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POEHE 1 PAOH.

Pao - o ece , e, e e yca aa a ep a, pepo 7,5 paa eee oy a;

opaye c poecce paoa o o pacaa paoyo ypao opeo o po.

Cyec ye p ec ec e (ppo ) o oa paoa:

pao-222 (T1/2 - 3,8 ;

p pacaa U -238), pao-220 opo (T1/2 - 55 cey;

p pacaa Th-232), pao-219 a o (T1/2 -4 cey;

p pacaa U-235).

Bce o o paoa c aa-ya e;

ae paca oep poy o copooae c cycae a aa, a e a-ac .

oa ac paoa opoa ec caa c a epao, o opo a o c peec e. Oao eo opa ac oe ypoa o ec a opaoa py y cpey. -a o oc eo oo o epoa oypacaa pao-222 oe ypoa a oe pacc o ( peea eco e po). M pa a oa o paae c eco e pa oo o e oc ae oep oc a epaa. Heoa ac opoa oe e c ppoa peea eco ca e po. o oy, a cee o a ope ec, oe pa paoa-219 220 peepeo a, o cpae c paoo-222.

OCHOBHE CTOH PAOHA.

Oco c oa paoa c: py, c po ee a epa, py oe o, ppo a, y o, py, o a, opayec p oe ocop yope, pac e, eo epae e poc a, pep epo o oo o a ( a.1).

a c oo oc ye paoa a ocepy c oa py oe opo. poecc ee paoa c py ypo ac opo opyay cpey ece, o ecoeo, o ocoa po pae y. oce oa aa opyay oy oyy cpey aeee epeeee poc o ae a ce y oe, a ae eoe aec c,.e. a ce epoec po-o e e. Moec o a opo e a poecc oaa paoa C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

oy o. o, ce, opo oee a ocepo o ae ca ecoc c a, o a a oee eepa yp yeee copoc e pa a ee ycee. Ceoa eo, Ta. 1.

c o paoa a ocepe e ecoc c o Mooc ee, / o B o o 2* py oe o 5* Oea 3* oca e o o 2* paoe o o pea opo 2* oe o o 2* C ae y 0,9* ppo a 1* oe pa paoa oe oe o epo oe. epeoc paccee paoa oy e ac o ep ao o pae a eepa yp;

apae c e pa, ypye oc oy a. B pey a e poecco eepa ypo oe ec e po a ocepe poc o ypye a y, e o pacceaa pao. Cy o acy oe pa aae c oe ac, o a a ocepa aeee oa. My aae c e, o a ep aoe ceae a oap ypye o y acao. B ae py e e eopoo ece yco, poe oy, o oe pa paoa a co e ye eco e po o oep oc e aae ec pa. B eo, oy e oe pa paoa e o oep poy o pacaa ac o ec a, pee oa cy o, co a ypoe op e eopoo ec yco. C eoo eco o pe ooo 40 % epp op Pecy eapyc c o eao paoooac.

o cao c e yo ae ae pa opo c po pacpoc paee a o e oec apye.

o a paoe pec cceoa O eapyc eoo aoee o eao paoooac c ceye epp op:

a) a e pecy - o, cae c Maeco- oc opc o c ya paco o pc aeco o a;

) a aae pecy - epp op, caa c eopycc pc aec acco.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

B 1996. pooc cp oe cceoa coepa paoa oy e oee a o e paoooc epp op paoo. Cpeee coepae paoa oy e oceoa oee coc ao 34,8 /3, o coo e c ye o oe pa paoa oa (30 /3). B o e cya oe pa paoa oy e oee oc a 400 /3 (epc pao Mco oac ).

yae o oye e p o o y oc a 20- / o.

Pao poy e o pacaa o c y p oee cec e c a c e, o oo, oo ( a.2). oe pa ep c oo (.e. paoyo pa ypaa op) pa a a epao ac o poc oe. Heo ope a epa opee c a oee paoa e. Ca o oc c oco c, aoe o c aco c cae o a ypao pyo. Ma epaa c o a oc c epeo, ppo c, eco pa. oco c, poo cooac o, e c oo poy o p pooc e ocop yope, pac p - oo poy p oye oea oc a, o a opay c poecce o epepao ypaoo py, a-ca a (o o p epepao e ocop py) coye c CA.

Ta. 2.

ec e opy op a c ea a yeee ecoc c a paoa Ma epa Toa ecoc c a,* 10-3 /2*c c e (c) Heo ya ype O ya ype op e oo e .e o 24 1,5 1,9 1, ec 24 0,1 1,4 0, aoe o 24 0,3 0,67 0, B eo op c paa, apep, e, e c c poe cpee ooa ae a paoeca oe pa paoa o o o 400 /3, o oycoae oy oy. B o c peyco pea peoc py oee c oeee a oc o paoy o 200 /3. B o a o pee e oe e 70 /3. B py c paa opa ae o paoeco oe pa paoa oy e oee pa o 70 - 200 /3. MP peoeye o c po c C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

a ypoe e e 100 /3. B 1999. Pecye eapyc y epe Bpeee eece opa o coepa paoa ooc o aa-ye, o op yaao, o p poe poa o a o o oec eo o aae cpee ooa ae a paoeca oea a oc o oo paoa opoa oy e oee e oa pea 100 /3. B cya pye a cpee ooa ae a paoeca oea a oc o oo paoa oy e oee e oa pea 200 /3.

Pao, coepac oe, epeo ae a e c oo paoa poy o e o pacaa oy e pooc e oee. o oea HAP OOH cpe ee e eee 1% o pee oy c yeo paoa oc oee 1000000 /3 eee 10% oy c oe pae paoa peae 100000 /3. Ceye y a , o p e ocoa acca paoa ye yae c. opao oy oacoc pec ae oaae paoa ec e c apa o.

Cpee ae yeo paoa oc oy a, oycoeo pac ope oe paoo, pa oee ae: aa oa a 8,5 /3, y - 3,0 /3, a oa a - 0,20 /3,.e., cpee, oe pa paoa ao oa e 40 pa e, e oa a, 3 paa e, e a y e.

ppo a ae oe cyec e c oo paoa oy e oee. Oao cc ea pacop po aa, pae oa o aee o ce cy pacaa paoa ye po yee e o oe pa. O oc e a pa c oo paoa e o oee oc yee oy oee pec ae a.3.

Cypy epeceoe, oo caa , o oe pa paoa oy e oee ac ocoo o e pe a opo:

a o acco y paoa py a epe yae oep oc oa oee a;

c a paoa c po e a epao e, o op oc poeo ae;

c a paoa o aa;

a a, opaa , c ee e oee.

Mep, apaee a cee oepa paoa oyxe oee:

a ea o oee o o py a;

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

oa opaca (yeae c a paoa c po e a epao a 32-87%) oeae c e oo;

yyee e oee a a e o peo;

cooae a epao, o ea peoa paaoo eoacoc .

Ta. 3.

e ec c oo paoa o oe.

c o o o oe o oc ye, % oa ope opo o ae ~ Be oy C po ee a epa Boa ppo a py e c o ~ O OEH A CET PAOHA.

Pao poy e o pacaa oc a e a oyee eoea. Ocoy ac o eoe oyae ap oee.

C ae c, o oe pa paoa ap oee oa c yepe a o cpee 8 pa e, e apyo oy e.

oe pa oep poy o pacaa peae oe pa paoa oee e 200 pa.

ao y oc ye op a o oo paoa oep poy o pacaa c ae c aoee oac. o cao c opoe o oae cocooc op ao a. oo a ocae apooe ac o o a opo, o ye o op eooe, apep: oe pa apoo ac , o- eco o coc o, ac o y a, paepo ac , ya ocoeoc e a eo cc e.

Ca o cee pao -a opo o o epoa a oe e (a a) e pae po epo o a opa, oycoae o ooy a pyy a e e. Bce oepe poy pacaa paoa-222 oo-218, ce-214, cy -214, oo-214 ce-210 ae c po ya c e . ac poy o pacaa paoa, opay c oy e oee, aoec ye c apoo ac a. Cae poy pacaa paoa o y aaa c p a oco o e, pa ee, C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

e oo ape e. Ocee ac oep a c pacay y e cyca aa-, e a-ac aa-a o. p y pee oye pec ae oacoc , ocoo, aa-yee. Apooe ac , coppye poy pacaa paoa, e ae p cpee 0,1 .

Ta-e aoe oep poy o pacaa paoa a eo pa e e c e pa eopo ao oac aeopa oac e . oo ec epo oyee poy o pacaa paoa coc ae o 10 o 4,8 ac pa eopo ao oac o 6 o 60 ac e . poe a aa-ac Po-218 c ep e 6 MB Po-214 c ep e 7,68 MB pae coo e c eo 47 71 . o pacc oe oe cooc ao c pacc oe o oep oc e o pa aao e , o oycoae ee opeee.

Haoee a a opa, a oppoae o a a e pa a ce paoa poy o e o pacaa c:

oe pa paoa oee ;

a op paoec poy o pacaa;

apa epc a apooe, aepae oc a a e y ;

ea a;

pe aop a a.

B ac oee pe c ae c, o oe pa paoa 20 / yeae oy oye a 1 . o e c ao c oeo poea paoa. oee o o, yc aoeo, o oa a a e pa co ac o opac a. B opac e ooo 6 e oa ee acy pepo 2,5 paa oe o, oppyec opac e 30 e. Po ooe ae y peea ee oey oc ye paoa, e ae epe oc, o eae eo o caa ep a e y e y e e.

oaao, o a paoa copooae c epaoep pacpeeee o oye op aa a eoea ( a.4).

MEHCE OCECTB OEH PAOHOM.

B ac oee pe e c eoo ece ae o c paoa c aoeaeoc pao e . Bce o ocoa c a a o a epa, a a pao e ypao pya co a e oa oye (coepae paoa opo-py papao a oc ae 100 - 500 /3).

oaao, o pc paa e y a epo coc ae (1-5)*10-4. ae C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

Ta. 4.

Mooc o eo op op aa a p oc oo a oy a c oe pae paoa 37 /3 p a 13,8 /.

Op a a , /ac e e 0, ee 0, o 0, Haoe 0, M 0, oc o 0, oa 1, e o y cy ocoo oce ec a o ye.

oc ao, o o 5 o 20 c eoe o ypae o paa e paooo oo ( a.5). Pao eo oe oe a oo eo 30-600 cyae paa e o (ae o CA). cpae oo o e , o cep oc o ooo ec aoea e y eyp paa 34 a o, a y yp - 590 a o.

Ta. 5.

Pc ooe paa e y acee (co cyae a 1000 eoe) cooc ae c oe pae paoa.

oe pa Pc aoea Pc aoe. Pc aoea y paoa, /3 y yp y eyp ce o acee 20 10 1 100 50 5 200 100 10 400 200 20 Pac opoc paoa a pepo 15 pa e, e po.

oc o poc, a ec o, coep o 40 pa. O ca, o e cyao, e c ae o c ey a oc paoa, aaae oc po e a oc o o o a eoo. oee o o, oaao, o o e opac o epo, o a y eoea oppye c acaa e a oa o oye paoo, aae c cec aoeaeoc oc p eo eoo.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.






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