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«CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHOLOGY Second edition Edited by Raymond J. Corsini, Alan J. Auerbach John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...»

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.............................................. Псевдогермафродитизм (pseudohermaphrodism).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Псевдодеменция (pseudodementia)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Псевдопсихология (pseudopsychology).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Примеры псевдопсихологии........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Предпочтение цвета...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Френология.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Физиогномика............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Хиромантия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Графология.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Холодное чтение........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Парапсихология............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Анализ сновидений....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психиатрическая социальная работа (psychiatric social work).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Определение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Подходы к вмешательствам......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психиатрические клиники (psychiatric clinics)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психическая невовлеченность — психическая вовлеченность (mindlessness—mindfulness)................................................................................................................................................... Психические болезни: ранняя история (mental illness: early history)......................................................................................................................................................................................... Гиппократ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сократ и Платон............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Аристотель..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Цельс и Римская империя............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гален.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Средние века.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Парацельс и эпоха Возрождения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психическое исследование (psychic research).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психоанализ (psychoanalysis)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Первая фаза.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вторая фаза.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Третья фаза.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Юнг (1875-1961)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Адлер (1870-1937)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Четвертая фаза............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Э. Эриксон (1902-1992)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Резюме........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психоаналитические стадии (psychoanalytic stages).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оральная стадия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Анальная стадия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Фаллическая стадия...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Генитальная стадия....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психодрама (psychodrama)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психокинез (psychokinesis)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психолингвистика (psycholinguistics)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Влияние теории Хомского........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Новые тенденции.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологическая наука (psychological science)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психологическая оценка (psychological assessment).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологические лаборатории (psychological laboratories)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психологическое здоровье (psychological health)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Различные взгляды на психологическое здоровье..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 3. Четыре представления о природе человека............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Таблица 4. Цель учения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Представления о природе человека............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Таблица 5. Сопоставление четырех школ психотерапии........................................................................................................................................................................................ Резюме........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологическое консультирование (counseling psychology)..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология акта (act psychology)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология денег (psychology of money)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология женщин (psychology of women)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. История.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Влияние психоанализа.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Современные исследования женщин.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половые различия......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биология в сравнении с культурой.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Работа и любовь в жизни женщин............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология здоровья (health psychology)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология и закон (psychology and the law)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология и суды (psychology and the courts)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психология искусства (psychology of the arts).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психология мира (peace psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психология музыки (psychology of music)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология потребителя (consumer psychology).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология присяжных (jury psychology)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология способностей (faculty psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психология толпы (mob psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психология торговли (sales psychology)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История психологии торговли..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Иллюстрации подходов к исследованию продаж и управлению сбытом................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психология черт (trait psychology)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психометрика (psychometrics)................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Нормирование и уравнивание...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка надежности....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка валидности....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ заданий............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психоневрология (psychoneurology).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Семейство расстройств................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Первичный психопат.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психонейроиммунология (ПНИ) (psychoneuroimmunology)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проблемы исследований.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Клинические следствия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Продолжающиеся споры.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психопатическая личность (psychopathic personality)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психосинтез (psychosynthesis)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психосоматика (psychosomatics).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психосоматические расстройства (psychosomatic disorders)...................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психостимуляторы в лечении детей (psychostimulant treatment for children)............................................................................................................................................................................ Особенности больного ребенка................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Особенности лечения.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заключение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психотерапия (psychotherapy)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ История психотерапии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психотерапевтические школы..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Направления исследований.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психотерапия: общие факторы (psychotherapy: common factors)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Ранние попытки идентификации общих факторов.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общие факторы как направление размышлений о терапии...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапевтический альянс............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Корректирующий эмоциональный опыт..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Личность психотерапевта............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ценности........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Создание модели общих факторов психотерапии...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Относительная значимость различных общих факторов........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психофармакология (psychopharmacology).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антипсихотические средства....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Противоневротические и анксиолитические средства.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антидепрессанты.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Соли лития..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Снотворные средства.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психофизика (psychophysics)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психофизиология (psychophysiology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психофизиологические измерения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Компьютеры.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Анализирование данных............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Каналы получения психофизиологической информации.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психофизические законы (psychophysical laws)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Надпороговые феномены............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Модифицированные психофизические шкалы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сравнение психофизических шкал.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Интерпретация психофизических законов.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психофизические методы (psychophysical methods).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод границ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Метод установки........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод постоянных раздражителей.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психофизические методы шкалирования надпороговых раздражителей................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теория обнаружения сигналов..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Приложения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психохирургия (psychosurgery)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 4. Мишени» психохирургии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психоэндокринология (psychoendocrinology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Истоки и основания...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Экспериментальные исследования.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Клинические наблюдения и исследования................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Нейроэндокринология.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие после 1950 г................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психоэндокринные связи............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. _Р_....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Работоспособность (work efficiency).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Физическое утомление................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психическое утомление............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Скука и монотонность.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Развивающаяся психотерапия (emerging psychotherapies).......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Распространение методов психотерапии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эклектизм и интеграция в психотерапии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие в подростковом и юношеском возрасте (adolescent development).............................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие в раннем детстве (early childhood development)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Развитие взрослых (adult development).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Определение развития взрослых................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие взрослых в перспективе времени жизни..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Характерные особенности развития взрослых.

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие игры (play development).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие интеллекта взрослых (adult Intellectual development)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие младенца (infant development)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Развитие на протяжении жизни (life-span development)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие навыков межличностных отношений (interpersonal skills development).................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие программ обучения (curriculum development)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие профессиональной карьеры (career development)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Согласовывающие подходы......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дифференциальные подходы....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Феноменологические подходы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Подходы с позиций развития....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Подходы с позиций принятия решений...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие социального поведения людей (development of human social behavior)..................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие в течение первых шести месяцев................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Вторые шесть месяцев.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Расширение социального окружения ребенка............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Развитие речи................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Приобретение просоциального поведения в раннем возрасте.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Различия между мальчиками и девочками................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие человека (human development)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Широта человеческого развития.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Глубина человеческого развития................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Теории и методы изучения развития на протяжении жизни..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие эго (ego development)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Стадии развития эго...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Смежные области.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методы изучения.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Развод (divorce)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Разработка учебно-тренировочных систем (instructional systems development, ISD)................................................................................................................................................................ Разрешение конфликта (conflict resolution)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Разыгрывание ролей (role playing)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ранкианская психология (rankian psychology).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Раннее развитие (precocious development).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ранние воспоминания (early recollections).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расовые различия (racial differences)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Распределение упражнений (distribution of practice)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 1. Исполнение как функция распределения упражнений в задаче моторного научения............................................................................................................................. Распределительная справедливость (distributive justice)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рассеянный склероз (multiple sclerosis)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расстройства аппетита (appetite disorders)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расстройства личности (personality disorders).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Расстройства памяти (memory disorders)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расстройства пищевого поведения (eating disorders).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Расстройства психики и поведения при поражениях ЦНС (central nervous system disorders)................................................................................................................................................. Расстройства характера (character disorders)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расстройство поведения (conduct disorder).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Измерения расстройства поведения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Траектории развития..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... От расстройства поведения к дисфункции взрослого возраста................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Факторы риска............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профилактика................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рационализм (rationalism).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рационально-эмотивная поведенческая терапия (rational-emotive behavior therapy)............................................................................................................................................................... Биологические основы личности................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Социальные основы личности..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Личность и расстройство.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Подходы Р-э. п. т. к лечению....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Реабилитация (rehabilitation)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Реабилитация при наркоманиях (drug rehabilitation)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Реакция нападения / бегства (fight / flight reaction)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Регулируемое психиатрическое здравоохранение (managed mental health care)...................................................................................................................................................................... Редукционизм (reductionism).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Режимы подкрепления (I) (reinforcement schedules).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Режимы подкрепления (II) (schedules of reinforcement)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческие эффекты............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теоретические трактовки режимов подкрепления..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Резиденциальные альтернативы (residential alternatives)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Результаты обучения (I) (learning outcomes, I)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Различия в приобретенных способностях................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Разновидности результатов обучения......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Соотношение результатов обучения с образовательной программой школы......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Соотношение с другими классификациями................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оптимальные для каждого результата условия обучения......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Результаты обучения (II) (learning outcomes, II).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Традиционная перспектива и ее ограничения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Неопиажетианский подход.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Феноменографический подход.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сходства и различия между двумя альтернативными подходами............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Реклама (advertising)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История.
......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология рекламы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выбор средств информации......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Роль рекламы в маркетинге.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Этика в рекламном бизнесе.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Специфическая аудитория........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Религиозное поведение (religious behavior).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Религия и психология (religion and psychology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Некоторые сферы интереса.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Респираторные расстройства (respiratory disorders).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ретикулярная активирующая система (reticular activating system)............................................................................................................................................................................................. Рефлексы (reflexes).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рефлективное слушание (reflective listening)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Речевое развитие (speech development).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Речевые расстройства (speech disorders)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Решающие эксперименты в психологии (crucial experiments in psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................. Ригидность (rigidity)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Ритм (rhythm)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ритуальное поведение (ritual behavior)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Родители-одиночки (single parenthood)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Родительская пермиссивность (parental permissiveness)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Родительское поведение животных (animal parental behavior).................................................................................................................................................................................................. Родовая травма (birth injuries)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Ролевые ожидания (role expectations)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рольфинг (rolflng)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рукость (handedness)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _С_...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Садистическая ритуальная жестокость (sadistic ritualistic abuse).............................................................................................................................................................................................. Споры вокруг СР........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ритуальное жестокое обращение с детьми................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Терапевтические вопросы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Ритуальное жестокое обращение с подростками....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Взрослые выжившие жертвы ритуального насилия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Садомазохизм (sadomasochism)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоактуализация (self-actualization)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Самодетерминация (self-determination)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоконтроль (self-control)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Самоосуществляющиеся пророчества (self-fulfilling prophecies)................................................................................................................................................................................................ Самооценка (self-esteem)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Самораскрытие (self-disclosure)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоубийство (suicide)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Различные подходы к суицидальным явлениям......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Покушение на самоубийство....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Косвенные суициды и полупреднамеренные смерти................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Глобальные, политические и надгосударственные аспекты....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоэффективность (self-efficacy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Источники эффективности........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Инициируемые эффективностью процессы................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Свидетельские показания очевидцев (eyewitness testimony)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Память на лица.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Эмоции и сосредоточение внимания на оружии........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Наводящие и дезориентирующие вопросы................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Точность памяти и уверенность свидетелей в своих показаниях............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Общая точность показаний.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дети как свидетели....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методы улучшения памяти свидетелей...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Свобода воли (free will).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Свобода (freedom)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заключение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Свободное воспроизведение (free recall)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Связь и привязанность (bonding and attachment).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Секс-терапия (sex therapies)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Распространенные виды сексуальных расстройств................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Основные формы секс-терапии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффективность секс-терапии....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лицензирование сексотерапевтов................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Сексизм (sexism).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Сексуальная дисфункция у женщин (female sexual dysfunction)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Сексуальная дисфункция у мужчин (male sexual dysfunction).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сексуальная дисфункция (sexual dysfunction).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Типы дисфункции......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Причины дисфункции................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение дисфункции.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сексуальность человека (human sexuality).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биологический пол....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гендерная идентичность.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Полоролевое поведение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Сексуальное поведение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Сексуальные вариации и затруднения........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Сексуальная ориентация.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Сексуальные дисфункции и секс-терапия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сексуальность;

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