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CONCISE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PSYCHOLOGY Second edition Edited by Raymond J. Corsini, Alan J. Auerbach John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

ПСИХОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ЭНЦИКЛОПЕДИЯ 2-е издание Под редакцией Р. Корсини и А. Ауэрбаха Научная редакция перевода на русский язык профессора А. А.

Алексеева Москва • Санкт-Петербург Нижний Новгород Воронеж Новосибирск Ростов-на-Дону • Екатеринбург Самара Киев • Харьков Минск 2006 ББК 88я20 УДК 159.9(03) П86 П86 Психологическая энциклопедия. 2-е изд. / Под ред. Р. Корсини, А. Ауэрбаха. — СПб.: Питер, 2006. — 1096 с: ил.

ISBN 5-272-00018-8 Энциклопедия содержит 1365 словарных статей и 473 биографические справки, охватывая практически весь спектр психологии как науки и как профессии. Целый ряд статей посвящен проблематике смежных наук (биологии, медицины, педагогики, социологии и т. д.).

Обращение к ним открывает значение межпредметных связей и наводит на продуктивные аналогии, несомненно полезные при поисках новых путей и решений. Данная книга — не просто «моментальная фотография» современного состояния психологии в США. Скорее это попытка нарисовать целостную, динамическую картину мировой психологической науки и практики как она видится в настоящее время из-за океана. В создании этой картины приняли участие свыше 500 авторов статей и более 40 редакторов, среди которых Анна Анастази, Альберт Бандура, Теодор Блау, Томас Харди Лихи, Э. Р. Хилгард, Пол Мил, Чарльз Спилбергер, К. В. Шайи и др. Все это позволяет надеяться, что помимо выполнения утилитарной функции полного справочника данное издание послужит для читателей еще и источником новых идей в самых разных областях теоретизирования и практической работы. Оно будет интересным и полезным не только для студентов и молодых специалистов, но и для зрелых профессионалов, а также для всех, кто интересуется психологией.

ББК 88я20 УДК 159.9(03) Права на издание получены по соглашению с John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Все права защищены. Никакая часть данной книги не может быть воспроизведена в какой бы то ни было форме без письменного разрешения владельцев авторских прав.

ISBN 0-471-13159-8 (англ.) ISBN 5-272-00018- © 1996 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc © Перевод на русский язык ЗАО Издательский дом «Питер», © Издание на русском языке, оформление ЗАО Издательский дом «Питер», Раймонд Корсини, Алан Ауэрбах Психологическая энциклопедия (Raymond Corsini, Alan Auerbach "Concise Encyclopedia оf Psychology", 2nd ed., 1996) Энциклопедия содержит 1365 словарных статей и 473 биографические справки, охватывая практически весь спектр психологии как науки и как профессии. Целый ряд статей посвящен проблематике смежных наук (биологии, медицины, педагогики, социологии и т. д.). Обращение к ним открывает значение межпредметных связей и наводит на продуктивные аналогии, несомненно полезные при поисках новых путей и решений. Данная книга — не просто «моментальная фотография» современного состояния психологии в США. Скорее это попытка нарисовать целостную, динамическую картину мировой психологической науки и практики как она видится в настоящее время из-за океана. В создании этой картины приняли участие свыше 500 авторов статей и более 40 редакторов, среди которых Анна Анастази, Альберт Бандура, Теодор Блау, Томас Харди Лихи, Э. Р. Хилгард, Пол Мил, Чарльз Спилбергер, К. В. Шайи и др. Все это позволяет надеяться, что помимо выполнения утилитарной функции полного справочника данное издание послужит для читателей еще и источником новых идей в самых разных областях теоретизирования и практической работы. Оно будет интересным и полезным не только для студентов и молодых специалистов, но и для зрелых профессионалов, а также для всех, кто интересуется психологией.

Электронное оглавление Электронное оглавление...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Предисловие научного редактора российского издания............................................................................................................................................................. Вступительное слово........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... От редакторов...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Список сокращений............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ _А_.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Абстрактный интеллект (

Abstract

intelligence).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Автоматизация (automation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Автоматизированная оценка (computer-assisted assessment)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Автоматические мысли (automatic thoughts).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Автономная нервная система (autonomic nervous system)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Функции............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Авторитарная личность (authoritarian personality)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Агрессия (aggression).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Агрессия как инстинкт....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Агрессия как драйв........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Агрессия как социальное научение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Таблица 1. Теория социального научения агрессии.................................................................................................................................................................................................... Побуждение....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поддержание..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Предсказание агрессии..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 2. Исследования валидности клинического прогноза насильственного поведения.................................................................................................................................. Контроль агрессии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Агропсихология (agricultural psychology)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Фермерские умения.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценки в сельском хозяйстве........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Управление фермой.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Смежные области.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Адаптация (adaptation)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Аддиктивный процесс (addictive process)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Этиология аддиктивности................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Адлерианская психология (adlerian psychology).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Исходные положения........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Теория личности............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прикладные аспекты........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Адлерианская психотерапия (adlerian psychotherapy)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Модель человека............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теория терапии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Практика терапии.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Терапевтический процесс................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Терапевтические модальности......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Административно-трудовые отношения (labor-management relations).......................................................................................................................................................................................... Аккомодация (accommodation).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Зрительная аккомодация.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Аккомодация нервного волокна...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аккомодация в развитии младенца................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Аккультурация (acculturation)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Активное исследование (action research).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Диагностическое исследование текущей деятельности................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Вовлечение группы в процесс сбора данных и осуществление обратной связи......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Актуализирующая терапия (actualizing therapy).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Акупунктура (acupuncture)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Алексия / дислексия (alexia / dyslexia).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Алкогольный синдром плода (fetal alcohol syndrome)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Диагностические критерии и общие характеристики.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 3. Основные признаки А. с. п., описанные Клэрреном и Смитом (1987) (а).............................................................................................................................................. Исторический экскурс...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Заболеваемость и факторы риска.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... А. с. п. у подростков и взрослых..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профилактика.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Альтернативные докторские программы (alternative doctoral programs)....................................................................................................................................................................................... Альтернативные методы психотерапии (disjunctive psychotherapies).......................................................................................................................................................................................... Альтернативные педагогические системы (alternative educational systems)................................................................................................................................................................................ Альтруизм (altruism)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Альтруистическое самоубийство (altruistic suicide)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Американская психиатрическая ассоциация (American Psychiatric Association)........................................................................................................................................................................ Американская психологическая ассоциация I (American Psychological Association I)............................................................................................................................................................... Американская психологическая ассоциация II (American Psychological Association II)............................................................................................................................................................ Организация.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Деятельность................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Американский психологический фонд (American Psychological Foundation).............................................................................................................................................................................. Американское психологическое общество (American Psychological Society)............................................................................................................................................................................. Издания............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Собрание студентов........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Премии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Образование.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Совещания....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Защита интересов............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Амнезия (amnesia)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Амфетаминовые эффекты (amphetamine effects)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Анализ временных рядов (time-series analysis)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Основные понятия анализа временных рядов.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Модели вмешательства................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Двумерный анализ.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ заданий (item analysis)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ поведения (behavior analysis).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Селекционистский подход к сложности....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ и интерпретация................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Индивидуум как предмет изучения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прикладной анализ поведения....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ рабочих заданий (task analysis)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анализ чрезвычайных ситуаций (disaster analysis)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Аналитическая психология (analytical psychology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Ангедония (anhedonia)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Андрогиния (androgyny)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анимизм (animism)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Анксиолитики (antianxiety drugs)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аномалии половых хромосом и вызванные ими расстройства (sex chromosome disorders)...................................................................................................................................................... Антабус (antabuse)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антидепрессанты (antidepressive drugs).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 4. Антидепрессанты...............................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................ Антипсихотические средства (antipsychotic drugs)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Таблица 5. Антипсихотические средства.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Антисоциальная личность (antisocial personality).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Антиципаторная тошнота (anticipatory nausea).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антропология (anthropology)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Антропологический метод............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антропологическая теория............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Материал полевых исследований как источник данных............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Способы мышления........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Универсальность процесса............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антропоморфное мышление (anthropomorphic thinking).............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Антропософия (anthroposophy)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Арбитраж (третейский суд) (arbitration).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Армейские тесты времен Первой мировой войны (army test, world war I).................................................................................................................................................................................. Архетипы (archetypes)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ассоцианизм (associationism)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Астрология (astrology)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аттитюды (attitudes)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аудиометрия (audiometry)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Аутизм (autism)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Поведенческие дефициты............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческие эксцессы................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Нормальное поведение................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Дифференциальный диагноз.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Аутогенная тренировка (autogenic training).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Афазия (aphasia)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Аффективное развитие (affective development).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ацетилхолинестераза (acetylcholinesterase).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _Б_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Батарея тестов общих способностей (general aptitude test battery)................................................................................................................................................................................................ Батарея тестов Халстеда—Рейтана (Halstead—Reitan battery)...................................................................................................................................................................................................... Безобразное мышление: Вюрцбургская школа (imagless thought: the Wurzburg school)............................................................................................................................................................ Бездомность (homelessness).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Что такое бездомность?.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Кто такие бездомные?..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Причины.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Сколько людей являются бездомными?........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Последствия..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Возможные решения....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Безнадежность (hopelessness)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Белая горячка (delirium tremens)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Бессознательное (the unconscious)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История вопроса.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Практические приложения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Бессознательные умозаключения (unconscious inference)............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Библиотерапия (bibliotherapy).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Билингвизм (bilingualism)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Биографические вопросники (biographical inventories)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Биологическая обратная связь (biofeedback).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Регулирование автономных реакций............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Электроэнцефалографическая биологическая обратная связь.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биологические ритмы (biological rhythms)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Биоэнергетика (bioenergetics)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Бисексуальность (bisexuality)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Бихевиоризм (behaviorism)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методологический и метафизический бихевиоризм................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Многообразие необихевиоризма................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Бихевиоризм: история (behaviorism: history).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Бланковые (типа «карандаш—бумага») тесты интеллекта (pencil-and-paper intelligence tests)................................................................................................................................................. Возникновение групповых тестов................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Содержание..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Интерпретация................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Неразрешенные проблемы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Блокировка (blocking)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Болезнь Альцгеймера (Alzheimer's disease).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Болезнь Паркинсона (Parkinson's disease)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Болезнь Пика (Pick's disease)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Болезнь серповидных эритроцитов (sickle cell disease)................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Клинические признаки................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Последствия для образа жизни...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Совладание с болью и стрессом, вызванными болезнью............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Боль (pain).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Боль: стратегии совладания (pain: coping strategies)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Когнитивные стратегии совладания.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Поведенческие стратегии совладания........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Хроническая боль........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Постоянство и изменение стратегий совладания......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Острая боль...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Детская боль.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клинические приложения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Бредовые расстройства (delusional disorders)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Этиология и механизмы действия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Бригады психического здоровья (mental health teams).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. _В_........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вайнлендская шкала социальной зрелости (vineland social maturity scale).................................................................................................................................................................................. Вальдорфская педагогика (Waldorf education)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Векслеровские тесты интеллекта (Wechsler intelligence tests)...................................................................................................................................................................................................... Векторный подход к психотерапии (vector approach to psychotherapy)........................................................................................................................................................................................ Вероятность (probability).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Выборка с возвращением и без возвращения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Распределения вероятностей.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Видеотехника в психологии (video psychology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Анализ и документирование.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Учебное видео................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Моделирование поведения похожих людей (peer modeling)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самомоделирование....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Самоконфронтация и обратная связь............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Просмотр эпизодов событий.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Видео как экспериментальный стимул........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Видоспецифичное поведение (species-specific behavior)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Развитие........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Понятие биологического вида....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таксономия...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выводы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Виды подкрепления (reinforcers)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Виктимология (victimology)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Витализм (vitalism)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вкусовая перцепция (taste perception)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Власть (power)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Власть: вопросы стратегии и тактики (power: strategies and tactics)............................................................................................................................................................................................. Власть и личность............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Пользование властью......................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Некоторые стратегии в приобретении и использовании власти................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Некоторые тактики в приобретении и использовании власти.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Приобретение опыта в вопросах власти....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Влияние сверстников (peer influences)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Влияние общения со сверстниками на ценности, аттитюды, перспективы и социальную компетентность........................................................................................................................................................... Просоциальное и антисоциальное поведение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Импульсивность.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Способность выбирать перспективу............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Автономия....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Одиночество.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Идентичность.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Коалиции......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Продуктивность, стремления и психологическое благополучие................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Содействие развитию позитивных отношений со сверстниками............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вмешательство случайных свидетелей (bystander involvement)................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внебольничные клиники (walk-in clinics)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внешние побуждения (стимулы) (incentives)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Внимание (attention).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внутренне- и внешненаправляемое поведение (inner / outer-directed behavior).......................................................................................................................................................................... Ожидания контроля........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Реактивное сопротивление............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Ориентации «ферзя—пешки»........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Локус контроля............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выученная беспомощность............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Локус контроля и реактивное сопротивление.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Восприятие каузальности............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внутренняя валидность (internal validity)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Внутренняя мотивация (intrinsic motivation).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Военная психология (military psychology)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Тестирование................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обучение.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Экспериментальные исследования в области человеческих факторов...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клинические и социальные области.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Организационная психология........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Воздействия шума (noise effects)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вознаграждения (rewards)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вторичное подкрепление............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Парциальное (частичное) подкрепление....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Критика............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Вознаграждения и собственный интерес (rewards and intrinsic interest)...................................................................................................................................................................................... Влияющие условия......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Уровень интереса............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Факторы вознаграждения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Теории.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Приложения..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Возрастные различия (age differences)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Воображаемые товарищи (imaginary companions)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вопрос об отношении души и тела (mind—body problem)........................................................................................................................................................................................................... Воспитание родителей (parent education)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Различные подходы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Перспективы развития.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Воспринимаемый размер (apparent size)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Восприятие (перцепция) (perception).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Классическая теория....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гештальт-теория............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Пересмотренная классическая теория........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Современная сенсорная физиология............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Непосредственное восприятие....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Проверка классической теории восприятия................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Доказательства интеллектуальной организации восприятия...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Восприятие глубины (depth perception)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Восприятие формы / очертаний (form / shape perception).............................................................................................................................................................................................................. Границы западной психологии...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Восточная перспектива................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Возникновение «восточно-западной» психологии...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Временная перспектива (time perspective)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Время реакции (reaction time).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Время реакции выбора (choice reaction time).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Врожденные аномалии метаболизма (inborn errors of metabolism).............................................................................................................................................................................................. Основные проблемы....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Генетика: основные положения..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Обнаружение и диагноз.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Лечение на уровне метаболитов.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение на уровне дисфункционального протеина..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Трансплантация органов................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Генная инженерия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Врожденные инфекции (congenital infections)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Всеобщее здравоохранение (universal health care)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вспышки раздражения (tantrums).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Вторая сигнальная система (second-signal system)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выбор карьеры (career choices)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Исторический контекст.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Личностный и социально-ситуативный подходы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Перспектива жизненного пути....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выбор супруга / супруги (spouse selection)..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гетерогамия..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гомогамия........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Выборочное исследование (sampling)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Вероятностные и детерминированные выборки............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Основные понятия выборочного метода....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методики выборочного исследования.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выгорание (burnout).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Выработка условных компенсаторных реакций (conditioning of compensatory reactions).......................................................................................................................................................... Выработка условных рефлексов высших порядков (higher-order conditioning).......................................................................................................................................................................... Выученная беспомощность (learned helplessness).......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... _Г_......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Галилеево и аристотелевское мышление (Galilean / Aristotelian thinking)................................................................................................................................................................................... Галлюцинации (hallucinations)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 1. Галлюцинации, коррелирующие с поражениями головного мозга....................................................................................................................................................... Таблица 2. Уменьшение слуховых галлюцинаций..................................................................................................................................................................................................... Галлюциногены (hallucinogenic drugs)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гандикап (handicaps)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гарантированность работы (job security)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гендерно-ролевой стресс (gender role stress).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гендерно-ролевой стресс у женщин................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гендерно-ролевой стресс у мужчин................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Генерализация раздражителя (stimulus generalization).................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Генетика поведения (behavioral genetics)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Генетическая приспособленность (genetic fitness)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Уровень отбора............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Прямая и косвенная приспособленность........................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................. Альтруизм........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Реципрокный альтруизм................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Окружающая среда......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гениальность (genius)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гериатрическая психология (geriatric psychology)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Героиновая наркомания (heroin addiction)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Получение и прием......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Физиологические и поведенческие эффекты................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Формирование толерантности, эффекты отмены и зависимость................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Определяющие факторы наркомании........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Личные и социальные последствия............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Лечение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Геронтология (gerontology).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гетеросинаптическое облегчение (heterosynaptic facilitation)....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гештальт-тест Бендер (Bender gestalt)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гештальт-психология (gestalt psychology)...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гештальт-терапия (gestalt therapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Происхождение............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Главные теоретические понятия...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапевтические цели и роль психотерапевта............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Методики гештальт-терапии.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Применение гештальт-терапии...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Оценка эффективности и текущее состояние............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гиперактивность (hyperactivity)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гипертония (hypertension)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гипноз (hypnosis).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Краткая история.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Измерение гипноза.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Характеристики гипноза................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Клинический гипноз....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клинические приложения.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гипноз животных (animal hypnosis)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рис. 1. Позы кролика голландской породы, с помощью к-рых можно продемонстрировать Г. ж........................................................................................................................ Гипноз как инструмент исследования (hypnosis as a research tool).............................................................................................................................................................................................. Гипнотерапия (hypnotherapy)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гипнотическая (внушенная) регрессия возрастов (hypnotic age regression)................................................................................................................................................................................ Гипоталамус (hypothalamus)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гипотеза «фрустрация—агрессия» (frustration—aggression hypothesis)...................................................................................................................................................................................... Гипотеза буферизации (buffering hypothesis).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гипотетико-дедуктивное мышление (hypothetical-deductive reasoning)...................................................................................................................................................................................... Гипофиз (pituitary)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Рис. 2. Схема взаимосвязей между нейрогипофизом и гипоталамусом................................................................................................................................................................... Гипофизарные расстройства (pituitary disorders)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гистрионическая личность (histrionic personality)......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Глаз (eye)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Глобальные кризисы (global crises)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психологические корни глобальных кризисов............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Психодинамика............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческие перспективы.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Перспективы социального научения............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Психологические основы предупредительного поведения......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Специалисты в области психического здоровья и кризисы........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Головной мозг (brain)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 3. Развитие Г. м. человека..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Три основных отдела головного мозга: передний, средний и задний мозг............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Рис. 4. Медиальный срез правого полушария мозга, позволяющий увидеть отношения между кортикальными и субкортикальными областями....................................... Связи префронтальной коры с другими областями неокортекса................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Связи префронтальной коры с лимбической системой............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Синтез префронтальных связей..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Голод (hunger)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Мозговые механизмы..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гомеостаз (homeostasis).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гомосексуальность (homosexuality)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Распространенность гомосексуальности...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Поведенческие и социальные исследования................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гомосексуальность и стигматизация............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гормическая психология (hormic psychology)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гормоны и поведение (hormones and behavior).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гормоны и эндокринные железы................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Физиологический контроль и действие гормонов....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Методы............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Гормональные эффекты у половозрелых животных.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Ранние гормональные эффекты у людей...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Другие гормональные эффекты у людей...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Готовность к обучению в школе (school readiness)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Графология (graphology).................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Грех (sin)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Групповая динамика (group dynamics)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ История вопроса.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Природа групповой динамики....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Групповая психотерапия (group psychotherapy)............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Групповая работа (team performance).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Групповая сплоченность (group cohesiveness)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Групповая терапия обнаженных (nude group therapy)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Групповое давление (group pressure).............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Групповое консультирование (group counseling)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Клиент-центрированная модель.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Гештальт-модель............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Транзактный анализ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Модель рационально-эмотивной терапии..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Групповое решение проблем (group problem solving).................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Группы достижения изменений (change induction groups)............................................................................................................................................................................................................ Сравнение современных целительных групп............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Профессиональные теории целительных групп........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Характеристики групп, облегчающих научение или исцеление................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Терапевтика и роль терапевта/лидера........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Механизмы изменения................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Группы самопомощи (self-help groups)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... История и современный статус...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Типы групп...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Терапевтические факторы групп самопомощи............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Самопомощь или профессиональная психотерапия?................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Группы честности (integrity groups)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гуманистическая психология (humanistic psychology)................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Предшественники........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Создание гуманистической психологии....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Влияние контркультуры................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Движение групп встреч.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Трансперсональная психология..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Другие аспекты гуманистической психологии............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Секулярный гуманизм: пренебрегаемая версия гуманистической психологии........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Гуманизм и наука в психологии.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Задачи, стоящие перед гуманистической психологией нашего времени..........................................................................................................................................................
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