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«CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHOLOGY Second edition Edited by Raymond J. Corsini, Alan J. Auerbach John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...»

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............................................................................................................................................................... Тесты когнитивных способностей................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Факторы когнитивной способности.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Клинические подходы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие и снижение когнитивных способностей....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Источники индивидуальных различий.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивный диссонанс (cognitive dissonance).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Когортные различия (cohort differences)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Кодирование (coding)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Кожные ощущения (cutaneous senses)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Колдовство (witchcraft)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Колумбийская шкала умственной зрелости (columbia mental maturity scale).............................................................................................................................................................................. Командная деятельность (team performance).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Процесс удостоверения квалификации......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Коммуникация животных (animal communication)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Системы коммуникации................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Компетентность в психологии (competency in psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Комплекс испытаний для получения водительских прав (driver's license testing)...................................................................................................................................................................... Комплексы (complexes)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Компульсивная личность (compulsive personality)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Компьютеризованное адаптивное тестирование (computerized adaptive testing)........................................................................................................................................................................ Определение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Адаптивное тестирование.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Компьютеризованное адаптивное тестирование.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Компьютеризованное обучение (computer-assisted instruction).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Компьютерная томография (КТ) (computed tomography).............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Конверсионное расстройство (conversion disorder)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клиническая картина...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Этиология........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Коннекционизм (connectionism)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Современный коннекционизм....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Консерватизм / либерализм (conservatism / liberalism).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Теории.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Различия между массой и элитой.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Идеологические тенденции............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Константность (constancy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теории константности и их следствия.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Константность как прямая реакция на инварианты..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Конституциональные типы (constitutional types)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Конструирование измерительных инструментов (instrument design)........................................................................................................................................................................................... Консультирование (counseling)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Консультирование как обучение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Консультирование как психотерапия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Дальнейшее развитие...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Консультирование по вопросам досуга (leisure counseling).......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Определения досуга........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Потребности и мотивы досуга....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Появление парадигм досуга........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модели консультирования по вопросам досуга........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Цели консультирования по вопросам досуга................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Консультирование по вопросам карьеры (career counseling)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Основные направления работы в консультировании по вопросам карьеры.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Профпросвещение........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Современное положение дел.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Консультирование по вопросам развития (developmental counseling).......................................................................................................................................................................................... Уравновешивание индивидуальной и социальной перспектив................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Консультирование сверстниками (peer counseling)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Консультирование увольняемых работников (outplacement counseling)..................................................................................................................................................................................... Контекстуальная ассоциация (contextual association).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контробусловливание (counterconditioning)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контролируемая алкоголизация (controlled drinking).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Концепция болезни......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контроль в эксперименте (experimental controls)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контроль веса (weight control)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контроль переменных (control of variables)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контроль поведения (control of behavior)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Экстернальный подход................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интернальный подход.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контрольные группы (control groups)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Контрольный список проблем Муни (Mooney problem checklist)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Конформная личность (conforming personality).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Конформность (conformity).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Корреляционные методы (correlation methods).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Корреляция как произведение моментов...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Бисериальная корреляция............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Точечно-бисериальная корреляция............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ранговая корреляция....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Множественная корреляция........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Каноническая корреляция.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Корреляция и регрессия (correlation and regression)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Коэффициент корреляции.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Сопоставление корреляционных и экспериментальных исследований..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Множественная корреляция........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Кратковременная память (short-term memory)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Краткосрочная терапия (short-term therapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Креативность (creativity).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кривые научения (learning curves).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кризис идентичности (identity crisis).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кризисное вмешательство (crisis intervention)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История движения кризисного вмешательства............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Процедуры кризисного вмешательства......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Безотлагательность......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Контроль.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. План действий................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Предоставление справочной информации и направление к специалистам............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Последующее наблюдение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Критерий оценки трудовой деятельности (criterion in employment)............................................................................................................................................................................................. Критерий хи-квадрат (chi square test).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кросс-культурная психология (cross-cultural psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Определения культуры................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Определение кросс-культурной психологии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Широкое использование «культуры» как теоретически важной переменной........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Цели и преимущества кросс-культурных исследований............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Несмешивающиеся переменные.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общекультурная и культуроспецифичная системы координат: эмика и этика......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эмика и этика на практике: исследования авторитарного консерватизма................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Примеры кросс-культурных исследований: обучение и познание............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методы кросс-культурных исследований: коммуникация с испытуемыми.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кросс-культурное консультирование (cross-cultural counseling).................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кросс-культурная психологическая оценка (cross-cultural psychological assessment)................................................................................................................................................................ Кросс-культурные учебные программы (cross-cultural training programs)................................................................................................................................................................................. Цели................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Подходы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффективность.

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Культура и психотерапия (culture and psychotherapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Культурно свободные тесты (culture fair tests)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рис. 5. Образцы заданий из теста «Прогрессивные матрицы Равена»..................................................................................................................................................................... Культурные различия (cultural differences)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Культурный детерминизм (cultural determinism)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Культуроспецифичные расстройства (culture-bound disorders).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Виды культуроспецифичных расстройств.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Классификация культуроспецифичных расстройств................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Культур-шок (culture shock)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Курение (smoking behavior).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Начало курения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Курение как устойчивая привычка................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Отказ от курения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. _Л_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Латерализация головного мозга (brain laterally)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Латеральное доминирование (lateral dominance)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение алкоголизма (alcoholism treatment)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Компоненты системы лечения....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Скорая помощь................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Стационарное лечение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Промежуточное лечение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Другие службы................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методы лечения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Лечение наркомании (drug users' treatment)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение нарушений сна (sleep treatment)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение ожирения (obesity treatments)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Модификация поведения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Заключение...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Либидо (libido)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лидерство и руководство (leadership and supervision)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лимбическая система (limbic system).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Литература и психология (literature and psychology)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Личное пространство (personal space)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Личностные шкалы Комрея (Comrey personality scales)................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Личность и болезнь (personality and illness).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Личные документы (personal documents)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Лоботомия (lobotomy)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Логический позитивизм (logical positivism).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Логотерапия (logotherapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Локализация звука (auditory localization)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Признаки для определения направления...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Локус контроля (locus of control)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теоретическая основа понятия И—Э............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Измерение И—Э............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Связи между И—Э и личным контролем...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Происхождение И—Э..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лонгитюдные исследования (longitudinal studies)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Любовь (love)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Что такое любовь?.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... В кого чаще всего влюбляются?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Что такое страстная любовь?......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Существуют ли различия между мужской и женской любовью?............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Как люди узнают о том, что их любят?......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _М_....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Магическое число семь (magical number seven)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Объем абсолютной оценки............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Объем непосредственной памяти.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Образование блоков........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Является ли число семь по-прежнему магическим?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Маниакально-депрессивная личность (manic-depressive personality)........................................................................................................................................................................................... Диагноз............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Этиология........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Физиологические подходы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психологические подходы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Маразм (marasmus)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Марафон-терапия (marathon therapy).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Марихуана (marijuana)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мастурбация (masturbation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Математическая теория научения (mathematical learning theory)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Математически одаренные дети (precocious mathematical reasoners)........................................................................................................................................................................................... Прогностическая ценность SAT..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Материнская депривация (maternal deprivation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Медитация (meditation)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Медицинская модель психотерапии (medical model of psychotherapy)......................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка медицинской модели психотерапии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Таблица 1. Тавтологические объяснения поведенческих проблем.......................................................................................................................................................................... Возможное объяснение ночного энуреза...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Междисциплинарная терапия (interdisciplinary treatment)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Международная шкала действия Лейтер (Letter international performance scale)....................................................................................................................................................................... Международные конференции (international conferences)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Международные психологические организации (international organizations of psychology)..................................................................................................................................................... Межличностная аттракция (interpersonal attraction)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Межличностная коммуникация (interpersonal communication)..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Межличностное восприятие (interpersonal perception)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Меры интеллекта (intelligence measures)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Неинтеллектуальные факторы в измеряемом интеллекте........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тесты интеллекта............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Меры креативности (creativity measures)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Меры критерия (criterion measures)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Меры речи и слуха (speech and hearing measures).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Меры речи—языка.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Измерение слуха............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Меры центральной тенденции (central tendency measures)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Меры читаемости (reading measures).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Мета-анализ (metaanalysis)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... О пользе мета-анализа.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критика мета-анализа..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вычислительные процедуры для объединения данных научных исследований....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общая значимость данных............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Оценка величины эффекта............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Заключение...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метапсихология (metapsychology)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод антиципации (anticipation method)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод критических случаев (critical incident technique)................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Метод Монтессори (Montessory method)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методика вынужденного выбора (forced-choice testing)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методика наводнения (flooding)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методика репертуарных решеток (repertory grid technique)......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методика Роршаха (Rorchach technique)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методика чернильных пятен Хольцмана (Holtzman inkblot technique)........................................................................................................................................................................................ Методики психотерапии (psychotherapy techniques)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Разговор — фокусирование на интеллекте................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Разговор — фокусирование на аффекте......................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Разговор — фокусирование на репетиции поведения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Активное поведение....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Факторы окружающей обстановки................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Непрямой контакт с клиентами..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методология (научных) исследований (research methodology).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Планы пассивного обсервационного исследования..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Угрозы внутренней валидности..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внешняя валидность и метаанализ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методы многомерного анализа (multivariate analysis methods).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модели............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методы тестирования (testing methods).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методы эмпирического исследования (empirical research methods)............................................................................................................................................................................................ Методики выборочного исследования.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Точность измерения........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Контроль в эксперименте............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Экспериментальные планы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Роль статистического анализа........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Эмпирическая проверка гипотез.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Механизмы групповой психотерапии (mechanisms of group psychotherapy)............................................................................................................................................................................... Механистическая теория (mechanistic theory)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Механическое заучивание (rote learning)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Микродиагностика (microdiagnosis)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Микротренинг (microtraining).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Минимальная мозговая дисфункция (диагноз) (minimal brain dysfunction (diagnosis)).............................................................................................................................................................. Таблица 2. Названия, аббревиатуры и номера шкал MMPI...................................................................................................................................................................................... Миф о психической болезни (myth of mental illness)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мифы (myths)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мичиганский картиночный тест (michigan picture test)................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Мнемоника (mnemonics)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мнемонические системы (mnemonic systems)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Многомерное шкалирование (multidimensional scaling)................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Многомерное шкалирование индивидуальных различий............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Широкое определение многомерного шкалирования.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Многоосевой клинический опросник Миллона (Millon clinical multiaxial inventory)................................................................................................................................................................. Множественная корреляция (multiple correlation)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Множественная личность (multiple personality)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Множественная регрессия с переменной-модератором (moderated multiple regression)............................................................................................................................................................ Таблица 3. Влияния нового лекарства на показатели пациентов по шкале депрессии.......................................................................................................................................... Таблица 4. Матрица данных множественной регрессии, построенная с использованием кодирования эффектов факторов............................................................................ Таблица 5. Проверка значимости весов предикторов (коэффициентов регрессии)................................................................................................................................................ Множественная регрессия (multiple regression)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Множественная семейная терапия (multiple family therapy).......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Структура......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Процесс терапии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Резюме............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Модели нейронных сетей (neural network models)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Основные характеристики.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Линейный пороговый элемент....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 1. Линейный пороговый элемент......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Синаптическая фасилитация.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 2. Хеббовский адаптивный элемент.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Основные архитектуры................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Многослойные сети........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рис. 3. Конфигурация многослойной сети, подчиняющейся правилу исключающего ИЛИ................................................................................................................................. Автоассоциативные сети................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рис. 4. Автоассоциативная сеть, в которой все выходные уровни могут связываться со входными уровнями.................................................................................................. Современное состояние.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Модели (models)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Моделирование структурными уравнениями (structural equation modeling)............................................................................................................................................................................... Моделирование (simulation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Модель линзы (Брунсвика) (lens model (Brunswick))..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модель структуры интеллекта (structure-of-intellect model)......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модификация поведения (behavior modification)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Девиантное или нуждающееся в изменении поведение.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Вмешательство: прямое или косвенное........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ История модификации поведения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методики модификации поведения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Мозговая локализация функций (cerebral localization)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Мозговые волны (brain waves)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мозговые волны и сон.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мозговые волны и клиническая диагностика............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Молярные / молекулярные конструкты (molar / molecular constructs)......................................................................................................................................................................................... Монизм / дуализм (monism / dualism).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Моральное развитие (moral development)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Моральное суждение...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Моральное поведение..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Моральное чувство......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Моральный дух в организациях (morale in organizations)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Основные теории мотивации труда............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Удовлетворенность работой и моральный дух............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Морита-терапия (morita therapy)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Морфология искусства (artistic morphology).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Мотивация (motivation)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сила.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Различия между физиологическими и психологическими потребностями............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Различия между поведением и мотивацией.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Страх и тревога............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ожидание, контроль и мотивация сближения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Мощность статистических критериев (power of tests)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мужской протест (masculine protest)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Музыкотерапия (music therapy)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мультикультурное консультирование (multicultural counseling)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Мультимодальная терапия (multimodal therapy)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Мышечная релаксация (muscle relaxation)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _Н_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Надежность диагнозов (reliability of diagnoses).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Надпочечники (adrenal glands)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Наземный транспорт (surface transportation)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оптимальное сидение..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Стресс и психическое здоровье..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общественный транспорт.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Найкан-терапия (naikan therapy)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Наказание (punishment)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории наказания............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Итоги................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Намеренное поведение (purposive behavior)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Написание психологического заключения (psychological report writing).................................................................................................................................................................................... Источники неточностей при написании заключения.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нарушения мышления (thought disturbances)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Нарушения слуха (auditory disorders)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кондуктивные нарушения слуха................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сенсорно-невральная глухота........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Тиннит.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Нарушения сна (sleep disorders).........................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................. Нарциссическая личность (narcissistic personality)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Насилие (violence)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Наследственность и интеллект (heredity and intelligence)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Принципиальные трудности.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Понятие наследуемости.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Требования к измерению................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Недостающие данные..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Точность оценок наследуемости................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Невостребованность оценок наследуемости................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Неправильное понимание наследуемости..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прогностическая валидность......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интеллект и обучение в колледже................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Наследование привилегий.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Обучение и интеллект.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Изменение фертильности............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Наследственные болезни (genetic disorders)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Наследуемость (heritability)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Наследуемость черт личности (heritability of personality)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Натуралистическое наблюдение (naturalistic observation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Проведение исследований методом натуралистического наблюдения...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критика, контроверзы и контраргументы..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тенденции и перспективы.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Научение «парному чередованию» (double-alternation learning)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рис. 1. Временная (а) и пространственная (б) формы лабиринта парного чередования........................................................................................................................................ Научение грубым моторным навыкам (gross motor skill learning)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Научение по типу инсайта (insight learning)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Научение убеганию—избеганию (escape—avoidance learning).................................................................................................................................................................................................... Научение через подражание (imitative learning)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Научный метод (scientific method)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Национальная ассоциация образования (National Education Association)................................................................................................................................................................................... Национальная лаборатория тренинга (National Training Laboratory).......................................................................................................................................................................................... Национальный характер (national character).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Невербальное поведение (nonverbal behavior)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Невербальные терапии (nonverbal therapies).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Арт-терапия..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тренинг с использованием биологической обратной связи........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методики контроля дыхания......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапия диетой и мегавитаминами............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методики эмоциональной разгрузки............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методики поддержания баланса энергии..................................................................................................................................................................................... Массаж и глубокая проработка ткани........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методики осознания движений..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тренинг восприятия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методы терапии сенсорной депривацией и сном........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Невербальные тесты интеллекта (nonverbal intelligence tests)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Термины и иллюстративные задания............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Связь с теорией интеллекта............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Области применения....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Недирективный психоанализ (nondirective psychoanalysis)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Недостаточная обучаемость чтению (reading disability)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Подтипы недостаточной обучаемости чтению............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Диагностика дефицитарных навыков чтения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Функциональная тренировка......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Результаты коррективного чтения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Недостаточная специфическая обучаемость (learning disabilities)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Недостаточность питания и поведение человека (malnutrition and human behavior).................................................................................................................................................................. Независимая психологическая практика (independent practice)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Независимые личности (independent personalities)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Социальное влияние и независимость.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поленезависимость......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологическая дифференциация............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Автономия....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Незаконченные предложения (incomplete sentences)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Незаметные измерения (unobtrusive measures)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Незрелая личность (immature personality)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейролингвистика (neurolinguistics)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейромедиаторы (neurotransmitters)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейронные механизмы научения (neural mechanisms of learning)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффекты повреждения головного мозга у людей и животных.................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ элементарного научения у позвоночных......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Научение и нейронная пластичность у беспозвоночных............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Долговременная потенциация: изменение силы межнейронных связей.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейропсихологическая батарея Лурии-Небраска (Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological battery)................................................................................................................................................. Нейропсихологическая оценка (neuropsychological assessment)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейропсихологическое развитие (neuropsychological development)............................................................................................................................................................................................. Развитие клеточной организации нервной системы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффекты воздействия среды и опыта........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Асимметрия и нейропсихологическое развитие........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейропсихология (neuropsychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Историческое развитие................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Роль нейропсихологов.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Направления нейропсихологии..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Спорные вопросы в нейродиагностическом тестировании......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Индивидуальное тестирование против стандартизованного....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Количественное/качественное тестирование................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Одиночные тесты/тестовые батареи.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Реабилитация................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теоретические позиции.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Эквипотенциальная теория............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теория локализации........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Альтернативы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Факторы, влияющие на нейропсихологическую оценку............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Возраст............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Образование.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Физические расстройства............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интеллект........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Эмоциональные проблемы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Экспериментальная нейропсихология.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейротоксические вещества (neurotoxic substances)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейрохимия (neurochemistry)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нейрохирургия (neurosurgery)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Неконформная личность (nonconforming personality).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Нелинейная связь (curvilinear relationship)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 2. Положительная линейная связь....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 3. Отрицательная линейная связь........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рис. 4. Нелинейная связь.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рис. 5. Нелинейная связь.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Необихевиоризм (neobehaviorism)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Неонатальное развитие (neonatal development).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Неопсихоаналитическая школа (neopsychoanalytic school)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Непараметрические статистические критерии (nonparametric statistical tests)........................................................................................................................................................................... Преимущества и издержки непараметрической статистики....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Примеры непараметрических критериев с пояснениями.................................................................................................................................
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