cpo occaaaec o ooo co, o acoo e yco oa cxp o a. Ec ooe poeca epec oaec , o ooee cex oceyx oo cac a o , a xoe eppoa ye coo ycop. a poccea, co ya pe CBC oa oecea eococ oo cpyyp o p oo apo, o c o xpa ae cpyyp ecox oo.

Bonpoc eonacocmu P oox poe oycaac cpyypo CBC. Bo epx, a a o poeca ocao o poco e a cey o, Mop oe ao oa o oy apoaoo coo e . oeo, p eppoa o pepac eyxy, o eoopx cyax o eeaeo.

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