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УДК [372.8+373.167.1]:802.0 ББК 74.268.1 Англ.+ 81.2. Англ.—922 В27 Серия «Английский для школьников» основана в 1997 году Авт ор- с ос т авит е л ь учитель английского языка гимназии № 1514 г.

Москвы И. Ю. Баканова Великобритания: Тексты для устных В27 ответов и письменных работ на англий­ ском языке. 5—11 кл. / Авт.-сост. И. Ю.

Баканова. — М.: Дрофа;

Русский язык, 1997. — 160 с: ил. — (Серия «Английский для школьников»).

ISBN 5—7107—1062—8 («Дрофа») ISBN 5—200—02453—6 («Русский язык») В пособии представлены различные тексты о Вели­ кобритании, которые знакомят школьников со страной изучаемого языка, ее географическим положением, по­ литической системой, административно-территориаль­ ной структурой, историей, традициями и обычаями. Тек­ сты сопровождаются грамматическими упражнениями.

Пособие поможет школьникам подготовить ответы к устным темам, выполнить различные письменные ра­ боты на английском языке.

Для учащихся общеобразовательных учебных заве­ дений и учителей английского языка.

УДК [372.8+373.167.1]:802. ББК 74.268.1 Англ.+ 81.2 Англ.— ISBN 5—7107—1062—8 («Дрофа») © «Дрофа», ISBN 5—200—02453—6 («Русский язык») CONTENTS От автора Part THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND The History of Britain Location England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland The Weather System of Government Parliament The Press in Great Britain Television in Great Britain Part LONDON AND ITS PLACES OF INTEREST The British Museum Covent Garden The Museum of Transport The Royal Academy The Channel Tunnel The Thames Part EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Education in Great Britain (continued) Oxbridge Part THE BRITISH PEOPLE The English Language Holidays and Festivals The Weekend Holidays in Britain "An Englishman's Home is His Castle" Meals Pubs in Britain Sport in Britain Traditions and Customs Key to Exercises ОТ АВТОРА Данное пособие предназначается для учащих­ ся, изучающих английский язык в общеобразо­ вательных учебных заведениях, и учителей. Оно представляет собой сборник текстов по страно­ ведению, включает систему упражнений для от­ работки различных видов чтения, развития мо­ нологической и диалогической речи на англий­ ском языке.

Тексты знакомят учащихся с климатически­ ми и географическими особенностями Велико­ британии, ее политической системой, админист­ ративно-территориальной структурой, историей, традициями и обычаями. Пособие содержит тек­ сты различной степени сложности.

Пособие может быть использовано в качест­ ве дополнения к любому традиционному учеб­ нику английского языка. Оно поможет школь­ никам подготовить ответы к устным темам, вы­ полнить различные письменные работы.

Фрагменты отдельных тем по «Великобри­ тании» находятся практически в каждом из действующих учебных комплексов по англий­ скому языку. В силу того что климатические, географические, культурологические, политиче ские особенности, как правило, не представле­ ны в едином комплексе, знания учащихся име­ ют отрывочный, хаотичный характер. Целью данного пособия является систематизация ранее полученных знаний, дополнение их интересны­ ми и актуальными фактами, а также расшире­ ние лингвистических возможностей при по­ следующей аудиторной или самостоятельной работе. Оно не только знакомит учащихся со страной изучаемого языка, но и способствует совершенствованию навыков чтения (просмот­ рового, ознакомительного и поискового), а так­ же навыков монологической и диалогической речи в рамках изложенного материала.

Подборка текстов с соответствующими грам­ матическими упражнениями направлена пре­ жде всего на:

1) более глубокое знакомство с особенностя­ ми страны изучаемого языка, ее географией, культурой, политикой, системой образования;

2) проверку понимания прочитанного мате­ риала;

3) активизацию использования в монологи­ ческой и диалогической речи учащихся пред­ ставленных в тексте языковых единиц и рече­ вых оборотов.

С помощью упражнений, которые приводят­ ся после каждого текста, учитель легко может проверить понимание прочитанного текста. К таким упражнениям можно отнести следую­ щие: «Ответьте на вопросы», «Выберите пра­ вильный вариант ответа», «Закончите предло­ жения», «Соедините две части предложения».

Упражнение «Верно ли данное утвержде­ ние?» включает в себя предложения, которые содержат незначительное расхождение с текстом, и поэтому нацелено на детальную проверку по­ нимания текста.

Поскольку основной сложностью для уча­ щихся общеобразовательных школ по-прежне­ му остается пересказ страноведческого текста с малознакомыми для них культурой, обычаями, традициями, то с целью помочь обучению тако­ му виду работы предлагаются следующие уп­ ражнения:

«Заполните таблицу». Цель данного упраж­ нения — выработать у учащихся умение быст­ ро находить нужную информацию и точно ее изложить в сжатом виде. После заполнения таб­ лицы ее можно использовать для краткого пе­ ресказа прочитанного.

Упражнение «Расположите предложения в соответствующем порядке» подводит учащих­ ся к составлению плана текста и пересказу его.

Для расширения лексического запаса школь­ ников и развития чувства языка предлагаются такие упражнения, как «Найдите эквиваленты данным словам» и «Выберите правильное зна­ чение слова».

Для отдельных видов упражнений (они от­ мечены звездочкой *) в конце пособия даются ключи.

Пособие содержит иллюстративный матери­ ал, который носит прежде всего познавательный характер и позволяет более подробно познако­ миться со страной изучаемого языка.

Part OF GREAT BRITAIN The History of Britain wo thousand years ago the Celts, who had been arriving from Europe, mixed with the peoples who were already in Brit ain Isles. The Roman province of Britannia covered most of the territory of present day England and Wales. The Romans im posed their own way of living, culture, and language. But inspite of their long occupa tion of Britain, there isn't much they left behind. Even most of temples, roads and cit ies were later destroyed. But such place names like Chester, Lancaster, Gloucester remind us of the Romans.

The Romans influenced mainly the towns.

In the country (where most people lived) Celtic speech dominated. The farming meth ods remained there unchanged. We can't speak about Roman's occupation as a large scale settlement.

Later (during the 5th century) two tribes (the Angles and the Saxons) settled in Brit ain. They settled on a very vast territory.

Only in the west of the country King Arthur and his army halted the tribes. But in the 6th century the way of life of these tribes predominated in England. The Celtic Brit ons' culture and language survived in South west Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.

If the Romans had great influence on towns, the Anglo-Saxons influenced the coun tryside. There new methods of farming were introduced and a number of villages were founded.

The Anglo-Saxons were pagans, when they arrived in Britain. Christianity came from Rome in 597.

In the 8th century Britain was invaded by the Vikings, who came from Scandina via. They settled in the North and West of Scotland and in some regions of Ireland.

Later they were defeated by King Alfred.

Normans invaded Britain in the 11th cen tury (1066). But this invasion wasn't a large scale one. Still this invasion influenced the life of Britain greatly.

At that time a feudal system was imposed.

Lords and barons were French-speaking Normans. The peasants were the English speaking Saxons.

Barons were responsible to the king, lords — to a baron. Under them were peas ants. That was the beginning of the En glish class system. The Anglo-Norman king dom was the most powerful political force at that time.

In this period the Germanic language (Middle English) dominated in England. As Northern and Central Wales was never set tled by Saxons and Normans, the Welsh lan guage and culture dominated there.

In the 13th century Parliament included elected representatives from urban and ru ral areas.

During the 16th century the power of the English monarch increased. The Tudor dynasty (1485—1603) established a system of government which strongly depended on the monarch. Parliament was split into two Houses. The House of Lords consisted of the aristocracy and the leaders of the Church. The House of Commons consisted of representatives from the towns.

During the 17th century Parliament es tablished its supremacy over the monarchy in Britain. The conflict between the monarchy and Parliament led to the Civil Wars, which ended with the victory of Parliament. The leader of the parliamentary army was Oliver Cromwell. But after his death his system of government became unpopular. The son of the executed king was asked to take the throne.

In the 18th century the Scottish Parlia ment joined with the English and the Welsh Parliaments.

In that century the increased trade led to the Industrial Revolution. People from rural areas moved to towns. The population of Lon don was close to a million at that time.

In the 19th century Britain controlled the biggest Empire in the world. The Empire was made up of Ireland, Canada, Australia, India and large parts of Africa. These coun tries had internal self-government, but rec ognized the authority of the British gov ernment. Britain was the greatest economic power. The British spread their culture and civilization around the world.

The beginning of the 20th century can't be called stable. Women struggled for their rights. The situation in Ulster wasn't sta ble. At the beginning of this century the working class became stronger. In Parlia ment, the Labour party replaced the Liber als. Trade unions organized themselves.

Until 1980s the Trades Union Congress was the most powerful political force outside the institutions of government.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What reminds people of the Romans?

2. How did the Anglo-Saxons effect the coun tryside?

3. Who invaded Britain in the 8th century?

4. When was a feudal system imposed?

5. When was Parliament split into two Hous es?

6. Who was the leader of the parliamentary army in the Civil Wars?

7. In what century was the Britain the great est economic power?

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. a large-scale settlement 2. to halt the tribes 3. pagan 4. to be responsible to the king 5. internal self-government III. Fill in the gaps.* 1. The Roman province of Britannia covered the territory of present-day... and....

2. During the 5th century the tribes of...

settled in Britain.

3. In the... century Britain was invaded by the Vikings.

4. Lords were responsible to....

5. The... dynasty established a system of government, which depended on the....

6. The conflict between the monarchy and Par liament led to....

7. In the... century the increased trade led to....

8. The beginning of the 20th century can't be called....

9. The British empire was made up of....

10. The... party replaced the Liberals.

Location Britain forms the greater part of the Brit ish Isles, which lie off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Great Britain is sepa rated from the Continent by the English Channel. "Great Britain" is a geographical expression but "The United Kingdom" is a political expression. The full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ern Ireland. Great Britain comprises En gland, Wales and Scotland.

Great Britain is in fact the biggest of the group of islands which lies between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The total area is 242,534 sq. km. Britain is just under 1,000 km long from the south coast of England to the extreme north of Scotland, and just under 500 km across in the widest part.

The population of the United Kingdom is 57 million people. The British Isles today are shared by two separate and independent states. The smaller of these is the Republic of Ireland, with its capital in Dublin. The larger, with London as its capital, is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ern Ireland. This long title is the result of a complicated history. The island of Great Britain contains three "nations" which were separated at earlier stages of their history:

England, Scotland and Wales. Wales had become part of the English administrative system by the 16th century. Scotland was not completely united with England until 1707. The United Kingdom is a name which was introduced in 1801 when Great Britain became united with Ireland.

England The largest and most densely populated part of the United Kingdom is England. The population of England is 47, 837 million peo ple. England is washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The name "England" is de rived from the Angles. Roman rule lasted for over 300 years from A. D. 43. The last invasion of England took place in 1066 when Duke William of Normandy defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings. At that time the English language was very much transformed.

The capital of England is London, which is the largest city in Britain. It is situated on the River Thames (the most important one). There are many rivers in England, the longest is the Severn. England is mostly a lowland country. Upland regions are in the north and the south-west. Northern England, Midland and South England — each part is different but very picturesque.

The English like to spend their holiday in Lake District, which is in the Northern England.

The main industries in England are the wool industry (with its centre in Leeds and Bradford), heavy machinery, shipbuilding, the cotton industry (the centre is Manchester).

Scotland Scotland is the most northern part of the island of Great Britain. Its population is over 5 million people. Scotland was inhab ited mainly by the Picts.

In the 6th century, the Scots from Ire land (or Scotia) settled in what is now Ar gyll, giving their name to the present-day Scotland. During the 9th century, the vari ous parts of Scotland united in defence against the Vikings. The powerful monar chy which existed in England threatened Scottish independence throughout the Mid dle Ages. In 1603 James VI of Scotland be came also James I of England when Queen Elizabeth I of England died without chil dren. In 1651 Scotland was united with En gland, although Scotland kept its own par liament. In 1707, both countries, realizing the benefits of closer political and econom ic union, agreed on a single parliament for Great Britain.

The Cheviot Hills mark the boundary be tween England and Scotland. The greater part of Scotland is surrounded by sea. Scot land includes the Hebrides off the west coast and the Orkney and Shetland Islands off the north coast. It is bounded by the North Sea on the east.

Scotland is divided into three parts: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the Southern Uplands. The Highlands are among the old est mountains in the world. There are a lot of valleys and lakes in this region, the best known lake is Loch Ness.

Most of the population of Scotland is con centrated in the Lowlands. The biggest city is Glasgow. It is an industrial city and an important port in the United Kingdom.

Shipbuilding is the leading industry. But other industries such as iron and steel, engineering and coal-mining are highly developed too. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh. It is the cultural centre of Scot land.

Wales In 1301 after defeating the native princ es of Wales, King Edward I of England named his son Prince of Wales. Since then the eldest son of the King or Queen of En gland has traditionally been given this ti tle. In 1536 Wales was brought into the English system of national and local gov ernment by Act of Union.

Most of Britain was inhabited by Celts until the 4th century. Welsh and English are both official languages in Wales now.

The population of Wales is over 3 mil lion people. About 75% of the people of Wales live in urban districts.

Wales is a highland country of old, hard rocks. North Wales is a country of moun tains and deep valleys. South Wales is a land of high hills. The capital of Wales is Cardiff (an industrial city and a port). Cardiff is an administrative and educational centre. Such industries as coal-mining, steel production, electronics, electrical engineering are de veloped in this part of the country.

The Welsh are fond of folk music, sing ing and poetry. Welsh literature is one of the oldest in Europe.

Northern Ireland A number of kingdoms had emerged in Ireland before the Christian era. Ireland didn't escape the invasion of the Vikings, who dominated the country during the 10th century. In 1169 Henry II of England launched an invasion of Ireland. He had been granted its overlordship by the English Pope Adrian IV who wanted to bring the Irish church into full obedience to Rome.

The English Civil Wars (1642—1651) led to uprisings in Ireland which were crushed by Cromwell. During the 18th century var ious efforts were made by British Govern ment to achieve stability. In 1800 an Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland was signed.

The "Irish question" continued as one of the major problems of British politics dur ing the 19th century. In 1985 the Anglo Irish Agreement was signed in Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland.

The population of Northern Ireland is about 1. 5 million people. It occupies one sixth of the territory of the United Kingdom. 53% of the population live in urban areas. The larg est industry is agriculture. The main indus trial centre and a large port is Belfast.

The Weather Britain is as far north as Canada's Hud son Bay or Siberia. Edinburgh is 56 degrees north of the equator, the same latitude as Moscow, yet its climate is generally mild and temperature rarely exceeds 32°C or fall be low 10°C. That' s because of the Gulf-stream which brings warm water and air across the Atlantic from the Gulf of Mexico. As a re sult snow falls occasionally and doesn't re main for long (except in the Scottish moun tains). Rainfall is well distributed through out the year.

The wind brings rain from the Atlantic to the hills of the west. This means that the western parts of Britain are wetter than the eastern, which are sheltered.

London is much drier than the continen tal cities (e. g. Hamburg). Its weather may be unpredictable, but not too wet.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. When did Scotland and Wales start being governed from London?

2. Prince Charles is Prince of Wales. Where does this title come from?

3. What are the main industries in England?

4. What regions is Scotland divided into?

5. When was an Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland signed?

6. What are the Welsh fond of?

7. Why is Britain warmer than other coun tries on the same latitude?

8. How can you explain that London is drier than continental cities?

9. Why is the south of Great Britain better suited to farming than the west or the north?

II. Explain the difference between these ex pressions:

Great Britain, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the British Isles.

III. Fill in the gaps* 1. "Great Britain" is a... expression.

2. Great Britain is a group of islands which lies between... and....

3. The total area of Great Britain is....

4. The capital of the Republic of Ireland is....

5. The name of the United Kingdom was in troduced in....

6. Roman rule in England lasted for over... years.

7.... is an administrative and educational centre of Wales.

8.... mark the boundary between England and Scotland.

9.... dominated Ireland during the 10th cen tury.

10. In 1985 the Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed in....

IV. Choose the right answer.

1. The longest river is...

a) the Thames.

b) the Severn.

c) the Avon.

2. England is separated from Scotland by...

a) the Pennines.

b) the Southern Uplands.

c) the Cheviot Hills.

System of Government Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch — Queen Eliza beth II — as a head of State.

Today the Queen is not only head of State but also an important symbol of national unity. The royal title in Britain is:

"Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Common wealth, Defender of the Faith." In law the Queen is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the Supreme Gov ernor of the established Church of England.

The Queen and the royal family continue to take part in many traditional ceremonies.

They visit different parts of Britain;

they are involved in the work of many charities.

In practice the monarch has no actual power: they say, the monarch reigns but doesn't rule. Queen's power is limited by the Parliament. Parliament is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and the Prime Minister is the virtual ruler of the country.

Parliament comprises the House of Com mons, the House of Lords and the Queen in her constitutional role. The Queen summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament. She opens each session with a speech. It is her duty to make appointments to all important state offices. The Queen must see all Cabinet doc uments. She has the power to conclude trea ties, to declare war and make peace.

The Commons has 651 elected Members of Parliament (MPs).

The Lords is made up of 1,185 heredi tary and life peers, and the two archbishops and the 24 most senior bishops of the estab lished Church of England. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Com mons. The leader of the party that obtains a majority in the House of Commons is the Prime Minister. The party which has ma jority of the seats in the House of Com mons is called the Government, and the oth er is the Opposition. The Government may hold office for five years.

All the affairs of the State are conduc ted in the name of the Queen, but really the Prime Minister is responsible for every measure submitted to Parliament. As a head of the Government the Prime Minister ap points about 100 ministers, of whom about 20 are in the Cabinet (the senior group which takes major policy decisions). Ministers are responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own de partments.

The Opposition has a duty to challenge government policies and to present an al ternative programme.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. Is Britain a monarchy?

2. Who is the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown?

3. What are the duties of the Queen?

4. Who rules the country?

5. What is the supreme legislative authority in Britain?

6. How is the Government formed?

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. The head of State — 2. The power is limited — 3. The leader of the party — 4. Majority of the seats — 5. To hold office for five years — 6. To be responsible for — 7. To present an alternative programme — III. True or false?* 1. Britain is a parliamentary monarchy.

2. The Prime Minister is head of State.

3. The Queen only takes part in traditional cer emonies.

4. Queen's power is limited by the Parlia ment.

5. The Parliament is the supreme legislative authority.

6. The Lords are elected members of Parlia ment.

7. The centre of parliamentary power is the House of Commons.

8. All affairs of the State are conducted in the name of the Queen.

9. The Prime Minister declares war and makes peace.

10. Ministers are responsible for their own de partments.

Parliament The British Parliament works in a large building called the Palace of Westminster (The Houses of Parliament). It contains of fices, committee rooms, restaurants, libraries and even some places of residence. It also con tains two large rooms. One is where the House of Lords meets, the other is where the House of Commons meets. The British Parliament is divided into two Houses and its members belong to one or other of them. (Only mem bers of Commons are known as MPs — Mem bers of Parliament.) The Commons is more important of the two Houses.

The person who chairs and controls dis cussion in the House of Commons is the Speaker. He (or she) decides which MP is going to speak next and makes sure that the rules of procedure are followed. In fact, the Speaker is, officially, the second impor tant "commoner" in the Kingdom after the Prime Minister. In 1992 for the first time a woman was appointed Speaker, so nowadays MPs address her "Madam Speaker".

Traditionally, MPs were not supposed to be professional politicians. They were sup posed to be ordinary people, bringing their experience into Parliament. They were not even paid until the beginning of this cen tury. They were supposed to be doing a public service. But that meant that only rich people could be MPs.

Politics in Britain in the last forty years has become professional. Most MPs are full time politicians and do another job (if at all) only part-time.

Traditionally the House doesn't sit in the morning. It starts its business at 2.30 p. m.

(only on Friday it starts in the morning).

MPs' mornings are devoted to committee work, research, preparing speeches. Week ends are not free for MPs.

The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members. MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one side for the governing party and the other for the opposition. The first two rows of seats are occupied by the leading members of both parties (front benches).

Each session lasts for 160—175 days. A proposed law (a bill) has to go through three stages (readings) to become an Act of Par liament. If the majority of MPs vote for the bill, it is sent to the House of Lords.

When the Lords agree it is taken to the Queen for Royal assent.

Unlike MPs, members of the House of Lords ("peers") are not elected. They are holders of an inherited aristocratic title. The House of Lords is therefore a relic of earlier times. The House of Lords has more than 1,000 mem bers, but only about 250 take an active part in the work of the House. The House of Lords has little real power nowadays. The power to refuse a proposal for a law (which has been agreed by the Commons) is limited.

The modern House of Lords is a f orum f or publi c discussions. The di vi si on of Parl i ament into two Houses dates back as 700 years. Today the elected House of Com mons has real political power, although mem bers of the House of Lords occupy impor tant posts.

EXERCI SES I. Answer the questions.

1. What is the official name of the Houses of Parliament?

2. Who is the second important person in the Kingdom after the Prime Minister?

3. When was a woman appointed Speaker for the first time?

4. Who has more real power: the House of Lords or the House of Commons?

5. How are the first two rows of seats in the House of Commons called?

6. How many readings has the bill to pass?

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. MPs — 2. The Speaker — 3. frontbenches — 4. Royal assent — 5. Full-time politicians — 6. A relic of earlier times — III. Complete the sentences.* 1. The British Parliament works in a large building, called....

2. The British Parliament is divided into two....

3. The Speaker makes sure that the rules....

4. In... a woman was appointed...

5. The House of Commons is made up of...

members.

6. When the Lords agree the bill is taken to... for....

7. The House of Lords has more than...

members.

8. Members of the House of Lords are holders of....

9. The division of Parliament into two Houses dates back as....

10. Today the... has real political power.

The Press in Great Britain In Britain newspapers differ greatly from each other in the type of news they report and the way they report it.

On the one hand, there are "quality" news papers: The Times, The Financial Times, The Guardian, The Daily Telegraph. These papers report major national and interna tional news stories, with the world of poli tics and business and with the arts and sport.

On the other hand, there are "populars" or "tabloids", so called because of their small size. Popular papers (The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, The Daily Mirror, The Sun, The Daily Star) pay much atten tion to sensational news, extraordinary events, catastrophes, accidents, private lives of royalty and nobility, of people of art, of music and movie stars.

Popular papers use many photographs and cartoons. It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them. The tabloid press is far more popular than the quality press. The average daily circulation for The Daily Mirror is almost 3,200,000 while for The Times it is 450,000. The most popular quality paper is The Daily Telegraph with a circulation of around 1,100,000 per day, compared with The Sun's circulation of over 4,170,000. It is estimated that two out of every three adults regularly read a national daily newspaper.

In addition to 12 national daily newspa pers there are 9 national papers which are published on Sundays. Most of the Sundays papers contain more reading material than the daily papers, and several of them include colour supplements — separate colour maga zines which have special supplements with articles on music, TV, sports and a lot of advertisements of consumer goods. Read ing a Sunday paper, like having a big Sun day lunch, is an important tradition in many British families.

Nearly every area in Britain has one or more local newspapers — in England alone there are around 90 daily papers and over 850 which are published once or twice a week.

Local newspapers report local news and ad vertise local business and events.

Newspapers in Britain are privately owned and the editors of the papers are usually allowed considerable freedom of expression.

The offices of most papers are situated in Fleet Street in the City of London, which is the centre of British journalism. British papers are bought and read not only in the Uni ted Ki ngdom, but also in many other countries.

EXERCI SES I. Answer the questions.

1. How do newspapers differ from each other?

2. What newspapers present important politi cal news?

3. What news do "populars" pay attention to?

4. Is the "quality" press more popular than the "tabloid" press?

5. Which newspapers include colour supple ments?

6. What information do local newspapers pub lish?

7. Are British newspapers privately owned?

8. Where are the offices of most papers situ ated?

II. Choose the right answer.* 1. The "quality" papers try to entertain rather than inform...

a) true.

b) false.

2. Most colour supplements are published on Sundays and are...

a) bought with Sunday papers.

b) bought separately from the Sunday papers.

3. The most popular "quality" newspaper is...

a) The Times.

b) The Daily Telegraph.

4. Newspapers in Britain are owned by...

a) the Government.

b) individuals and publishing companies.

III. Fill in the gaps* 1. British newspapers are very much different from each other in the way they... news.

2. There are..., which pay attention to sen sational news and extraordinary events.

3. The popular press aims to... its readers.

4. There are 9 national papers, which are pub lished on....

5. Reading a Sunday newspaper is an impor tant... in many British families.

6. Local newspapers are published... or... a week.

7. The centre of British journalism is....

IV. Find the words and expressions that mean:

1. A newspaper which is published every day — 2. A serious newspaper — 3. A newspaper, which usually entertains its readers — 4. A special colour magazine which is published on Sundays — 5. A newspaper which reports local news — V. Match the two halves.* 1. to report...

2. pay attention...

3. entertains its readers rather...

4. newspapers are...

5. the editors are allowed...

a) to extraordinary events.

b) privately owned.

c) news.

d) considerable freedom of expression.

e) than inform them.

Television in Great Britain Television is the most popular entertain ment in British home life today. In Lon don people have four TV channels: BBC I, BBC II, ITV=Independent Television (Chan nel III) and Channel IV.

The BBC is known for its objectivity in news reporting. The BBC is financed by pay ments which are made by all people who have TV-sets. People have to pay the licence fee.

In 1932 the BBC World Service was set up with a licence to broadcast first to Em pire and then to other parts of the world.

There is no advertising on any BBC pro gramme.

ITV started in 1954. Commercial televi sion gets its money from advertising. The programmes on this channel are financed by different companies, which do not have anything to do with the content of these programmes.

ITV news programmes are not made by individual television companies. Indepen dent Television News is owned jointly by all of them. So it has been protected from commercial influence.

There are different types of TV programmes in Great Britain. BBC and ITV start early in the morning. One can watch news programmes, all kinds of chat shows, quiz shows, soap op eras, different children's programmes, dra mas, comedies and different programmes of entertainment on these channels.

News is broadcast at regular intervals and there are panel discussions of current events.

Broadcasts for schools are produced on five days of the week during school hours. In the afternoon and early evening TV stations show special programmes for children.

Operas, music concerts and shows are pre sented at various time. A large part of TV ti me is occupied by serials.

Bri tai n has two channels ( BBC II and Channel I V) for presenting programmes on serious topics, which are watched with great interest by a lot of people. These channels start worki ng on early weekday morni ngs.

But they translate mostly all kinds of edu cation programmes.

Weekend afternoons are devoted to sport.

Sport events are usually broadcast in the evening.

These are the mai n channels in Great Britai n. Only about a fi fth of households receive satellite or cable.

EXERCI SES I. Answer the questions.

1. Can you describe some characteristics, which give the BBC its special position in Britain?

2. What is the difference between BBC and ITV?

3. What programmes are very popular in Great Britain?

4. When was the BBC World Service set up?

5. Which channels don't have advertising?

II. Fill in the gaps.* 1. Television is the most popular... in Great Britain.

2. In London there are... channels.

3. People have to pay....

4. BBC is famous for its....

5. Commercial television gets its money from....

6. ITV started in....

7. Weekend afternoons are devoted to....

III. True or false?* 1. BBC is a commercial television.

2. Al l TV channels have advertising.

3. Channel IV is famous for its objectivity.

4. Independent Television News is owned by a private company.

5. TV stations show different programmes for children.

6. English people are not fond of soap operas.

7. Most people in Britain receive satellite.

Part LONDON AND ITS PLACES OF INTEREST ondon is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commer cial centre. It is the chief port of Great Brit ain. It is one of the greatest cities of the world.

Its population is about 9 million people.

The origin of the city may be dated as the beginning of the 1st century A. D., when a tribe of the Celtic family settled near the Thames. The Roman town, LONDINIUM, grew up on the two hillocks near St. Paul's Cathedral and Cornhill, not far from the Tower of London. The English are very proud of the long history of their capital.

The city became extremely prosperous dur ing the 16th century. Then in 1665 and 1666 two catastrophes occurred: the first was epidemic of plague which killed 100, citizens, and the second was the Great Fire which destroyed the whole of the City, includ ing St.Paul's Cathedral. London is a real mu seum of architecture. Most of the finest build ings date from the second half of the 17th century. At the beginning of the 19th centu ry England was at the height of her power.

During Queen Victoria's long reign (1837— 1901) the construction of the Underground began. And the first line between Padding ton and Farringdon was opened.

At the same time the City became exclu sively a commercial centre. The City is one part of London. Traditionally London is di vided into: the City, the West End, West minster and the East End.

The City is the heart of London, its fi nancial and business centre. The City was de scribed as a "busy emporium for trade and traders" as early as Roman times. The City has within its square mile such famous insti tutions as the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, the Royal Courts of Justice and Guildhall. The City has its own Lord Major and Corporation as well as its own police force. Few people live in this part of Lon don but over a million come here to work.

There's a lot of famous ancient buildings within the City. The most striking of them is St.Paul's Cathedral, Sir Christopher Wren's masterpiece. It was built between 1675 and 1710 to replace the 13th-century cathedral which had been destroyed by the Great Fire.

The City of Westminster is one of the most famous historic areas in London as it contains both the seat of Government and the crowning place of kings and queens.

Westminster was the first important inhab ited area outside the City.

The Houses of Parliament and Westmin ster Abbey face each other across Parliament Square. Westminster Abbey is a beautiful Gothic building. In the 11th century Edward the Confessor founded a great Norman Ab bey. But nothing is left of this church.

Henry III wanted a brighter and bigger build ing. Master Henry, John of Gloucester and Robert of Beverly succeeded in the work of constructing Westminster Abbey. The work went on until the 18th century when Nicho las Hawksmoor altered the facade and added the towers. Almost all the monarchs since William the Conqueror have been crowned in Westminster and many are buried there.

There are memorials of many statesmen, scientists and writers in Westminster. West minster Abbey is not a Cathedral. It is a "Royal Peculiar", royal property. It is de pendent directly on the monarch.

The Houses of Parliament — the seat of British Parliament, which is officially known as the Palace of Westminster.

The first building was constructed as early as the 11th century (the magnificent Westminster Hall was built between 1097— 1099 by William Rufus). Most of the old palace was destroyed in a fire in 1834. The present Houses of Parliament were complet ed in 1865. The Houses of Parliament com prise the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The division of Parliament into two Houses goes back as 700 years.

The West End is the centre of London.

There are historical palaces, museums, beau tiful parks, large department stores, hotels, restaurants, theatres and concert halls in this part of London. One of the most beau tiful palaces is Buckingham Palace, the of ficial residence of the Queen. The Palace takes its name from Buckingham House which was built in 1703 as the home of the Duke of Buckingham and then bought by George III in 1762. Today the Queen lives at the Palace for only part of the year and when she is in her residence the Royal Stan dard is flown. Although the main palace is not open to the public items from the Royal Collection can be seen at the Queen's Gal lery.

The oldest of all the royal residences in London is the Tower of London.

The Tower today bears the official title of "Her Majesty's Palace and fortress of the Tower of London".

Founded by William the Conqueror in 1078 the fortress was enlarged several times.

Now it is a museum, which houses the na tional collection of armour and the Crown Jewels. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress, the Royal residence, the Royal Mint, the first Royal Observatory. But it is perhaps most famous for being a prison.

The Yeomen of the Guard (Beefeaters) were originally formed to be a body-guard for Henry VII. They still wear the Tudor uniform chosen by the King and now give guided tours of the Tower.

The ravens whose forefathers used to live in the Tower still live there. The Yeomen Raven Master is responsible for feeding and caring for the ravens at the Tower. There is a legend that if the ravens disappear the Tower will fall.

The broad Mall leads from Buckingham Palace to Trafalgar Square. Trafalgar Square, named to commemorate Nelson's great naval victory of 1805, is dominated by the Nelson's Column. On its pedestal there are four bronze reliefs cast from captured French cannon, rep resenting scenes from the battles of St. Vin cent, the Nile, Copenhagen and Trafalgar. The bronze lions at the corners of the pedestals are the work of Landseer.

From Trafalgar Square it is only a short way to Piccadilly Circus. In the centre of Piccadilly Circus is a bronze fountain. It was designed by Sir Alfred Gilbert in 1893.

Downing Street, 10 is the official resi dence of the Prime Minister.

London is very rich in art galleries. The National Gallery is one of the most impor tant picture galleries in the world. The Tate Gallery is the right and necessary comple ment to the National Gallery as it contains modern and contemporary works particu larly by English and French masters.

Cultural life of London would be impos sible without the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal Festival Hall, the National Theatre and a great number of museums: the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Geo logical Museum, the Museum of Mankind, Natural History Museum and others.

If you go to the east of the City, you'll find yourself in the East End. This is an industrial part of London. The Port of Lon don is also in the East End.

A great amount of space in London is devoted to parks and gardens. Most of them used to be private gardens or hunting for ests of kings and queens. Later they were transformed into their present design. To day nothing could be more relaxing and peaceful than a walk in a beautiful park.

EXERCISES EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

I. Answer the questions.

1. What is the population of London?

1. What is the population of London?

2. What parts does London consist of?

2. What parts does London consist of?

3. What part of London can be called its centre?

3. What part of London can be called its centre?

4. What masterpieces of architecture in Lon 4. What masterpieces of architecture in Lon don do you know?

don do you know?

5. Who is the architect of St. Paul's Cathedral?

5. Who is the architect of St. Paul's Cathedral?

6. What is the historical value of the Tower 6. What is the historical value of the Tower of London?

of London?

7. What is the residence of the Queen?

7. What is the residence of the Queen?

8. What does a legend about the ravens in the 8. What does a legend about the ravens in the Tower say?

Tower say?

9. What events does Trafalgar Square com memorate?

10. What gallery has a vast collection of mod ern and contemporary works by English and French masters?

II. Choose the right answer* 1. London became extremely prosperous dur ing...

a) the reign of King Alfred.

b) the 16th century.

c) the 19th century.

2. The construction of London Underground began...

a) in the 18th century.

b) in the 20th century.

c) during Queen Victoria's reign.

3. The heart of London is...

a) Westminster.

b) the West End.

c) the City.

4. Westminster's construction was completed in...

a) the 10th century.

b) the 13th century.

c) the 18th century.

5. The official residence of the Queen is...

a) Kensington Palace.

b) Buckingham Palace.

c) the Tower of London.

6. The oldest royal residence is...

a) Buckingham Palace.

b) the Tower of London.

c) Westminster Abbey.

7. The ravens in the Tower of London are tak en care of because...

a) they are very old.

b) they are very rare.

c) of a legend.

III. Match the two halves.* 1. The city became extremely...

2. The Great Fire...

3. In the 19th century England was at...

4. Almost all the monarchs have been crowned...

5. The seat of the British Parliament is...

6. When the Queen is in residence...

7. The Tower of London used to be...

8. The Mall leads to...

9. Downing Street, 10 is the residence of...

a) the height of her power.

b) the Houses of Parliament.

c) the Royal Standard is flown.

d) Trafalgar Square.

e) the Prime Minister.

f) prosperous in the 16th century.

g) destroyed the whole of the City.

h) in Westminster.

i) the first Royal Observatory.

IV. Complete the sentences.* 1. The City of Westminster contains both...

and....

2. The early building of Westminster was built....

3. Almost all the monarchs have been... in Westminster and many are... there.

4. The residence of the Pri me Mi ni ster is....

The British Museum The British Museum is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. This Muse um comprises the National Museum of Ar chaeology and Ethnography, and the Nation al Library. It was built in the middle of the last century. The Museum is situated in London (in Bloomsbury district).

On one of the houses in Bloomsbury there is a plaque, which tells people that for near ly 50 years this was the home of Sir Hans Sloane, the benefactor of the British Mu seum.

Sir Hans Sloane was an Irishman. He ar rived in London nearly 300 years ago with 800 species of plants collected in West In dia. His particular specialities were natural history specimens and books. All his long life Sir Hans Sloane remained a collector.

In his will he offered his vast collection to the people of Britain. Later on the Govern ment bought his collection. Two important libraries were added to the collection of natural history specimens and books.

At first, his collections were on view to the public in a large house not far from the present museum.

The present building was built in 1852.

By law a copy of every book, periodical or newspaper published in Britain must be pre served in the British Museum. All printed matter is kept in a separate building in another part of London.

The British Museum is closely connected with the name of an Italian, Anthony Panizzi.

Being a lawyer, he occupied the position of principal librarian at the British Museum.

He also designed the plans for the construc tion of the famous circular Reading Room at the British Museum. Visitors to the Museum who want to enter the Reading Room, must have a ticket of admission. Only people over the age of 21, engaged in serious study and who can't obtain the books they require else where, can use the Reading Room.

The Reading Room has an unusual shape.

It is a perfect circle. The superintendent and his assistants sit in the centre of the room and issue and collect books. The catalogues are kept behind them. Any person who comes into the Reading Room is greatly impressed by the efficiency of the staff there. You just ask for a book and in a moment it is placed in front of you. Today there're millions of volumes in the library. Only a highly quali fied specialist can cope with the work in this library.

The British Museum contains books and manuscripts: Greek, Roman, British and oriental antiquities. It has a department of ethnography. This collection is so vast that only a very small percentage is on show to the public. There is also a department of prints and drawings. There are departments devoted to maps, coins, medals and philate ly. Those who come to the British Museum can see a fascinating array of clocks and watches.

Every year the British Museum is visited by 2 million people.

EXERCISES I. Answer two questions:

1. When was the British Museum built?

2. Where is the Museum situated?

3. Who was the benefactor of the Museum?

4. Whom was Sir Hans Sloane's collections of fered to?

5. Who can use the Reading Room of the Brit ish Museum?

II. Match the two halves.* 1. The British Museum is situated in...

2. The Museum comprises...

3. The benefactor of the Museum was...

4. Sir Hans Sloane offered his collection to...

5. Anthony Panizzi...

6. The Reading Room has an unusual...

7. The superintendent...

8. There is a fascinating array of...

a) Sir Hans Sloane.

b) the British people.

c) designed the plans for the construction of the Reading Room.

d) shape.

e) issues and collects books.

f) clocks and watches.

g) the National Museum of Architecture and Ethnography and the National Library.

h) in London.

III. Fill in the gaps.* 1. The Museum comprises....

2. Sir Hans Sloane arrived in London....

3. Al l his life Sir Hans Sloane remained a.......

4. The present building was constructed in....

5. The British Museum is connected with the name of....

6. Only people over the age of... can use the Reading Room.

7. The Reading Room has an unusual shape;

it's a....

8. Every year the British Museum is visited by... people.

IV. True or false?* 1. Sir Hans Sloane was an architect.

2. People over 21 years old may enter the Read ing Room.

3. Visitors are greatly impressed by the effi ciency of the staff.

4. By Law a copy of every book is preserved in the Parliament Library.

5. A. Panizzi was a lawyer.

6. Every year the British Museum is visited by 200,000 people.

Covent Garden Covent Garden is the biggest market-place in Britain. If you come to Covent Garden in the afternoon, you'll only see enormous build ings and a few tourists. But if you come here early in the morning, you'll see hun dreds of people buying and selling vegeta bles, fruit and flowers. Cars, vans, lorries are everywhere. There are voices everywhere.

Some people are carrying heavy boxes of fruit and vegetables. They are crying: "Mind your backs, please". Before the businessmen arrive at their offices, all the cars and vans will have arrived at the shops all over Lon don. They' l l have delivered everythi ng for customers. By the afternoon all the farm ers, shopkeepers, porters and drivers will have gone home. The market-place will have been cleaned by the dustmen. It' l l be ready to meet tourists.

Covent Garden has been the most impor tant market-place in London for 300 years.

I t was of f i ci al l y establ i shed by Ki ng Charles II in 1670. It was called Covent Gar den because it was the garden of the monks of Westmi nster Abbey. At that time i t was very small, and used only by Londoners.

Nowadays it serves the whol e of Britai n.

Those who work there say: "I f there is any kind of frui t or vegetable which we haven' t got — nobody has got i t".

Today, Covent Garden has been extensive ly restored and is now a lively shopping area, wi th wi ne bars, restaurants and theatre and an open Pi zza and covered Central Mar ket.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What is Covent Garden?

2. When was Covent Garden established?

3. What can you buy at Covent Garden?

4. Why was this place originally called "con vent garden"?

II. Fill in the gaps.* 1. Covent Garden is the biggest... in Brit ain.

2. In the afternoon you'll see... there.

3. By the midday everything will be delivered for....

4. The market-place will have been cleaned by....

5. Covent Garden was established by....

6. Covent Garden was... of... of West minster Abbey.

7. Nowadays it... the whole of Britain.

The Museum of Transport The Museum of British Transport is in London. It tells the story of public trans port in Britain.

In 1829, an Irishman (Shillibeer by name) started the first bus-service in London. Hi s bus was very different to those you can see in London today. It was drawn by three hors es and looked like a carriage. The first dou ble-decker bus was built in 1851. But the upper deck didn't have a roof until about 1936. When it was raining the passengers were given raincoats.

In 1885, the first buses, driven by a petrol engine were used in London. The speed of the first petrol engine bus was 12 miles per hour.

The first trains, like the first buses, were drawn by horses. But they were not passen ger trains. They were used in mines and factories to carry materials from one place to another. The first steam train was used in an iron-works in South Wales. It was built by Richard Trevithick, in 1804.

The first passenger railway in England (and in the world) was the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. In 1829, the company offered a prize of 500 pounds for the best steam train. The prize was won by George Stephenson, with his famous train "The Rocket". It could travel 29 miles per hour, which was very fast at that time.

Lots of people were afraid of the rail ways and trains. They tried to stop their construction. But in 1842 people had to ac cept the railway. Queen Victoria, herself, travelled in a train from Slough to Padding ton. A special railway carriage was built for her in 1869.

In 1938 a train ( "Mal l ard") was built. It travelled at 126 miles per hour, and that was worl d record speed for a steam train.

Nowadays this trai n can be seen in the Mu seum of Transport.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. When was the first double-decker bus built?

2. What was the speed of the first petrol en gine bus?

3. Where were the first trains used?

4. What was the name of the first steam train?

5. What was world record speed for a steam train?

II. Fill in the gaps.* 1. The Museum of British Transport is in....

2. In... Shillibeer started the first...

in London.

3. The first bus was drawn by... and looked like....

4. The first trains were used in....

5. The first passenger railway in England was....

6. Stephenson's train was called....

7. Queen Victoria travelled from... to....

8. The world record speed for a steam engine was....

III. True or false?* 1. The first bus appeared in 1829.

2. The first double-decker didn't have a roof.

3. The speed of the first train was 12 miles per hour.

4. The first trains were to carry passengers.

5. The first train was built by G. Stephenson.

6. A special carriage was built for Queen Vic toria.

7. The world record speed for a steam train was 12 miles per hour.

8. In 1842 the construction of the railway from Slough to Paddington was stopped.

IV. Arrange the sentences in the proper or der.* 1. "Mallard" travelled at 126 miles per hour.

2. In 1829 an Irishman started the first bus service.

3. In 1842 people had to accept the railway.

4. The first double-decker was built in 1851.

5. "The Rocket" could travel 29 miles per hour.

6. The prize for the best steam train was won by G. Stephenson.

7. In 1885 the first buses, driven by a petrol engine were used in London.

8. The first trains were drawn by horses.

9. The first railway in England was the Liver pool and Manchester Railway.

10. The first trains were used in mines and fac tories.

The Royal Academy There is a house of great beauty and co lour in London. This is Burlington House.

Since 1869 it has been the Royal Academy of Arts.

In 1768 a group of leading painters, sculp tors and architects presented a memorial to King George III. The young art-loving mon arch declared his patronage, protection and support. All succeeding Sovereigns have ac cepted the style of "Patron, Protector and Supporter" of the Royal Academy. The mon arch formally sanctions the elections of new Royal Academicians.

The first President of the Academy was Sir Joshua Reynolds, whose statue (palette and brush in hand) surveys the forecourt of Burlington House. He was President for years and created in the Academy a body of highly skilled professional artists.

In 1771 the Academy established its headquarters at Somerset House and re mained there until 1837 when it moved to the east wing of the National Gallery.

The prime purpose of the Academy is the teaching of art to the most talented students.

About 100 students attend the Academy School. They're selected by examinations from those who have spent two or more years at London or provincial art schools.

Since 1768 about 7,000 artists and archi tects have been trained free of charge in the School of Painting and Drawing, Sculp ture and Architecture. The students study the main "classic disciplines". Several stu dents in recent years have won major inter national awards.

The exhibitions of the students' work in June and November attract attention of many people: teachers, art critics and gal lery owners.

There are two annual exhibitions, orga nized by the Academy: the Winter Exhibi tion and the Summer Exhibition.

The Academy also organizes special exhi bitions in its Diploma Gallery.

The Summer Exhibition has been held since 1769. It is the largest annual open art show in the world. About 10,000 works are judged by the Royal Academicians. Different styles and traditions are represented at the Exhibition. It is open for 3.5 months. The majority of the works are f or sale.

The Academy believes that it is impor tant to gi ve all artists an opportunity to exhibit and sell their works. There are no other such exhibitions.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. Since what time has Burlington House been the home for the Royal Academy of Arts?

2. Who was the first to declare his support of the Academy?

3. Who was the first President of the Acade my?

4. What is the primary purpose of the Acade my?

5. How often does the Academy organize the exhibitions?

6. What Exhibition is the largest annual open show in the world?

7. How long does the Summer Exhibition stay open?

II. True or false?* 1. The Royal Academy of Art was formed in 1869.

2. King George III was the first President of the Academy.

3. In 1837 the Academy moved to the Nation al Gallery.

4. The prime purpose of the Academy is teach ing the most talented students.

5. About 7,000 artists and architects have been trained in the Academy.

6. Every year two exhibitions are organized by the Academy.

7. The Winter Exhibition is the largest annu al open show in the world.

The Channel Tunnel Great Britai n is separated f rom the Con tinent by English Channel.

On May, 6, 1994 the Channel tunnel be tween Calais and Folkstone was opened by Queen Elizabeth II of Britai n and Presi dent Mi tteran of France. They were the first to travel under the sea.

That was the bi ggest project in which Britai n took part. The process of the con struction was very difficult and not always a successful one. The price of construction was very high ( 9 billion), several people were killed during the construction, and the start of service was several times postponed.

People didn't reveal great enthusiasm. At first the tunnel was opened only for private cars. The saving in travel time didn't com pensate for the discomfort of travelling. Peo ple got used to travelling on comfortable ferries. And besides, they simply were afraid of travelling under the sea. But the authors of the project are rather optimistic, because the direct train services between Paris and London offer a great reduction of trav el time. There is a project to use a high speed train between London and the British end of the Channel tunnel. But that will be only in the 21st century.

EXERCISES I. True or false?* 1. The first to travel through the tunnel were the workers.

2. The project was a success from the very be ginning.

3. The tunnel was opened between London and Paris.

4. People were not enthusiastic about the project.

5. At first the tunnel was opened to private cars.

6. A great reduction of travel time didn't com pensate for the discomfort of travelling.

7. A high-speed train will take people from Paris to London in the 21st century.

II. Complete the sentences.* 1. The Channel tunnel was opened in... by...

2. The tunnel was the biggest....

3. The construction price was....

4. At first the tunnel was opened to....

5. People were afraid of...

6. The direct train services offer....

The Thames The River Thames is one of the sights of London. Tourists come to admire the beau ty of Cleopatra's Needle, big Ben and the Houses of Parliament. In fact the river isn't just a part of the scenery. Without the riv er London wouldn't exist. Let' s look back into history.

Two thousand years ago, in A. D. 43 a Roman army decided to cross the Thames at a point where a bridge could be built. That was the beginning of the City of London.

The Thames connected the settlements of the Romans at Kent and at Colchester. All foreign traffic and goods had to cross the Roman bridge, that's why the nearby land grew into a key port, thus increasing trade with the Continent.

Over the next five hundred years, London exported the nation's wool, cattle and im ported fine clothes from Flanders, wine from France, furs from Scandinavia. The trades men formed guilds, which protected their interests and strengthened London's posi tion as a commercial centre.

The 16th century brought new horizons in exploration and conquest by sea. But there appeared some problems. The twenty arches of London Bridge disturbed the river's current, causing "rapids". The ships were forced to stop below the bridge, pay ing small boats to take their goods up streams.

To solve this problem the first docks were built in the 17th century at Rotherhithe. In the 18th and 19th centuries the docks were also built on the Isle of Dogs. In 1908 the Port of London Authority was formed to look after them.

The importance of the Thames was great.

London has changed greatly over the years.

At Chelsea Bridge two periods of his tory stand facing each other. On the North bank is the Royal Hospital. This house was built in the 18th century by Sir Christo pher Wren.

On the South bank there is Battersea pow er station, built to provide electricity for Londoners.

If we move downstream, we'll come to Vauxhall Bridge. This area contains facto ries and offices.

Under Lambeth Bridge, the river flows on past the Victoria flower gardens towards Westminster Bridge. Here are the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben, built in the 19th century in the gothic style.

From this point all along the embank ment run the Embankment Gardens, with their tramps, memorials and flowers. At the riverside itself there is a row of charming Victorian lamp-posts decorated with ferocious looking dolphins. Even the public benches are decorated with winged sphinxes. You can also admire Cleopatra's Needle, a huge obelisk carved in Ancient Egypt and given to Queen Victoria and Great Britain in 1820. It was placed by the river in 1878, and a "time box", containing objects typical of that time was buried beneath it.

Near Waterloo Bridge, on the South bank of the river is a group of modern, concrete buildings. These include the Royal Festival Hall, Queen Elizabeth Hall, and the new Na tional Theatre. Waterloo Bridge is concrete and modern, but it replaces an older bridge built to mark the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo. The lampstandards along the bridge were made from guns captured at the battle.

As you pass the widest of London's brid ges — Blackfriars Bridge — you see the dome of St. Paul's.

The next bridge is Southwark Bridge, which leads to Southwark Cathedral (it is as beautiful as Westminster Abbey).

Then you come to London Bridge. Original ly it was made of wood. The first stone bridge wasn't built until 1176. A new Lon don Bridge replaced it in 1831, but you wouldn't find this London Bridge now either, as it was sold to America in 1972. It was taken there stone by stone to be reas sembled as a tourist attraction. The British have a modern replacement now.

But the bridge that symbolizes London to most people is Tower Bridge.

Much of London's wealth has been gen erated by the trade and industry brought by the river. The river became badly pollut ed in Victorian times. Industrial waste flowed freely into it. There was a terrible smell. All the fish died.

Since the 1950s, new laws have controlled industrial waste and sewage levels in the Thames. Now the river is much less polluted.

Fish have returned to the cleaner water. Plea sure boats sail from Westminster and Char ing Cross piers, taking summer visitors to Greenwich and Hampton Court, Palace.

To protect London from tide the Greater London Council decided to built a barrier across the river at Woolwich. The floodgates lie on the river bed in normal weather, but can be raised to shut off dangerously high waters.

London could never have lived without the Thames.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. Why were the first docks at Rotherhithe built?

2. Who was the architect of the Royal Hospi tal?

3. What anniversary does Waterloo Bridge mark?

4. Which bridge is the widest?

5. Where can you see London Bridge?

6. Which bridge symbolizes London?

II. Fill in the gaps.* 1.... years ago the Romans decided to cross the Thames.

2. In the 18th and 19th centuries the...

were built on the Isle of Dogs.

3. The area of Vauxhall Bridge contains...

and....

4. The first Waterloo Bridge was built to mark....

5. In 1972 a new London Bridge was sold to....

6. The bridge that symbolizes London is....

7. To protect London from tide a... across the river was built.

Part EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN England schooling is compul sory for children of 5 to 16 years of age.

Any child may attend a school without pay ing fees. Over 90% of children of compul sory school age go to state schools. The most important changes in Britain's educational system were introduced under the Educa tion Reform Act 1988. It led to the com pulsory National Curriculum for pupils aged 5 to 16 in state schools. The Act also aims to give parents a wider choice of schools for their children. Local educational aut horities finance most school education at local level. They also employ teachers. Ev ery state school in England and Wales has a governing body, responsible for the school's main policies. Parallel reforms are intro duced in both Scotland and Northern Ire land.

Full-time education is compulsory up to the middle teenage years. There are three stages in education. The first stage is pri mary education;

the second is secondary ed ucation;

the third is further education at university or college.

Before going to a primary school chil dren receive nursery education (some children attend pre-school play-groups). It' s the first age of education. Around half of 3— years old in Britain receive nursery educa tion. Children of nursery age need care as well as education. Social, emotional and phys ical needs must be taken into consideration.

Compulsory primary education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland and at 4 in Northern Ireland. Children start their education in an infant school and move to a junior school at 7 years old. Primary schools vary in size and location. Pupils study different subjects (English, mathematics, sci ence, history, geography, music, art, physical education). Over 80% of all primary schools are mixed.

In Britain most children of compulsory secondary school age (11—16) receive free education financed from public funds. The large majority of schools are mixed.

The school year in England and Wales begins in September and continues into July.

In Scotland it is from August to June. In Northern Ireland — from September to June. At this level children start to learn a modern foreign language. The course of study at secondary school may lead to Gen eral Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications. At 16 years old chil dren take different examinations and have quite a lot of coursework, only after which they're awarded GCSE.

Those who stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for A (Advanced) level exams in two or three subjects.

A small proportion of children (about 8%) attend private, or independent schools, which are not financed by the state. To un derstand this phenomenon a little history is needed.

The British government payed little at tention to education until the end of the 19th century. Schools had existed in Brit ain long before the government took an interest in education. A small group of schools admitted only the sons of the upper and upper middle classes. At these public schools much more attention was paid to "character-building" and the develop ment of "team spirit" rather than to aca demic achievements. These were "boarding schools" (as the pupils lived in them). The pupils wore distinctive clothes and the schools had their own traditions. The aim of those schools was to prepare young men to take up positions in the higher ranks of army, in business, civil service and poli tics.

A typical public school is for boys from 13. It admits fee-paying pupils. Such school is a boarding one. Each school is divided into houses with its housemaster. Public school place great emphasis on team sports.

These schools are not at all luxurious or comfortable. A typical example of such a school is Eton.

British education has many different faces but one goal. Its aim is to realize the potential of all for the good of the individ ual and society as a whole.

The School Year The school year is usually di vi ded into three terms.

Aut umn term lasts f rom September (or August ) till Christmas holiday, whi ch is about 2 weeks. Then spring term — till Easter holiday (also 2 weeks), and summer term, which lasts till June (or Jul y). Sum mer holiday is about 6 weeks.

In addition all schools have a half-term, which lasts a few days or a week in the mid dle of each term.

School Life Nearl y all schools work f i ve days a week.

They are closed on Saturdays and Sundays.

The school day starts at 9 o' clock and fin ishes between 3 and 4p. m. The lunch break usually lasts an hour-and-a-quarter. Most pupils have lunch provided by the school.

The lunch is paid by parents. Other chil dren either go home for lunch or have a snack at school.

Exams At 15—16 years old school children take public exams. They are not usually set up by the government (rather by independent examining boards). Each school or Local Ed ucation Authority decides which exams their pupils are to take. The boards publish sylla bus for each subject. There is no single school-leaving exam or school-leaving cer tificate. Usually a vast range of subjects is offered for school children. Nearly all pu pils do exam in English, Maths and Science.

Most do exams in technology and in a for eign language. Some pupils take exams in 3—4 additional subjects.

Usually exams have nothing to do with school years. Once the examining boards decided to include certain popular televi sion programmes on their literature sylla bus.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What is the goal of education in Britain?

2. What types of school do you know in Brit ain?

3. What school do children at 6 years attend?

4. What exams do children have to take at 16 years old?

5. What subjects do pupils learn at secondary school?

6. Is there any difference between state and independent schools?

7. What is the aim of private schools?

8. Can you give an example of a private school?

9. Is schooling compulsory for pupils of 17 years old?

10. When does the academic year begin?

II. True or false?* 1. Schooling is compulsory for children of 5 to 16 years of age.

2. Quite a large number of children attend pub lic schools.

3. The first stage of education is secondary education.

4. Children in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland go to school at the same age.

5. Only a small part of schools are mixed.

6. At public schools much attention is paid to character-building.

7. After finishing secondary school children are awarded GCSE.

III. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. private education — 2. compulsory education — 3. mixed schools — 4. boarding schools — 5. GCSE — 6. academic year — 7. nursery education — Education in Great Britain ( continued ) At the age of 16 pupils can leave school.

But quite a lot of them want to continue their education. Only 1/3 of all leave school at 16 and look for a job. (The general level of unemployed is high today. Some of them find job immediately and many take part in training schemes (which means job com bined with part-time college courses).

In England and Wales those who stay at school study just three subjects in prepara tion for taking A-level exams (Advanced Level).

These academic exams are set by the same examining boards that set GCSE ex ams. They're taken by pupils at the age of 18 years old, who wish to continue their education.

Universities usually select students on the basis of A-level results and an interview (stu dents who wish to enter Oxford and Cam bridge have to take certain exams). Those who have better A-level results are usually accepted.

Higher education has become more avail able in the second half of the 20th century.

In 1960 there were less than 25 universities in Britain. By 1980 there were already more than 40, and by 1995 there were over a hun dred institutions with university status.

Universities take the better students, that's why nearly all students complete their studies. The normal course of study lasts 3—4 years. Students are not supposed to take a job during the term. Unless their parents are rich, they receive a state grant, which covers most of their expenses, includ ing the cost of accomodation. Quite a lot of students live on campus (or in college) or in rooms nearby.

However, nowadays the government re duces the amount of the students and en courages a system of top-up loans. That's why quite a lot of students can't afford to live in college and many more of them are forced to do a part-time job, but this reduc es the traditionally high quality of British university education. And, in addition, the number of students from low-income fami lies has been greatly reduced.

There are no great distinctions between different types of universities in Britain.

But still there are some categories of them.

First of all, Oxbridge. Oxford and Cam bridge were founded in the medieval peri od. These Universities consist of semi-inde pendent colleges, each of them having its own staff ("Fellows").

The "Fellows" teach the college students either one-to one or in very small groups.

This system is unique in the world and known as tutorials in Oxford and supervi sions in Cambridge.

Then, Scotish universities. By 1600 Scot land had 4 universities — Glasgow, Edin burgh, Aberdeen and St. Andrews. St. An drews resembles Oxbridge very much. In the other three most of the students live at home or find their rooms in town. The process of study at these universities is very close to the continental one. There is less special ization than at Oxbridge.

During the 19th century various insti tutions of higher education (usually tech nical ones) were founded in the indus trial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds.

Their buildings were of local brick, so they got the name "redbrick" universities. They contrasted chiefly with Oxford and Cam bridge. At first, they prepared students for London University degrees, but later they were given the right to award their own de grees. They became universities themselves.

Now they accept students from all over the country. These universities are financed by local authority.

One of the developments in education in Britain is certainly the Open University. It was founded in 1971. Some people don't have an opportunity to study full-time, and this university allows them to study for degree.

The university's courses are taught through television, radio and coursebooks. Its stu dents work individually and with tutors, to whom they send their papers. The students discuss their work at meetings or through correspondence. In summer they attend short courses.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. Do pupils at 16 prefer to continue their ed ucation or to find job?

2. How many subjects are studied by pupils in preparation for taking A-level exams?

3. When do pupils take their A-level exams?

4. How do universities select students?

5. Why do all students usually complete their studies?

6. Why has the high quality of British uni versity education been reduced recently?

7. When was the Open University founded?

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. training schemes — 2. on campus — 3. a part-time job — 4. low-income families — 5. staff — 6. "redbrick" universities — III. Fill in the gaps.* 1. At the age of... pupils can leave school.

2. Only... of all pupils leave school and look for a job.

3. Those who stay at school study... sub jects.

4. A-level exams are taken at... years old.

5. Universities select students on the basis of exams.

6. By 1986 there were more than... univer sities in Britain.

7. The course of study at universities lasts... years.

8. The government encourages a system of... loans.

9. Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the... period.

10. The unique system of education in Britain i s known as... at Oxford and... at Cambridge.

11. One of the developments in education in Britain is....

Oxbridge Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Great Britain. They are cal led Oxbridge to denote an elitarian educa tion.

Only rich people send their children to these universities. The main characteristic feature of these universities is the tutorial (that means the individual tuition).

The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the students take the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Some cours es may be a year or two longer.

Oxford and Cambridge universities con sist of a number of colleges, each self-gov erning and independent. Before 1970 most of all Oxbridge universities were single-sex (mostly for men). But now the majority ad mit both sexes. The administrative body of the University consists of the Chancellor (who is elected for life), the vice-chancellor (who is in practice the head of the Universi ty, and is appointed annually by the Chan cellor) and two proctors, whose job is to maintain discipline and who are appointed annually. Each college has its staff called "Fellows".

The University is merely an administra tive body, which organizes lectures, arrang es examinations, grants degrees. Each col lege has its name. Most colleges have their own dining hall, library and chapel.

The University has laboratories and re search institutes and other educational fa cilities. All the lectures are organized by the University. In every college there are students of various specialities but each stu dent follows his own course of study.

The largest colleges have more than students, the smallest have less than 30.

Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It didn't come into being all at once. Oxford had existed as a city for at least 300 years before scholars began to re sort to it.

The end of the 12th century saw the real beginning of the University. The first group of scholars at Oxford may have been joined by others from Paris, from other parts of Britain. A characteristic feature of Oxford is that many traditions of the Middle Ages are still current there. One of them is that the students have to wear gowns.

The earliest college buildings seem to have no definite plan. They expanded as the need for more room arose (the Queen's College).

New College had the first regular quad rangle.

Perhaps the most famous colleges are Christ Church, University College and Al l Souls. Nowadays there are 29 colleges for men, 5 for women and another 5 have both men and women members.

Oxford is a place of great beauty, but it is not just a shrine to the past. It is a living entity and its historic buildings are the homes of masters and students whose learn ing, thinking and ideas have a profound in fluence on culture, education, science and politics. Many eminent world-known schol ars and scientists have been educated at Oxford. All the graduates of Oxford never forget "spirit of Oxford".

Cambridge University dates back as the 13th century. Today there are more than 30 colleges. The University is situated on the River Cam. The colleges line the right bank. The oldest university is Peterhouse (founded in 1284) and the most recent is Robinson College (1977). But the most fa mous is the King's College. The building is the real example of English 15th century architecture.

Until 1871 the University was only for men. In 1871 the first women's college was opened. In 1970s most colleges admitted both men and women.

Students at Oxbridge have different so cieties and clubs. Different sports are very popular. But the most popular sports are rowing and punting.

Every year at the end of March (or in 4* early Apri l ) a contest between Oxford and Cambridge universities take place on the Ri ver Thames. The course is the 4 1/4 mil e stretch of river. The race usually starts at midday or at 3 o' clock. By 1966 Cambridge had won 61 times, Oxford — 50 times.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What does Oxbridge mean?

2. Which of them is older?

3. What makes these universities quite dif ferent from any other?

4. How long is the course of study?

5. What is the function of the University?

II. Fill in the gaps.* 1. Only... people send their children to Ox bridge.

2. Each college is... and....

3. The University is an administrative body, which....

4. Chancellor is elected for....

5. Proctor's job is to....

6. The largest colleges have... students.

7. Oxford as a city had existed for at least... years.

8. The first regular quadrangle had... Col lege.

9. The most popular sports are....

10. All the students have to wear....

III. Fill in the table.

Part THE BRITISH PEOPLE The English Language ntil f ew centuries ago there were many natives of what we call the British Isles, who didn' t speak English. The west ern land of Wal es spoke Wel sh;

in the far thest north and the islands of Scotland the language was Gaelic;

and a similar language, Irish Gaelic, was spoken in Ireland;

Manx was the language of the Isles of Manx and Cornish that of the south-western ti p of Britain.

In Scotland the Gaelic Language Society has existed for ei ghty years. It' s dedicated to preserving the traditions of the Gaelic songs, verse and prose. And nowadays more and more people in the Lowl and areas of Scotland, as well as the islands, where Gaelic is still spoken, now want to learn the lan guage. Since 1970s many people go to evening classes and learn Gaelic. Gaelic can be chosen for the final exam. In Wales the Welsh Language Society was founded in 1962 and since that time it has been trying to restore Welsh to an equal place with En glish. In 1967 Welsh was recognized as an equal language for use in law courts. In Wales some of the programmes of the IVth channel are broadcast in Welsh.

English is spoken as a native language by more than 300 million people, most of them living in North America, the British Isles, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean and South Africa. In several of these countries English isn't the sole language (e. g. in Can ada — French is also spoken;

many Irish and Welsh speak the Celtic language). But English is the second language for govern mental, commercial, social or educational activities in the countries where native lan guage isn't English.

In about 25 countries English has been used as an official language (either it is the sole official language there, or it shares that status with other languages).

Most of these countries are former Brit ish territories. Even more widely English is studied and used as a foreign language. It has already acquired international status.

It is used for communication, listening, read ing, broadcast, in commerce and travel.

Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. It is the language of automa tion and computer technology. It is not only the universal language of international avia tion, shipping and sport, it is also the univer sal language of literacy and public communi cation. It is the major language of diplomacy and it is the most frequently used language in the general conduct of UN business.

Only in the course of the last hundred years English has become a world language.

In Shakespeare's time it was "provincial" language of secondary importance. Only 6 million people spoke English.

From the British Isles English spread all over the world, but English hasn't always been the language of the people of those is lands. When the Romans colonized England (the 1st century of our era), the country was inhabited by the Celtic tribes. Until the 5th century only the Celtic languages were spoken by the people of Britain. About the middle of the 5th century the British Isles began to be invaded by the Angl es, Saxons and Jutes, who spoke dialects of the language which was the ancestor of the present-day English. Now we call it Old English. Dur ing fifteen hundred years that have passed since the Angl o-Saxon invasion English has changed considerably. It was influenced by the language of the Danish ( Vi ki ng) invad ers (in the 8—10th century).

Between the 12th and 14th century En glish was influenced (both in grammar and vocabulary, and in its pronunciation) by Norman French. In the 14th—16th century quite a number of Lati n and Greek words were introduced into English.

English belongs to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European fami l y of languages.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What languages are spoken on the British Isles?

2. What language is widely spread in Scotland?

3. Since what time has English become a world language?

4. What branch of languages does English be long to?

5. In what countries is English considered to be the official language?

6. Where is it spoken as the second language?

7. What languages have influenced English since the 8th century?

II. Complete the sentences.* 1. English is* spoken in....

2. English has become the language of....

3. The Welsh Language Society was formed to....

4. English is spoken as a native language by more than....

5. English is used as an official language in....

6. Most of the countries where English is spo ken are....

7. In Shakespeare's time English was a lan guage of....

8. Until the 5th century only... languages were spoken by the people of Britain.

Holidays and Festivals There are eight holidays a year in Great Britain. On these days people don't go to work. They are: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, New Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday, Late Summer Bank Holiday.

Most of these holidays are of religious origin. But nowadays they have lost their religious significance and are simply days on which people relax, visit their friends. All the public holidays (except New Year's Day, Christ mas and Boxing Day) are movable. They don't fall on the same date each year.

Besides public holidays, there are other festivals, anniversaries, on which certain traditions are observed. But if they don't fall on Sunday, they're ordinary working days.

New Year In England New Year is not as widely observed as Christmas. Some people just ig nore it, but others celebrate it in one way or another.

The most common type of celebration is a New Year party (either a family party or one arranged by a group of young people).

This usually begins at about 8 o'clock p.m.

and goes until the early hours of the morn ing. There is usually a buffet supper of cold meat, pies, sandwiches, cakes, a big bowl of punch.

At midnight people listen to the chiming of Big Ben and sing "Auld Lang Syne" (a song by Robert Burns "The days of long ago").

Another popular way of celebrating New Year is to go to a New Year's dance. Most hotels and dance halls hold a special dance on New Year's Eve.

The most famous celebration is round the statue of Eros in Piccadilly Circus.

People sing, dance and welcome the New Year. Someone usually falls into the foun tain. January 1st is a public holiday. Peo ple don't work. They send cards and give presents.

CHRISTMAS DAY is observed on the 25th of December. In Britain this day was a festival long before the conversion to Chris tianity. Though religion in Britain has been loosing ground Christmas is still the most widely celebrated festival. It is the most colourful and merry holiday.

On Christmas Eve everything is rush.

Offices close at one o'clock but the shops stay open late. Most cities are decorated with coloured lights and enormous Christmas trees.

In the homes people decorate Christmas trees and hang a bunch of mistletoe under which the boys kiss the girls. They also arrange Christmas cards on shelves, tables, mantel pieces. The housewife is busy cooking a tur key and baking Christmas cakes.

Over the end of the bed people hang stock ings. Children believe that Father Christmas will come down the chimney and fill the stock ings with presents. A carrot for the reindeer is usually left on the mantelpiece.

On Christmas Day many people go to church. On returning from church the fam ily gather round the Tree and open the par cels. Everyone gets something.

Christmas meal is really traditional — stuffed turkey, boiled ham, mashed potatoes to be followed by plum pudding, mince pies, tea or coffee and cakes.

People travel from all parts of the coun try to be at home for Christmas.

Another popular festival is Guy Fawkes Night (November, 5). It commemorates the discovery of the so-called Gunpowder Plot and is widely celebrated throughout the country.

Conspiracy was going to destroy the English Houses of Parliament and King James I, when the latter opened Parliament on November, 5,1605.

In May 1604 the conspirators rented a house adjoining the House of Lords from which they dug a tunnel to a vault below the house. There they stored 36 barrels of gunpowder. It was planned that when King and Parliament were destroyed the Roman Catholics should attempt and seize power.

But on October, 26, one of the conspirators wrote to Lord Monteagle and warned him to stay away from the House of Lords. On November, 4, a search was made and the gun powder was found together with Guy Fawkes, an English Roman Catholic. Fawkes had been commissioned to set off the explosion.

Fawkes was hanged.

According to another theory the plot nev er existed at all. The Government just want ed to blacken the Catholics and tighten the laws against them. The truth is so deeply buried that we are not likely to discover it.

On November, 5, children are allowed to let off fireworks to make a bonfire and burn on it the figure of a "guy" made of old clothes, straw and a hat.

St. Valentine's Day St. Valentine's Day is celebrated on Feb ruary, 14. Every St. Valentine's Day thou sands of people travel to a small village on Scotland's border with England to get mar ried. The village is called Gretna Green. Its romantic reputation began in 1754. In that times in England marriage for the people under the age of 21 without parents' per mission was banned. However, in Scotland this permission was not required. Gretna Green was the first stop across the border.

Many young couples came to Gretna Green to get married there.

Nowadays, in this place, at least one cou ple gets married every day of the year.

Weddings for St. Valentine's Day have to be booked 3 months in advance. On this day boys and girls, sweethearts, husbands and wives, friends and neighbours exchan ge greetings of affection and love. People send each other greeting cards, chocolates and flowers. Valentine's cards are very co lourful, with a couple of human hearts on them.

In the last century, sweethearts would spend hours fashioning a home-made card or a present.

There is a version of the first Valentine.

It was a bishop, a Christian martyr who before he was put to death by the Romans sent a note of friendship to his jailer's blind daughter.

Easter Easter is a time when certain traditions are observed. It is celebrated either as the start of spring or a religious festival. In England presents traditionally take the form of an Easter egg. Easter eggs are usually made of chocolate. Nowadays, Easter eggs are often artificial. But they haven't been used before the middle of the last century and they haven't displaced the true Easter eggs.

Easter eggs always grace breakfast tables on Easter Day. Sometimes they are hidden about the house for the children to find them.

There are some Easter games like egg rolling and egg-shackling. Every year Lon don greets the spring wi th Easter Parade in Battersea Park on Easter Sunday. The parade begins at 3 p. m.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What holidays are celebrated on the same date each year?

2. How do people celebrate New Year?

3. How are the homes decorated on Christmas Eve?

4. Where do usually people put their presents on Christmas Eve?

5. What is the usual Christmas meal?

6. What holiday is celebrated on November, 5?

7. When is St. Valentine's Day celebrated?

8. What is Gretna Green famous for?

9. How does London greet spring?

10. What graces breakfast tables on Easter Day?

II. Give synonyms to the following words.* 1. importance — 2. to pay no attention — 3. very big — 4. all over the country — 5. a house next to — 6. to let smb. know about smth. in advance — III. True or false?* 1. The most widely observed holiday is New Year' s Day.

2. Most hotels hold a special dance on New Year' s Eve.

3. Christmas Day became a festival after the conversion to Christianity.

4. On New Year Eve people hang a bunch of mistletoe.

5. Father Christmas puts all his presents un der the Christmas Tree.

6. English people celebrate Christmas at home.

7. On November, 5 the Catholics planned to seize power.

IV. Fill in the gaps* 1. Most of the holidays in Great Britain are of... origin.

2. Al l the public holidays are....

3. There are a lot of festivals on which...

are observed.

4. A New Year party usually begins at...

and goes on until....

5. At midnight people listen to the... of Big Ben.

6. The most famous celebration of New Year i s round the....

7. Christmas Day is observed on....

8. Christmas meal is usually traditional....

9. The Government wanted an excuse to...

the Catholics.

The Weekend Most people in Britain work five days a week from Monday to Friday. Schools, col leges and universities are closed on Satur day and Sunday.

Weekend starts on Friday evening when people leave work and wish each other a nice weekend.

Those who work away from home may go home. Some people go away for the week end. They stay in a hotel or boarding house in the country or at the sea.

People who stay at home at the weekend try to relax, enjoy themselves. On Friday night people like to go to a bar for the happy hour, or the theatre. Nowadays it is not "in" to go to all-night parties, they get up early on Saturday morning. Saturday morning is the time for cleaning the house, washing the car, doing the laundry. Women usually do housework, sewing and gardening.

Saturday morning is a busy time for shop ping. On weekdays shops close between 5. and 6 p. m. (They're closed on Sundays.) The shops in the centre of big cities usually close at one in the afternoon.

At about one o'clock people go out for lunch. After lunch they go for a walk or do some sports. On Saturday afternoon sport ing events take place — football, horse-rac ing, rugby, cricket and other sports. People either go and watch or sit and watch the sports programmes on television.

Saturday evening is the favourite time for going out: parties, dances or theatre, maybe pictures. Some people like to go to watch a band.

Church bells are a typical feature of an English Sunday morning. On Sunday morn ing most people stay in bed till 9 o'clock.

Then they have a cup of tea or coffee. They look through the newspapers. Reading Sun day papers is one of numerous traditions in Britain. There are quite a number of papers which are published weekly on Sundays.

After breakfast most people go for a walk or to the local pub.Usually men go to the pubs alone and their wives and children pre pare for brunch.

At one or 1.30 people have brunch. It is a good time f or all the fami ly, when grand parents, parents and children go out to some restaurant and spend an hour or two over brunch. Brunch is a huge meal. They have all sorts of salads, vegetables, chicken, cold meat, pies, fruit, coffee, pudding.

Sunday evenings are rather quiet. Most people prefer to stay at home and watch television or just get ready f or Monday. So they usually have an early night.

EXERCI SES I. Answer the questions.

1. How long is a week in Britain?

2. When does the weekend start in Britain?

3. When do the shops close on Saturday in Brit ain?

4. What do people usually do on Saturday af ternoon?

5. What is the favourite time for going out?

6. What does brunch mean?

7. What do people usually have for brunch?

II. Match the two halves.* 1. People work...

2. Weekend starts on...

3. Some people go away for...

4. Those who stay at home try to...

5. People don't go to all-night parties...

6. Saturday morning is the time for...

7. Saturday evenings is the time for...

8. On Sundays people get up...

9. Church bells are a typical feature of...

10. Brunch is...

11. On Sundays people have...

a) the weekend.

b) because they get up early on Saturday.

c) cleaning the house and doing shopping.

d) at 9 o'clock.

e) an English Sunday morning.

f) days a week.

g) a huge meal.

h) going out.

i) Friday evening.

j) relax and enjoy themselves.

k) an early night.

III. True or false?* 1. People work 6 days a week.

2. Weekend starts on Saturday.

3. Women do housework on Sunday.

4. On weekdays shops close at 2 o'clock.

5. Saturday morning is a busy time for shop ping.

6. On Sunday afternoon sporting events take place.

7. Saturday evening is the favourite time for going out.

8. On Sunday morning people stay in bed till 9 o'clock.

9. People have brunch at 5 p. m.

10. Brunch is a snack between meals.

11. People have tea or coffee for brunch.

12. On Sunday evenings people watch televi sion.

IV. Arrange the sentences in the proper or der.* 1. On Sunday people get up at 9 o'clock.

2. At 1 p. m. people go out for lunch.

3. Most men go to the pubs alone.

4. Weekend starts on Friday night.

5. On Friday people like to go to a bar for the happy hour.

6. After lunch they do some sports.

7. On Saturday afternoon people either go and watch or sit and watch the sports pro grammes.

8. On Saturday people usually do housework.

9. On weekdays shops close at 5.30 or 6 p. m.

10. After breakfast most people go to the local pub.

11. Sunday evenings are usually quiet.

12. On Sunday people have brunch in a restau rant.

13. They have an early night.

14. Al l the family spend an hour or two over brunch.

15. People get ready for Monday.

16. Over a cup of tea or coffee people read Sun day papers.

Holidays in Britain There are fewer public holidays in Brit ain than in any other country in Europe. Even New Year' s Day wasn't a public holiday in England and Wales until quite recently. Most official holidays occur just before or just af ter a weekend. There are practically no ex tra local holidays in particular places.

The word holiday means holy day. But not all public holidays are connected wi th religious celebrations. The average employee gets four weeks' paid holiday a year. About 40% of the population do not go away for their holidays.

In the 18th century the British upper class started the fashion for seaside holidays. In the 20th century the working class got such an opportunity too. And soon it became pop ular to spend a week or two at the seaside resort towns. These towns have many hotels.

Food in British hotels and restaurants is reasonably cheap, but rooms are not. Few English people rent houses or flats for their holidays, but one of the traditional ways of spending a holiday is in a boarding house.

These houses offer "bed and breakfast" or "full board" (that means that all meals are provided).

If the weather is fine people go to the beach, where children make sandcastles, eat ice-creams or go swimming. Quite a lot of people like just to relax and sunbathe.

In the evening and when it's raining, peo ple go to discos, theatres, dance halls, which are usually situated on the pier.

In the 1950s and 1960s camping holi days were very popular. People stayed in chalets and had food and all kinds of en tertainment in the holiday camps. Camp ing holidays are not so popular in England nowadays, but they are very popular in France.

Caravan holidays have become more pop ular nowadays. A caravan pulled by the fam ily car can provide good opportunity for holiday. Many people like the friendly at mosphere in an organized caravan site.

Forei gn tourism has become extremel y popular these days. Millions of people spend thei r hol i days away f rom home. Most f orei gn holidays are package holidays. You book t ransport and accomodat i on and pay for everything in advance ( through a travel agent).

Spain is a very popular package-holiday place today.

Traditi onall y people start planning their summer holidays on Boxi ng Day.

Some holidays in Britain last only three or less days. For example, for Bank holiday weekend most people go to the most popu lar seaside resorts. Ri ch people go to their cottages in the countryside where they pre fer to spend the weekend.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. How long is an annual holiday for the av erage employee in Britain?

2. What does the word holiday mean?

3. What was a popular type of holiday in the 18th century?

4. What are people offered at boarding houses?

5. What' s the difference between the camp ing holiday and a caravan holiday?

6. How do people spend their Bank holiday weekend?

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. a boarding house — 2. a caravan — 3. to book in advance — 4. package holiday — 5. to book accomodation — III. Fill in the gaps.* 1. New Year's Day wasn't a... quite recently.

2. Not all public holidays are connected with....

3.... of the population do not go away for their holidays.

4. Food in hotels and restaurants is....

5. Few people... flats or houses for their holidays.

6. A caravan is... by the family car, 7. Many people like... in a caravan site.

8. If the weather is fine people go to the....

9. In a camp people stay in....

10.... tourism has become very popular.

11. You book... and... in advance.

12. People start planning their holidays on... Day.

An Englishman's Home is His Castle" Everyone in Britain dreams of living in a detached house, which means a separate building. It is usually built of brick and slate. A detached house is of "non-classi cal" shape with a lot of little corners, which make the house very cosy. In front of the house there's always a beautiful garden with smooth lawn. The garage is hidden away so it doesn't spoil the rural feeling.

Every Englishman wants privacy. And a large, detached house not only ensures pri vacy, but it's also a status symbol. Such a house is a dream for most people. But even a small house with a garden is very dear to the hearts of many people in Britain.

Most people don't like blocks of flats, be cause they provide the least amount of pri vacy. Flats are usually much cheaper. (In fact, they're the cheapest kind of home.) Peo ple who live in them cannot afford to have a house of their own. Their dislike of living in flats is very strong. In 1950s, for exam ple, millions of poor people lived in old, cold, uncomfortable houses of the 19th century, with no bathroom. But when they were giv en new blocks of flats to live in, with cen tral heating and bathrooms, more comfort able and cosy they hated their new homes.

They felt lonely without their gardens and neighbours.

In Britain these "tower blocks" (or "high rise blocks") were a complete failure, because they didn't suit British attitudes;

while in other countries people are very happy in modern flats. Nowadays only 40% of the population live in high-rises.

Law and custom in Britain support a clear separation between what is public and what is private. To emphasize this division, peo ple prefer to live in a house, set back from the road. This way they can have a garden in front of the house, which separates them from the world. This area may not be very big, but it allows people to have a low fence or a hedge round it. Such a fence announces that here the private property begins.

Flats don't give people enough privacy.

Not having a separate entrance to the outside world doesn't suit British tastes.

People like to choose the colour of their own front door or window frames. Besides, they can have a small garden of their own in front of the house, even if the outside territory is very small. English people usu ally have flowerbeds with paths in between, or just patches of grass to express their in dividuality.

British houses are thought to be very cold, maybe the coldest in Europe. But it is not so. About 3/4 of houses now have central heating. The most important thing for Brit ish people is to feel cosy — that is to create a warm atmosphere (even if it's not warm in the house). In Britain many people have a great desire to have a "real fire". A fire place is a traditional symbol of warmth.

Nowadays, it may be an imitation of open fire with plastic coal. Most older houses have two living rooms. It allows the front room to be used for formal visits while the fami ly spend their time in the back room, hidden from public view. If there is one living room in the house, then there is a hall into which the front door opens. Private houses usual ly have the back door for family or close friends.

In spite of peoples' great desire to have a house of their own they're not so much at tached to the house itself. The house can be easily sold, if necessary and if the price is attractive. Most houses are sold on the open market by the "property developers" (they are private companies).

The desire to have a private house is great, but house prices are very high. About 70% of all the houses are occupied by their own ers. Usually people borrow 80% of the price and then pay the money back month by month. Normal l y they pay the money back over the period of 20—25 years.

I. Answer the questions.

1. What does a "detached house" mean?

2. Why don't English people like blocks of flats?

3. Why is it so important for English peo ple to have a garden in front of the ho use?

4. How can an Englishman express his indi viduality?

5. What is a traditional symbol of a cosy home in Britain?

6. Why do British people tend to have two liv ing rooms?

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions.

1. a detached house — 2. tower blocks — 3. property developers — III. Fill in the gaps.* 1. A detached house means... for an En glishman.

2. Flats are usually much... than houses.

3. Only... % of the population live in high rises.

4. Flats don't give people....

5. They usually have a... in front of the house.

6. A... is a symbol of warmth in a British home.

7. Private homes have the... for family and friends.

8. Usually people borrow... % of the price.

9. They pay money back during... years.

10. A detached house is usually built of...

and....

Meals The usual meals are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. A traditional English breakfast is a very big one — sausages, bacon, eggs, vegetables. But many people just have cere al with milk, juice or yoghurt, a toast with marmalade, jam or honey. Marmalade is made from oranges and jam is made from other fruit. The traditional breakfast drink is tea which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instant coffee, which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find English coffee just horrible.

5 Lunch isn't small either. At lunch, which is about one o'clock, cold mutton, fish with potatoes, salad and pickles generally grace the table. Lunch is a quick meal. In cities there are a lot of sandwich bars, where of fice workers can choose the kind of bread they want — brown, white, or a roll — and then all sorts of salad and meat or fish to go in the sandwich. English mutton is a treat, and it is prepared in such a way that you wouldn't know it is mutton. Salad is a little different from ours. You only get the clean green leaves and the so-called "salad dress ing", a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, pepper and mayonnaise, that you may take accord ing to your taste. English pubs often serve good, cheap food, both hot and cold. School children can have a hot meal at school but many just take a snack from home — a sand wich, a drink, some fruit, some crisps.

After lunch most people take coffee, though tea is the favourite beverage in En gland. That's why there are no "coffee hous es", but tea rooms and luncheon rooms are in abundance. There is nothing like an En glish party, at home or in the open air. Tea means two things. It is a drink and a meal.

Some people have afternoon tea, wi th sand wiches, cakes, and, of course, a cup of tea.

Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) wi th cream and j am. The evening meal is the main meal of the day f or many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, and often the whol e fami l y eat together. Dinner begins wi th some salad, followed by a clear soup, fish, vegetable and dessert. In simplier homes the schedule is somewhat different. In the morning they have breakfast, at midday — dinner, which is considered to be the chief meal, tea in the afternoon and supper in the evening. The supper mi ght consist of an omelette, bacon, sandwich and a cup of tea, coffee or cocoa.

On Sundays many families have a tradi tional lunch. They have roast meat either beef, lamb, chicken or pork wi th potatoes, vegetables and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juices. When eating out, that is, on a picnic, the English load their lun cheon baskets wi th all sorts of sandwiches made of thin slices of bread and butter wi th meat, ham, raw tomatoes or cucumbers. There in the basket you would likely find, besides cakes and biscuits, some bottles of gi nger beer.

The British like food f rom other coun tries, too, especially Italian, French, Chine se and Indian. People often get takeaway meals — you buy the food at the restaurant and then bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain is quite international.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What are the usual English meals?

2. Is English breakfast big or small?

3. What do people have for breakfast?

4. Do British people have soup for lunch?

5. What' s the difference between English and Russian salad?

6. What does "tea" mean?

7. When do the English have dinner?

8. Sunday lunch is something special, isn't it?

9. What do British people load their luncheon baskets with?

10. What do foreign people think of English coffee?

II. True or false?* 1. Many British people have a big breakfast.

2. People often have cereal or toast for break fast.

3. Marmalade is made from any fruit.

4. People drink tea with hot milk.

5. Many foreign visitors love English coffee.

6. All British people have a hot lunch.

7. Pubs are good places to go for lunch.

8. British people eat dinner late in the evening.

9. Sunday lunch is a special meal.

10. When you get a takeaway meal, you eat it at home.

III. There are seventeen words connected with food;

find them and write here.* IV. Fill in the gaps* 1. English breakfast is a big....

2. People have... with milk or juice.

3. People have tea with... milk.

4. Pubs... good, cheap food.

5. Many children take a... from home.

6. The English... their baskets with all sorts of sandwiches.

7. Dinner in some homes is considered to be the... meal.

8. Tea is the favourite... in England.

9. At lunch cold mutton, fish, pickles general ly... the table.

10. English mutton is a....

V. Choose the right answer* 1. Gravy is...

a) kind of dessert.

b) a sauce made from meat juices.

c) a special beverage.

2. "Salad-dressing" is...

a) a special dish, consisting of different vegetables.

b) a salad topping.

c) a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, mayonnaise.

3. A scone is...

a) a kind of biscuit.

b) a drink.

c) a sauce.

4. Tea is usually drink with...

a) hot milk.

b) lemon.

c) cold milk.

Pubs in Britain Most countries have a national drink. In England it is beer, and the "pub" is a pecu liarly English institution.

The pub is the place where people can meet and talk in a friendly atmosphere. It is quite different f rom bars or cafes in other coun tries. In cafes people drink coffee and get out. The atmosphere is rather formal. But in pubs there is a general atmosphere of warmth and cosiness.

Every pub has a sign outside wi th its name. ("The Pi g and Whi stl e", "The Bull", "The Duke of Cambridge", etc.). Al l pubs have one distinctive feature: there is no waiter ser vice there. If you want something you have to go and ask for it at the bar. People usually sit at tables and chat in a small room, called the "bar", but the same term is used for the great counter of wood, where people stand and have their drinks.

English people are proud of their tradi tions, that' s why even modern pubs look as if they were several hundred years old. In earlier times people were served only drinks in pubs. Today you can get wine, coffee and some food in them.

The staff of the bar usually know the reg ular customers and chat with them. The cus tomers may play different games (the most popular is the game of darts) or just watch TV.

Nowadays nearly all pubs are owned by brewery. The person who runs a pub (he is called "landlord") is employed by the brew ery. But in earlier times all pubs were pri vately owned (they were called "inns"), and people could stay there for the night.

There are two important peculiarities about pubs. One is that they have strictly limited hours of opening. Each local gov ernment authority has power to fix its own "licensing hours".

The second peculiarity is that most pubs are divided into at least two separated bars:

the public bar and the saloon bar.

The difference between them is that the saloon bar is less uncomfortable.

Children are not allowed inside a pub if the pub has no children's certificate.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. What is the difference between a pub and a typical cafe?

2. Are pubs privately owned?

3. Who is the owner of the pub?

4. Are children allowed inside a pub?

5. How do people usually spend time in a pub?

II. Match the two halves.* 1. A pub is different from...

2. A pub is the place where people...

3. There's no...

4. Each pub has its own...

5. In earlier times pubs were called...

a) meet and talk.

b) waiter service in pubs.

c) name.

d) inns.

e) bars and cafes.

III. Complete the sentences.

1. A pub means...

2. The pubs used to serve only....

3. Today you can get...,... and... in a pub.

4. You must order a drink at....

5. There is a... outside the pub with its....

6. Nearly all pubs are owned by....

Sport in Britain Sport plays a very i mportant part in peo ple' s lives in Britain. About 29 mill ion peo ple over the age of 16 regularly take part in sport or exercise. Wal ki ng is the most pop ular recreation. For many people sport is the main form of entertainment. There are a lot of sport programmes on TV. Every news paper devotes several pages to sport.

The British are one of the best in the world in different sports. The importance of sport is recognized by the Government. Every local authority has a duty to provide and maintain playing fields and other facilities, which are very cheap to use (sometimes they are free).

Such sporting occasions as the Cup Fi nal, the Derby, the Boat Race are regarded as the event, rather than the sport itself.

They are watched on television by millions of people. These annual sporting occasions are available to all TV channels. Sometimes such events are accompanied by strong tra ditions. For example, Wimbledon is not just a tennis tournament. It means summer fash ions, strawberries and cream, garden par ties. Wimbledon is a middle-class event, and British tennis fans would never allow them selves to be treated like football fans.

Every tennis player dreams of playing at Wimbledon, as football player dreams of Wembley, and every cricketer dreams of playing at Lord's.

The game peculiarly associated wi th En gland is cricket. Cricket is English in ori gi n and has been extensively accepted in the Commonwealth. It is much more than just a sport;

it symbolizes a way of life — a slow and peaceful rural way of life. Cricket is associated with long summer afternoons, the smell of new-mown grass. It is the national English game.

Rugby football has existed in Britain since the beginning of the 19th century, when a teacher at Rugby school, while playing foot ball, decided it would be better to pick up the ball and run wi th it. There are two ver sions of this fast ball game: rugby union and rugby league. They are very similar, but the real difference between them is a mat ter of social history. Rugby union is the older of the two. In the 19th century it was played by most of Britain' s public schools.

Rugby league split off f rom rugby union at the end of the century.

It is played by worki ng class, while rug by union is mainl y f or the mi ddl e class ( though in recent years it has become less exclusively middle class).

Traditionally, the favouri te sports of the British upper class are hunting, shooting and fishing. The most widespread form of hunting is fox-hunting.

Shooting in Britain is allowed only dur ing certain specified times of the year.

Shooting means killing birds with guns.

It is confined largely to the higher social classes.

The only kind of hunting which is associ ated with the working class is hare-coursing.

The one kind of hunting, which is popular among all social classes is fishing.

Horse racing is a very popular sport in Britain. This sport became known as "the sport of kings" in the 17th century. Today some members of the royal family own race horses and attend certain annual race meet ings;

some are active participants in the sports of polo and show-jumping.

Almost every sport is played in Britain.

Hockey, basketball, netball (for women) are becoming very popular.

EXERCISES I. Answer the questions.

1. How can you prove that sport is the main form of entertainment?

2. Does the Government pay any attention to sport? (Prove it.) 3. What sporting occasions are regarded as the event, rather than the sport itself?

4. What game was originated in England?

5. What game symbolizes English way of life?

6. What' s the difference between rugby union and rugby league?

7. What are favourite English sports?

8. What sport is known as "the sport of kings"?

II. Complete the sentences.* 1. About... people take part in sport or exercise.

2. Walking is the most popular....

3. Every local authority has a duty to....

4. Wimbledon isn't just a tennis tournament, i t means....

5. Every football player dreams of playing at....

6. The game associated with England is....

7. Rugby football has existed in Britai n since....

8. The most popular form of hunting is....

9. The difference between rugby union and rugby league is....

10. Some members of the royal family are ac tive participants in the sports of....

III. Match the two halves.* 1. For many people sport is...

2. There are a lot of sport programmes...

3. Every local authority...

4. Annual sporting occasions are...

5. Every cricketer dreams of playing at...

6. Cricket is...

7. Rugby union was played by...

8. Rugby league is played by...

9. The favourite sports of the British upper class are...

10. The one kind of hunting which is popular among all social classes is...

11. Horse-racing became known as "the sport of kings" in...

a) on TV.

b) available to all TV channels.

c) the national game.

d) most public schools.

e) hunting, shooting, fishing.

f) Lord's.

g) the main form of entertainment.

h) provides playing fields.

i) working class.

j) the 17th century, k) fishing.

Traditions and Customs Every nation and every country has its own traditions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of the peo ple than in other countries.

The English are very proud of their tra ditions and carefully keep them. When you come to England you' re struck at once by quite a number of customs. Some ceremonies are rather formal, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the Colour, the State opening of Parliament, the Ceremony of the Keys. Sometimes you will see a group of cavalrymen riding on black horses through the streets of London. They wear red uniforms, shining helmets, long black boots and long white gloves. These men are Li fe Guards. Their special duty is to guard the Ki ng or the Queen of Great Britain, and very important guests of the country.

One of the most impressive and popular displays of royal pageantry is the Chang ing of the Guard, which takes place at Buck ingham Palace every day including Sunday at 11.30. The troops who take part are se lected f rom the f i ve regi ments of Foot Guards. Thei r numbers depend on whether the Queen is in residence or not. The men of the duty guard march f rom either Wel l ington or Chelsea Barracks to Bucki ngham Palace wi th a band.

The guard to be relieved f orms at the south end of the forecourt under the com mand of the Captain of the Queen' s Guard.

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