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«CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHOLOGY Second edition Edited by Raymond J. Corsini, Alan J. Auerbach John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...»

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........................................................................................................... Критерий знаков для сравнения групп с попарно связанными вариантами.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Медианные критерии для независимых групп и групп с попарно связанными вариантами.................................................................................................................................................................................... Критерий Манна—Уитни для двух независимых групп............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Критерий Уилкокс для групп с попарно связанными вариантами............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ранговый дисперсионный анализ по Краскелу—Уоллесу.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критерий Фридмана для групп с попарно связанными вариантами.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Непрофессионалы в психиатрическом здравоохранении (nonprofessionals in mental health).................................................................................................................................................... Нервно-мышечные расстройства (neuromuscular disorders)......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Несовершеннолетние сексуальные насильники (adolescent sex offenders).................................................................................................................................................................................. Неструктурированные терапевтические группы (unstructured therapy groups)........................................................................................................................................................................... Характеристики ведущего.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Фазы группового процесса............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Фаза социализации.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Недоверие к авторитетам............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самораскрытие................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Новые способы отношения друг к другу...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заключительная фаза...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Низкие учебные достижения (academic underachievement)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нимфомания (nymphomania)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Новаторские психотерапии (innovative psychotherapies)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нормальное развитие (normal development).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... От рождения до 1 месяца................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ От 1 до 4 месяцев............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ От 4 до 10 месяцев.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... От 10 до 12 месяцев........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ От 12 до 18 месяцев........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ От 18 до 24 месяцев........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ От 2 до 4 лет.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... От 4 до 12 лет.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Отрочество-юность......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Взрослость....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _О_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Обзоры (surveys)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Обман (deception).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Первые теории и ранние исследования......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дети и обман................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Военный обман............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Насильственное преступление и обман........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оценка обмана................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Неправильные представления специалистов об обмане.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Обнаружение лжи (lie detection)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ободрение (encouragement).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Обозрение профессиональных интересов Кьюдера (Кuder occupational interest survey)........................................................................................................................................................... Обоняние (olfaction).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обработка информации (information processing)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обработка информации бессознательная (unconscious information processing).......................................................................................................................................................................... Образ тела (body image).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Образование консультанта (counselor education)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Образование тормозных условных рефлексов (inhibitory conditioning)....................................................................................................................................................................................... Образованность и достижения (scholarship and achievement)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обратное обусловливание (backward conditioning)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обряды перехода (rites de passage)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Обсервационные методы (observational methods).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обсессивно-компульсивная личность (obsessive-compulsive personality).................................................................................................................................................................................... Обучающие машины (teaching machines)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обучение в раннем детстве (early childhood education)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Обучение во сне (sleep learning)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обучение детей с особыми потребностями в основном потоке (educational mainstreaming).................................................................................................................................................... Обучение методом (управляемых) открытий (discovery learning)................................................................................................................................................................................................ Обучение психотерапии (psychotherapy training)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модель ученого-практика.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Модели обучения психотерапии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обучение равными по статусу (peer tutoring)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Обучение релаксации (relaxation training)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общественная психология (community psychology)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общие системы (general systems).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общий адаптационный синдром (general adaptation syndrome)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общий фактор интеллекта (general intelligence factor).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Объективная психология (objective psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Объем памяти (memory span)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ограниченная во времени психотерапия (time-limited psychotherapy)......................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие событий в психоанализе................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие событий за пределами психоанализа............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Теория ограниченной во времени психотерапии......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Одаренные и талантливые дети (gifted and talented children)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Одежда (dress)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Роль одежды в формировании имиджа......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Значение одежды в формировании первых впечатлений............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вклад одежды в привлекательность.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Камуфляжное значение одежды.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Роль одежды в процессе взросления............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Одиночество (loneliness)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ожирение (obesity)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оккультизм (occultism)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оперантное обусловливание (operant conditioning)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оперантные процедуры.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Оперантная теория.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оперантное поведение (operant behavior)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оперативная память (working memory)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Операционализм (operationalism).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Операциональное определение (operational definition)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Описательная психология (descriptive psychology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Опросник депрессии Бека (Beck depression inventory)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Опросник поведенческого здоровья Миллона (Millon behavioral health inventory).................................................................................................................................................................... Опросники (questionnaires)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Опросы общественного мнения (opinion polls).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Оптимальное функционирование (optimal functioning)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Самоактуализация........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Полноценно функционирующий человек..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Черты оптимальной личности........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Другие значимые вклады............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Опыт близких к смерти состояний (near-death experiences)......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Организационная диагностика (organizational diagnosis)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Характерные особенности организационной деятельности........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Организационная психология (organizational psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Трудовые аттитюды и продвижение по службе........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мотивация труда............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Групповые процессы и групповая динамика................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Руководство и принятие решений в организациях....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Организационное развитие............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Организационный климат (organizational climate)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Органические психозы (organic psychoses)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Органические синдромы (organic syndromes)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Специфические органические синдромы...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оргонотерапия (orgone therapy)..........................................................

............................................................................................................................................................................................. Основные сведения (background characteristics)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Раса, этническая принадлежность и социальный класс............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Пол................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Основы личностно-центрированного подхода (person-centered approach foundations)............................................................................................................................................................. Факты............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Некоторые подтверждающие примеры......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Функция сознания........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гипотеза на будущее....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Отбор персонала (personnel selection)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методы отбора................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Исследования.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Проблемы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Обобщение валидности.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Отбор руководителей высшего звена (executive selection)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отборочное собеседование (interviewing (selection))..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ответственность и поведение (responsibility and behavior)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Открытое образование (open education).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Отношение к инвалидам (handicapped, attitudes toward)................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отношение к психическим болезням (mental illness: attitudes toward)........................................................................................................................................................................................ Отношения «родитель—ребенок» (parent—child relations).......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Взаимная социализация и синхрония в отношениях между родителями и детьми.................................................................................................................................................................................................. Семья как система........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Отношения сиблингов (sibling relationships).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Соперничество сиблингов.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Описания статусов сиблингов........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отношения сиблингов на протяжении жизни.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Отреагирование (abreaction)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отрочество—юность (adolescence)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исторические перемены................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Отсутствие заботы о детях (child neglect)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Статистические данные.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Предупреждение и лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отчимы и мачехи (stepparents)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отчуждение (политическое) (alienation (political))........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теории.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Последствия..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценивание результатов обучения (grading in education)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Оценка величины стимула (magnitude estimation)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка деятельности (performance appraisal)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оценка и принятие решений (judgment and decision making)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оценка личности (personality assessment)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Цели оценки личности.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Уровни оценки личности................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Современное состояние оценки личности.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка нуждаемости детей в психотерапии (assessing children for psychotherapy).................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка персонала (personnel evaluation)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критерии деятельности.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Оценка потребностей (needs assessment)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оценка программ (program evaluation)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка стиля жизни (lifestyle assessment)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка труда работника (для установления заработной платы) (job evaluation)........................................................................................................................................................................ Оценка частоты событий (frequency judgment)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценочные (рейтинговые) шкалы (rating scales)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Очевидная валидность (face validity)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ошибка игрока (gambler's fallacy).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ошибки (I и II рода) (errors (type I and II))..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ошибки оценщика (rater errors)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _П_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Память (memory)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Виды памяти.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методики оценки памяти............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории памяти................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Резюме............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Панические расстройства (panic disorders)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Определение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Причинные факторы....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Парадигмы (paradigms).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Институт семьи............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Религия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Парадоксальное вмешательство (paradoxical intervention)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Типы и применение........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Механизмы изменения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффективность................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Этические вопросы......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Парадоксальный сон (paradoxical sleep)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Параметрические статистические критерии (parametric statistical tests)..................................................................................................................................................................................... Параноидная личность (paranoid personality)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Паранойя (paranoia).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Парапсихология (parapsychology).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исторический фон........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эксперименты в университете Дьюка: систематические исследования.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследования процесса.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Пси-феномены и снижение сенсорного шума.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Отсутствие пси-феноменов и дифференциальный эффект......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории пси-феноменов................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критика............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Парасимпатическая нервная система (parasympathetic nervous system)....................................................................................................................................................................................... Пассивно-агрессивная личность (passive-aggressive personality)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Пасторское консультирование (pastoral counseling)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Пасынки и падчерицы (stepchildren)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Педагогическая оценка (educational assessment)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Педагогическая психология (educational psychology).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Педиатрическая психология (pediatric psychology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Услуги, предоставляемые педиатрическими психологами......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследования.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Педофилия (pedophilia)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Первичная профилактика психопатологии (primary prevention of psychopathology).................................................................................................................................................................. Первичная терапия (primal therapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Первичные умственные способности (primary mental abilities).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Первобытное мышление (primitive mentality)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Переговоры об освобождении заложников (hostage negotiations)................................................................................................................................................................................................ Переговоры (negotiation).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Переменные в исследованиях (variables in research)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перенос в обучении (transfer of training)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Переоценочное консультирование (revaluation counseling).......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Персонология (personology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Перцептивная организация (perceptual organization).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перцептивное развитие (perceptual development)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перцептивные искажения (perceptual distortions).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перцептивные способности младенцев (infant perceptual abilities).............................................................................................................................................................................................. Общая характеристика восприятия младенца.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Зрительные умения младенца........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Слуховые умения младенца.......................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перцептивные умения в области других чувств.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Пересмотренный взгляд на перцептивные умения младенца..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перцептивный стиль (perceptual style)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Перцептивный транзакционализм (perceptual transactionalism)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Пиковые переживания (peak experiences)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Письменные экзамены для аспирантов (graduate record examination (GREs))............................................................................................................................................................................ Питание младенца: феномен «кафе-закусочной» (cafeteria feeding)............................................................................................................................................................................................ Пищеварительная система (digestive system).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Пищевая депривация (food deprivation).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Пищевая депривация и долголетие............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Последствия недоедания на начальных стадиях развития организма........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Планы исследований на одном объекте (single-subject research designs).................................................................................................................................................................................... Корреляционные планы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Квазиэкспериментальный план..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Экспериментальные планы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Сравнение планов исследования на одном объекте и на группах.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Плацебо (placebo).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Плацебо-эффект при использовании метода двойного ослепления........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клиническое применение плацебо................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Побеги из дома (runaway behavior)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Поведение игроков (gambling behavior).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведение приматов (primate behavior).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведение растений (plant behavior)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческая медицина (behavioral medicine)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Стойкие типы нездорового поведения.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффекты эмоционального стресса и других психосоциальных факторов................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психологические проблемы, создаваемые травмами, болезнями и старением......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапия и реабилитация................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Поведенческая терапия: проблемы и вопросы (behavior therapy: problems and issues).............................................................................................................................................................. Роль когнитивных факторов в поведенческой терапии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческая терапия (behavior therapy)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческая токсикология (behavioral toxicology)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенчески выверенные оценочные шкалы (behaviorally anchored rating scales).................................................................................................................................................................. Поведенческие контракты (behavioral contracts)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческие ритмы человека (human behavioral rhythms)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Поведенческий контраст (behavioral contrast)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческое вмешательство (behavioral intervention)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческое моделирование (behavioral modeling)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Общие принципы.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Приложения поведенческого моделирования............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Поветрия и мода (fads and fashions).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Поветрия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Мода............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Повиновение (obedience)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Повреждения головного мозга (brain injuries)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Повторение (rehearsal)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Пограничная личность (borderline personality)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Подготовка руководящих кадров (management development)..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поддерживающий уход (supportive care)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Подкрепление (reinforcement)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Подпороговая психодинамическая активация (subliminal psychodynamic activation, SPA)...................................................................................................................................................... Подпороговое воздействие (subliminal influence)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Подпороговое восприятие (subliminal perception)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Подходы к учению (approaches to learning).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Таблица 1. Подходы к учению..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Позитивизм (positivism).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Познание (cognition)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ПОИР (GRIT)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Применение стратегии ПОИР...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поиск ощущений (sensation seeking)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Наблюдаемые проявления поиска ощущений............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Поиск «козла отпущения» (scapegoating)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Показания экспертов (expert testimony)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Полевые исследования (field research).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Полевые эксперименты (field experimentation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Полезависимость (field dependency).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Полемика о роли природы и воспитания в развитии (nature-nurture controversy).................................................................................................................................................................... Политические ценности (political values)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Категории ценностей.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ценности и политическая идеология.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Полицейская психология (police psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Что это такое?................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Почему она развивается сегодня?................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Что дальше?................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половое воздержание (sexual abstinence)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половое поведение животных (animal sexual behavior).............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Инициирование............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Копуляция...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Непосредственные причины........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Эволюция и приспособительное значение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Половое (сексуальное) развитие (sexual development)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Половой акт у человека (sexual intercourse, human)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половые девиации (sexual deviations)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Типы парафилии........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половые различия: возрастной аспект (sex differences: developmental)..................................................................................................................................................................................... Различия в жизненном опыте....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биологические половые различия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выводы.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половые различия в склонностях к математике (sex differences in mathematics)...................................................................................................................................................................... Половые различия (sex differences)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Половые роли (sex roles)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Полоролевая социализация.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Современное состояние исследований половых ролей............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Полоролевое развитие (sex-role development)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Полоролевые стереотипы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Теории............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Развитие половых ролей............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выводы.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Помогающее поведение (helping behavior)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Понятие рефлекторной дуги (reflex arc concept).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Порог (limen)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Порядок рождения и личность (birth order and personality)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Порядок рождения (birth order)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Последипломная подготовка в области психологии (graduate training in psychology)............................................................................................................................................................. Последипломное образование (graduate education)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Степень магистра.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Докторские программы................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Последовательные методы (sequential methods)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Традиционные планы в психологии развития............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Последовательные стратегии....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 1. Схема поперечных и продольных последовательностей и возможных планов анализа, выводимых из общей модели развития...................................................... Планы выборочного исследования.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Планы анализа............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Последствия депривации (deprivation effects)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Последствия стресса (stress consequences)....................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................ Посредничество в конфликте (conflict mediation)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вступительная речь...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Стадии посредничества................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Постмодернизм (postmodernism).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психология в ситуации постмодернизма.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Постмодернистская психология?................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Системная терапия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Заключение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Посттравматическое стрессовое расстройство (posttraumatic stress disorder).......................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 2. Посттравматическое стрессовое расстройство (критерии DSM-IV)........................................................................................................................................................................ Потенциал действия (action potential)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Потеря и горе (loss and grief).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Потребность в аффилиации (affiliation need)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Потребность в достижении (achievement need)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Похвала (praise)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Право на лечение (right to treatment)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Право на отказ от лечения (right to refuse treatment)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Практика найма рабочих и служащих (employment practices).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Единые рекомендации по методам отбора наемных работников............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Представления (imagery)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Предубеждение и дискриминация (prejudice and discrimination)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Преподавание психологии в университетах (teaching undergraduate psychology).................................................................................................................................................................... Преступность (crime)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Привилегия на выдачу рецептов (prescription privileges)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Удовлетворение нужд общества — перспектива государственной политики......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Соображения, касающиеся политики и профессиональной идентичности............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Проблемы рынка........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проблемы подготовки.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Заключение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Привыкание (габитуация) (habituation)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Приемные дети (adopted children)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Приемы заучивания (learning strategies)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мнемотехника............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Повторение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внутренняя организация.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Семантическая проработка.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 2. Карта понятия по составлению понятия....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прикладные исследования (applied research)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История возникновения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психология как профессия: напряжение и развитие................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Современное состояние................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Тенденции развития прикладных исследований........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Принцип экономии (law of parsimony).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Применимость............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Комиссия NRC по проблеме повышения эффективности человеческой деятельности.......................................................................................................................................................................................... Принятие роли (role taking)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Принятие управленческих решений (management decision making)........................................................................................................................................................................................... Нормативный анализ.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ многомерной полезности (MAU).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ дерева решений................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Дискреционный анализ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Эксперты........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Приобретенные побуждения (acquired drives)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Приобретение страха.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Реакции привязанности................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Социальные способы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 3. Схема преобразования драйва по Толмену................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аддикции....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мотивация и эмоции..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Приучение к горшку (toilet training).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Проверка гипотезы (hypothesis testing).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проверка нулевой гипотезы (null hypothesis testing).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прогноз академической успеваемости будущих студентов (college academic prediction)....................................................................................................................................................... Программные средства (computer software).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Программы психического здоровья (mental health programs)..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прогрессивные матрицы (Равена) (progressive matrices (Raven's).............................................................................................................................................................................................. Прогуливание уроков (school truancy).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Продуктивное мышление (productive thinking)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Проект «Талант» (project talent).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проективные методики (projective techniques)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Проектирование рабочего пространства (work-space designs).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проектирование рабочих заданий (task design)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Производительность труда (employee productivity)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Производственные консультанты (industrial consultants)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Промежуточная переменная (intervening variable)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Промышленная клиническая психология (occupational clinical psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................. Промышленная и организационная психология (industrial / organizational psychology).......................................................................................................................................................... Значение П. и о. п.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История П. и о. п........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Начальный период развития П. и о. п......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Первая мировая война.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Период между двумя мировыми войнами: Хоторнское исследование.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вторая мировая война................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Послевоенный период.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Текущие проблемы и вопросы..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Статус П. и о. п. как профессии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Промышленная психология (industrial psychology)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профотбор и расстановка кадров................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Оценка деятельности.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обучение........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Мотивация труда........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Удовлетворенность работой......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проектирование трудовой деятельности.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Промышленный клинический психолог (occupational clinical psychologist)............................................................................................................................................................................. Пропаганда (propaganda)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Просоциальное поведение (prosocial behavior)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Профессиографический анализ (job analysis)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профессиональная адаптация (occupational adjustment)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Профессиональная реабилитация (vocational rehabilitation)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профессиональная этика (professional ethics).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Профессиональное консультирование (occupational counseling)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Теория и методы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профессиональные интересы (occupational interests).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Сексизм и расизм в измерении.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профессиональные консультации (professional consultations).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профессиональный стресс (occupational stress)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профилактика суицида (suicide prevention).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Центры профилактики суицида................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Процессы коммуникации (communication processes)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Процессы поиска и извлечения информации из памяти (memory retrieval processes).............................................................................................................................................................. Узнавание и вспоминание............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Признаки информационного поиска........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сбои в процессах поиска и извлечения информации из памяти............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поисковые признаки при восстановлении вытесненных воспоминаний...................................................................................................................................................................
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