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«CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHOLOGY Second edition Edited by Raymond J. Corsini, Alan J. Auerbach John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ...»

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......................................................... Гуманитарная модель здравоохранения (human services)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гуморальная теория (humoral theory).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. _Д_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Дауна синдром (монголизм) (Down syndrome (mongolism)).......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Двигательная терапия (movement therapy)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Движение Кэмпхилл (Camphill movement)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Школы Кэмпхилл............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Деревни Кэмпхилл.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Движения глаз (eye movements)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Двойная связь (double bind).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Двухпроцессная теория научения (two-process learning theory)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Девиантное созревание (deviant maturation)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Девиантность (deviance)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дееспособность (competency to stand trial)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Деиндивидуализация (deindividuation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Декортикация (decortication)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Деменция (dementia)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Депрессия (depression)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Понятие депрессии......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Классификационные альтернативы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эпидемиология депрессии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исторический экскурс.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биологические теории депрессии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Генетика........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биохимия......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психобихевиоральные теории....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивные поведенческие теории............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психоаналитические теории.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Кросс-культурные аспекты............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Измерение депрессии..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологические методы оценки.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Биологические методы диагностики............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Депрограммирование (deprogramming).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дерматит (dermatitis)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Процедура........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теория.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Предостережение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Детерминизм / индетерминизм (determinism / indeterminism)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Детская и подростковая делинквентность (juvenile delinquency).................................................................................................................................................................................................. Детская психология (child psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ История детской психологии......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории в детской психологии........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методы исследования в детской психологии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Спорные вопросы психологии развития....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Детские психозы (childhood psychoses)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Этиология........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Детский невроз (childhood neurosis)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Детский церебральный паралич (cerebral palsy)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Дзэн-буддизм (zen-buddhism)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Диагнозы (diagnoses)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Разработка диагностических категорий........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Валидность диагноза...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Возможности классификации........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Диалектика (dialectic)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Диахронные модели в сравнении с синхронными (diachronic versus synchronic models).......................................................................................................................................................... Дилемма заключенного (prisoner's dilemma).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рис. 1. Матрица игры.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Динамическая психология (dynamic psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гедонистические теории мотивации, или теории удовольствия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Когнитивные теории мотивации, или теории потребности в знании......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории роста, или актуализации.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психоаналитическая теория........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Общая теория систем...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заключение...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дисперсионный анализ (analysis of variance)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Диспозициональные наборы (dispositional sets)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Дисциплина в классе (classroom discipline).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дифференциальная психология (differential psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Диапазон и распределение индивидуальных различий............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Наследственность и среда.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Понятия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методология.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Природа интеллекта........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Структура......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие на протяжении жизни..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интеллектуальные девианты......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Групповые различия....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Половые различия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расовые и культурные различия.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дифференциальные тесты способностей (Differential Aptitude Tests, DAT)................................................................................................................................................................................ Дневные дошкольные центры (day-care centers)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Условия в дневных дошкольных центрах..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эффекты дневных дошкольных центров...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дневные стационары (day hospitals)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Добрачное консультирование (premarital counseling)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Доверительные границы (confidence limits).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дома «на полпути» (halfway houses)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Домашние любимцы (pets)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Доминантные и рецессивные гены (genetic dominance and recessiveness)................................................................................................................................................................................... _Е_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Единственные дети (only children)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ежегодники психических измерений (mental measurement yearbooks)........................................................................................................................................................................................ Естественное (грудное) вскармливание (breast-feeding)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Естественные и логические последствия (consequences, natural and logical).............................................................................................................................................................................. Естественный отбор (natural selection)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эволюция......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Отбор и поведение.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _Ж_....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Железы и поведение (glands and behavior)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гормональные влияния на гомеостатические механизмы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гормональные реакции на эмоциональный стресс...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Полоспецифичное поведение......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Жертвы побоев (battered people)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Жестокое обращение с ребенком (child abuse)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Жесты (gestures)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Жетонные системы (token economies)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Животные как модели (animal models)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Животные, воспитываемые как дети (animals raised as humans).................................................................................................................................................................................................. Жизненные события (life events)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _З_......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заброшенные дети (neglected children)............................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................... Забывание в старости (late-life forgetting)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Забывание (forgetting)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Зависимая личность (dependent personality)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Зависимость (dependency)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Фаза дописьменных культур и обществ с родоплеменной организацией.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Современная колониальная фаза................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Постколониальная фаза.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Зависимые переменные (dependent variables)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Зависящее от состояния научение (state-dependent learning)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Задание (task)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Открытое задание и информационная ценность вознаграждения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Открытые задания и мотивированное обучение.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ориентация открытых заданий и успешность выполнения........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Историческая заметка..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заикание (stuttering).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Закон Вебера (Weber's law)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Закон дочерней регрессии (Law of filial regression)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Закон Фехнера (Fechner's law)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Закон «все или ничего» (all-or-none law)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Законы научения Торндайка (Thorndike's laws of learning)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Закон эффекта................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Другие законы научения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Застенчивость (shyness).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Защитные механизмы (defence mechanisms)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вытеснение...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Подавление...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Отрицание........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Проекция.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Смещение......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Регрессия......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Идентификация............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Компенсация.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Реактивное образование................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Другие защитные механизмы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Здоровая личность (healthy personality).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Что такое психологическое здоровье?.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интуитивный подход с позиций здравого смысла....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психоаналитическая теория: невротическая модель................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... За пределами психоаналитической теории................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологическое здоровье............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Зеркальная Я-концепция (self-looking glass concept)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Злоупотребление психоактивными веществами (substance abuse)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Диагноз............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Профилактика.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Знаки и символы (signs and symbols)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Зрительное восприятие (visual perception)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Зрительные представления (visual imagery)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Образы, картины и восприятие...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Зрительные представления и память............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Воображаемое исполнение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Яркость представлений.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. _И_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Игра (play).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Игривость........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Игровая терапия (play therapy)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Игровое поведение младенцев (infant play behavior)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Факторы развития игры.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Игрушки и другие предметы.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Знакомство детей друг с другом.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Социальный опыт........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Индивидуальные различия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Родители и воспитатели................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Номотетическая психология.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Идиографическая психология........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Этические и эмические исследования........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Объемные описания в противоположность плоским................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прогрессивно-регрессивный метод Сартра.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исследования феминистов............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Идиодинамика (idiodynamics).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 1. Психология как сопряженная композиция наук............................................................................................................................................................................................. Таблица 1. Три типа объяснительных и прогностических норм.............................................................................................................................................................................. Рис. 2. Измерения идиоверсума................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Избегающая личность (avoidant personality).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Избирательное внимание (selective attention)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Изменения личности (personality changes)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории личности и изменения личности...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модели изменения личности......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Эмпирические исследования изменений личности...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Измерение (measurement)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Определение измерения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Процесс измерения......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Что измеряется?.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Правила и процедуры..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Шкала............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Типы ошибок................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Типы измерительных шкал............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Типы шкал по Стивенсу................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Проблемы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Критерии хорошего измерения...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Измерение аттитюдов (attitude measurement)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Теоретические соображения.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Практические соображения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Измерение ненаблюдаемого........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Измерение профессиональных интересов (vocational interest measurement)............................................................................................................................................................................... Изоморфизм (isomorphism)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Изучение аттитюдов наемных работников (employee attitude surveys)........................................................................................................................................................................................ Изучение потребителей (consumer research).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Определение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методы и процедуры исследований.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Тестирование рекламы и продукта................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Опросы потребителей..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сегментация рынка......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Иллюзии (illusions)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рис. 3. Иллюзия Мюллера-Лайера............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Имплицитное научение и имплицитная память (implicit learning and memory).......................................................................................................................................................................... Имплицитное научение.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Искусственная грамматика Ребера................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Научение паттернам Левицки и Хилла......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Имплицитная память..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................ Метод сбережения.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Данные из исследований амнезии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Здоровые испытуемые.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теоретические проблемы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка неосознаваемых когнитивных процессов........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Имплозивная терапия (implosive therapy)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Импринтинг (imprinting)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Инбридинг и человеческие факторы (inbreeding and Human factors).......................................................................................................................................................................................... Инвентари интересов (interest inventories)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Инвентарь интересов Стронга—Кэмпбелла (Strong-Campbell interest inventory)....................................................................................................................................................................... Ингруппы / аутгруппы (ingroups / outgroups)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Подходы к изучению...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследования аттитюдов................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Полевые исследования................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лабораторные эксперименты......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теория реалистического группового конфликта.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психоаналитическая теория........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теория категоризации..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теория социальной идентичности................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Индивидуализм (individualism)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Индивидуальное образование (individual education)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Индивидуальные различия (individual differences)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Индикатор типов Майерс—Бриггс (Myers—Briggs type indicator)............................................................................................................................................................................................... Инженерная психология (engineering psychology)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Основные практические приложения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Университеты.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Организации.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перспективы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Инновационные процессы (innovation processes)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Инстинкт (instinct)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Инстинктивное поведение (instinctive behavior)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Интеграция личности (personality integration)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вклад эмпирических исследований............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интеграция психически больных в обществе (mainstreaming (psychotics))................................................................................................................................................................................. Интеллект животных (animal intelligence)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Научение у беспозвоночных.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Количественное сравнение беспозвоночных................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рассудочная деятельность и инсайт.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Специальные способности к научению......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перспективы.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интеллект человека (human intelligence)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Разработка тестов в разных странах.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Специальные виды тестов.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Групповые тесты интеллекта......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тесты первичных умственных способностей............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тестовые батареи............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Тесты для оценки интеллекта младенцев...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Природа человеческого интеллекта.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Интеллект как способность к научению....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Коэффициент корреляции: факторный анализ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исторические модели интеллекта................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Однофакторная модель Спирмена................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Другие модели интеллекта............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Детерминанты интеллектуального статуса................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Наследственность............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Среда................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Половые различия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Различия в специальных способностях......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расовые и этнические различия..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рост и снижение.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Интеллектуальный рост.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кривая роста IQ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Кривые роста специальных способностей.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Качественное описание роста........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Интеллектуальное снижение.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заключительные замечания........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интеракционизм (interactionism)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интербихевиоральная психология (interbehavioral psychology)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Физиология и психология.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Единица изучения поведения......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интернализация (internalization)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интернациональная психология (international psychology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Социальная психология международных отношений................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Изучение психологических процессов силами ученых разных стран........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Организационные формы международного сотрудничества психологов.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Интерперсональная теория Салливана (Sullivan's interpersonal theory)....................................................................................................................................................................................... Ключевые понятия.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Социальный характер человеческой природы.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Тревога............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Действия.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интерперсональный контрольный перечень Лири (Learу interpersonal checklist)...................................................................................................................................................................... Интоксикационные психозы (toxic psychoses)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Интроверсия / экстраверсия (introversion / extraversion)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интроспекция (introspection)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интуиция (intuition).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психологические концепции интуиции........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Основные теории............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Эмпирические исследования интуиции........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Резюме............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Инфантилизм (infantilism)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Инференциальное смещение в памяти (inferential bias in memory).............................................................................................................................................................................................. Умозаключение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Умозаключения в дискурсе............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Инференциальное смещение.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Инцест (incest)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ипсативное шкалирование (ipsative scaling).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Искусственный интеллект (artificial intelligence)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Доказательство математических теорем....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Правовое обоснование.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Решение задач в физических науках............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Процесс научного открытия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исправительные заведения (correctional institutes)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Испытания при найме на работу (employment tests)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследование методом двойного ослепления (duble-blind research)........................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследование методом поперечных срезов (cross-sectional research)......................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследование операций (operations research)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Формулирование проблемы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Построение математической модели.........................................................
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Получение решения из данной модели......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проверка модели и полученного из нее решения........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Установление контроля.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Реализация модели.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследование психотерапии (psychotherapy research).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. История............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методологическая сложность........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Исследования эффективности психотерапии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Корреляты исхода психотерапии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перспективы исследования психотерапии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследование расщепленного мозга (split-brain research)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Исследование социального климата (social climate research)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследования личности (personality research)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Исследования мозгового кровотока (cerebral blood flow studies)................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исследовательское поведение (exploratory behavior).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Истерия (hysteria).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Нозология расстройств «истерического типа»............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исход лечения (treatment outcome).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Расстройство.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Политические и экономические вопросы..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Цели................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методы и методики исследования................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Йога (yoga)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _К_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Кадровый тест Вандерлика (Wonderlic personnel test)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Кажущееся движение (apparent movement)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Канализация (canalization)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Каноны Милля (Mill's canons).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод сходства............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод различия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Соединенный метод сходства и различия..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Метод остатков................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Метод сопутствующих изменений................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Критика............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Картинки «Блекки» (Blacky pictures)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Катарсис (catharsis)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Каузальное мышление (causal reasoning)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Качество жизни (quality of life)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Квадриплегия: психологические аспекты (quadriplegics: psychological aspects)........................................................................................................................................................................ Кибернетика (cybernetics)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Эпистемологический сдвиг............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Ключевые понятия.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоотнесение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Структуры обратной связи............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гомеостаз: динамическое равновесие........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоуправление.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Классификация запахов Цваардемакера (Zwaardemaker odor system)......................................................................................................................................................................................... Классическое обусловливание (classical conditioning).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Временные отношения УРЗ и БРЗ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Рис. 1. Соотношение между временем подачи УРЗ и БРЗ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Что обусловливается?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Угашение......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дифференцировка........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Расширение сферы обусловливания.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Клиническое применение обусловливания................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Влияние классического обусловливания на психологическую теорию..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ассоциация, действие и условная реакция................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обусловливание как адаптивный и функциональный процесс................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Классная динамика (classroom dynamics)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Коммуникация................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ожидания......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аттракция........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Разбиение на группы....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Кластерный анализ (clucter analysis)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клиентоцентрированная терапия (client-centered therapy)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Климат и личность (climate and personality)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клиники детской психокоррекции (child guidance clinics)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Клиническая оценка (clinical assessment)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Три модели клинической оценки................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психодиагностика........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Психометрическая модель............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Поведенческая модель.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критика и тенденции...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клинический прогноз в сравнении со статистическим (clinical versus statistical prediction)..................................................................................................................................................... Клиническое суждение (clinical judgment)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 2. Частота раздельного и совместного появления симптома и последующего исхода.................................................................................................................................. Ковариационный анализ (analysis of covariance)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивная психофизиология (cognitive psychophysiology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Современная оценка проблемы разума......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Переход от механических к электронным методам..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 1. Скрытые психофизиологические эффекты у людей............................................................................................................................................................................... Прямое электрическое измерение психических процессов......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 3. Образец записи прибора-самописца, фиксирующей сообщение о галлюцинации..................................................................................................................................... Рис. 4. Образцы сигналов во время разговорных сновидений.................................................................................................................................................................................. Технологические последствия....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивная сложность (cognitive complexity)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивно-поведенческая терапия (cognitive behavior therapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................. История............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теория.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Обзор разновидностей когнитивной терапии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рационально-эмотивная терапия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивная терапия...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тренинг самоинструктирования.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапия методом скрытого моделирования................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Тренировка навыков копинга......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тренинг контроля тревоги.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Тренинг «прививка против стресса»............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Терапия методами решения проблем............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Методология.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивная терапия депрессии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Резюме............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Когнитивные карты (cognitive maps)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивные стили учения (cognitive learning styles).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивные теории эмоций (cognitive theories of emotion)......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивные терапии (cognitive therapies)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сравнение с другими видами терапии.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Историческое развитие когнитивных терапий............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Типичные когнитивные терапии................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Навыки совладения (копинга).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Решение задач................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Когнитивные (познавательные) способности (cognitive abilities)..................................
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