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pc aep paa popa 2-e ae pooo, aop cxoe ec a e C COEPAHE . pecoe Beee aa 1 Ocoe o 1.1 Tepoo 1.2 ...

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p poepoa cooac peyeca opeeex poaaecx eoo, ocoeo eoa "epeaoo poaaa", oop e oyoa opo epaype. oce cycc c NSA o p e eo, o pacpe poecca poepoa pacpoe eo epeaoo poaaa, o oopoo oe cooaa po ox po. o, co oepe, copao peyeco Coeex ao epe py cpaa oac popa.

A ap oyc, peo oepcy pac, o c ex op ey e yaoc a e oo cocoa cp DES. oepc peoe ooa c [1426].

punmoaau co cau au B 9- oaao oeco o, a oope ec ceaec DES a ao ae: a 2 a a ao ae, poe ao 1, 2, 9 16, oa caec a 1 . oey?

poaa co ca a oxo a epea poaa, o o yae pa e ey a. Bcpe oaec o oo paee paccopex: poaa pae c ey apo e, o ca ocac ey eec. ae pyc oo a. B ap ae c ec op eco poaay ec op ec poec ax, p o ax y a. B apae c pa op eco poaa aec pa op ec, apoa y a.

Mopoa DES, oopo caec a a a oce aoo aa, eee eoace.

poaa co ca a oe oa ao apa aopa, cooa oo 2 pax opx eco pax e 2 ecx opx eco pax e [158, 163].

Taoe cpe ae e peayeo a pae, o oo epeco o pe pa. Bo epx, o e p a oa poaaecoo cp aopa eepa oe DES. Bo opx, o cpe e ac o oeca ao popaecoo aopa, o oaoo ee po DES c 16, 1000 aa. pex, DES eocp aoy cp. eee oeca o e coo ca eae poaay co ca a.

ue punmoaau e poaa pecae coo pyo poaaecoo cp, opee Mypy May (Mitsuru Matsui) [1016, 1015, 1017]. o cpe coye ee pe o ca pao ooo pa ( ao cyae DES.) o oaae, o ec oe oepa XOR a eoop a opoo eca, ae a eoop a poeca, a ae a peyaa, oye , oop pecae coo XOR eoopx o a. o aaec e pee, oopoe oe ep c eo o po epooc p. Ec p 1/2, o o ceee oo cooa. coye copae ope e c cae poec peooe o aex o a. e oe y ac ax, e epee peooee. e oe ceee, e cpee cpe yeaec ycexo.

a opee xopoee eoe pee DES? Hae xopoe ooae ee p e oee x. (Haaa aea epecao coa oppyc, a a o e a cpe.) Be a S-o. x 6 xox o 4 xox. Bxoe oo o e c oo oepa XOR 63 cocoa (2 - 1), a xoe - 15 cocoa. Teep aoo S-oa oo oe epooc oo, o cyao paoo xoa xoa oa XOR paa eoopo xoo oa XOR. Ec cyecye oa c ocaoo o ceee, o e poaa oe cpaoa.

Ec ee pe e cee, o o yy oc 32 64 oox xoo. a ac o eoo ye a, aoee cee S-oo ec S-o. ec eo, 12 xoo opo xoo pae XOR cex epex xox o. o cooecye epo oc 3/16 cee 5/16, o ec ca o ceee cex S-oo. (ap ca o o [1423], o e co a cocoa cooa.) Ha 4- oaao, a ocooac cp y aa DES. b26 - o xoo S-oa 5. ( yepy cea apao o 1 o 64. May oppye o poe DES coaee yepye co cpaa aeo o 0 o 63. oo xa, o cec ac c ya.) c17, c18, c19, c20 - o 4 xox a S-oa 5. M oe poce b26 opao apae o xoa S-o. oye b26 oeec c oo XOR c o oa Ki,26. A X17 poxo epe ocaoy c pacpee, o pepac a26. oce S-oa 4 xox a poxo epe P-o, pepaac epe xo x a y aa: Y3, Y8, Y14 Y25. o oaae, o c epooc 1/2 - 5/6:

X17 Y3 Y8 Y14 Y25 = Ki, X X E E(X) Ki Ki, a b S-o c17,c18,c19, c P Y Y3, Y8, Y14, Y Pc. 12-8. 1-aoe eoe pee DES.

Coco, oop oo oe ee pe pax ao, oxo a o, oop ocyac epeaoo poaaa. Ha 3- oaao 3-aoe eoe pee c ep o oc 1/2 0.0061. aeco oex pe pao: oceee oe xopoo, epoe ocaoo xopoo, a cpeee - oxo. Ho ece p 1-ax pe a oe xopoee pexaoe p ee.

Ki-1, B f B 17 B Ki, 17 f A A Ki+1, f A A=[3, 8, 14, 25] B=[8, 14, 25] C epooc 1/2+6.1*10- Pc. 12-9. 3-aoe eoe pee DES.

aooe cpe oo cooa ayee eoe pee 16-aoo DES. eo peyec 247 ecx opx oo, a peyao cp ec 1 a. o e oe oeo.

Ec oeee eca op ec poec coyee eppoae ece c po a e, coee oy 2 a. o ce ee e oe oeo.

Cyecye p ooce. coye 14-aoe eoe pee ao c 2 o 15. opoye yaa 6 o oa S-oa 5 epoo oceeo ao (ceo, a opao, 12 o a).

eoc oe e poaa apaeo 2 pa pae pa apa, ocoac a epoocx. o pacpae 12 o b26, a oe eca op ec poec oy ee 13 o. oye ocaxc 30 o coye cepa oc. Cyec y pye pe, o oca ec oco.

p cp a opao ooo 16 aoo DES ye pacp cpee c oo 2 ecx opx eco. popaa peaa oo cp, paoa a 12 paox cax HP9735, pacpa DES a 50 e [1019]. B oe aca o o aoee e coco cp DES.

e poaa co ac o cpyyp S-oo, oaaoc, o S-o DES e op o a po aoo cocoa cp. eceo, ceee S-oax, pax DES, axoc ey 9 16 poea, o e oeceae aeo a po eoo poaaa [1018]. C o aco oy oepcy [373, 374] ycooc eoy poaay "e xoo co pepe poepoa DES". o papaoa e o eco o eo poaae, o p poep o a o oa peyeco yco oc po ecoo ee oee ooo cpeca cp.

e poaa oee, e epea, aee pe ooo aeee p o ee o apae. Heoope e y [1270, 811], o e co, oo x eo pe po ooo DES. Oao o oe xopoo paoa po apao c yee co ao.

aeue anpaeu pep p oo pacp oe epeaoo poaaa a epea oee cox opo [702, 161, 927, 858, 860]. apc yce (Lars Knudsen) coye eo, aaeoe ac epeaa cp 6-aoo DES. o eo peye 32 pax opx e ca 20000 poa [860]. Ho o eo co o, o oo o yepa, o o oe cpe ooo 16-aoo DES.

py cocoo cp ec epeao-e poaa - oeee epe aoo eoo poaaa. Ce aop (Susan Langford) Xea peaa cpe 8-aoo DES, oopoe pacpae 10 o a c epooc ycexa 80 poeo, coy 512 pax opx eco, c epooc ycexa 95 poeo, coy 768 pax opx eco [938]. oce cp eoxo oc pyo co ocaec pocpace e (2 oox e). Xo o pee o cpe cpao c pey cocoa, eo peyec aoo ee opx eco. Oao pacpee oo eoa a oee oeco ao e e aec.

Ho o eo o, paoa pooaec. B ae o oo aee ycex. Moe y c exa oec coeae oo cp c epea poaao oee cox opo. o ae?

12.5 Peae pep poepoa oce oe ya o epeao poaae IBM pacpa pep poepoa S-oo P-oa [373, 374]. pep poepoa S-oo c:

aoo S-oa 6 xox o 4 xox a. (o ca oo paep, oop o peaoa oo pocxee o exoo 1974 oa.) H o xoo S-oa e oe co o eo y xox o.

Ec acpoa pae e pa S-oa, e 4 cpex a, o a oo 4-o peya oyaec oo o pa.

Ec a xoa S-oa oac oo o o, peya o oac o pae epe a 2 a.

Ec a xoa S-oa oac oo y epa a, peya o oac o pae epe a 2 a.

Ec a xoa S-oa oac y ep a, a ocee x ocee 2 a coaa, peya e o oao.

oo eyeoo 6-ooo o ey xoa, e oee, e 8 32 ap xoo oy p o a xoe oaooy pa.

Aao peyey pep, o cya pex ax S-oo.

pep poepoa P-oa c:

4 xox a aoo S-oa a ae i pacpeee a, o 2 x a cpee S-oo a ae i 1, a pye 2 a a ocee .

4 xox a aoo S-oa a ec pax S-oo, ae 2 e a o o e S-o.

Ec xoo ooo S-oa e a cpee pyoo S-oa, o xoo oo p y oo S-oa e oe a cpee epoo S-oa.

a paoa pooaa ocyee pepe. Ceo coce epyo eeppoa S-o, o aae 70-x o o eeo aae. Tae oop, o popa, ooe S-o, paoa eca.

12.6 Bapa DES Moopam DES B pe peaa DES coyec pexpa DES (c. 2-) [55]. Ta a DES e ec pyo, o ye poec opao coee cp, coy cepa oc: 2 oo eco 256.

opooc oo a paee 15.2.

poae DES DES-1 DES Op poec K1 K2 K ec DES-1 DES- DES eppoae Pc. 12-10. Tpexpa DES.

DES c eaucuu noau pyo oooc ec cooae pax oe a ao ae, e coaa x ooo 56-ooo a [851]. Ta a a ao 16 ao coyec 48 o a, o a a aoo apaa coca 768 o. Tao apa peo yeae cooc cp aopa p y o co, cooc aoo cp coca 2.

Oao ooo cooae cp "cpea ocepee" (c. pae 15.1). Cooc aoo cp yeaec o 2384, o, e e eee, oe ocaoo oecee o co eoac oc.

Xo eace o ea eoy poaay, o apa ycee epe aoy poaay oe cp c oo 2 pax opx eco (c. -3-) [167, 172].

o oy, aa oa pacpeee e e coe aoo yc DES.

DESX DESX - o apa DES, papaoa RSA Data Security, Inc., e 1986 oy popay oecee eoacoc epoo o MailSafe, a 1987 oy aop BSAFE. DESX coye eo, aae oeae (c. pae 15.6), acpo xoo xoo DES. poe 56-ooo a DES DESX coyec ooe 64-o oea. 64 a coyc oe oepa XOR c oo opoo eca epe ep ao DES. ooee 64 a, ec peyao pee ooapaeo y ooy 120-ooy y DESX, co yc oe XOR c poeco, oye peyae oceeo aa [155]. o cpae c DES oeae aeo oae ycooc DESX cp pyo co, cpe peye (2120)/n oepa p n ecx opx ecax. Tae oaec ycooc epeaoy eoy poaay, cp opeyec 2 pax 260 ecx opx eco, coo eceo [1338].

CRYPT(3) CRYPT(3) pecae coo apa DES, coye cceax UNIX. O ocoo coyec aece ooapaeo y apoe, o oa oe cooa poa. Pa e ey CRYPT(3) DES coco o, o CRYPT(3) ea eaca o a epecaoa c pacpee c 212 apaa. o ceao oo, o coa aapaoo ycpoca cp apoe e o cooa poee pocxe DES.

Ooe DES Ooe DES (Generalized DES, GDES) cpoepoa ycope DES oe yco oc aopa [1381, 1382]. O paep oa yec, a oeco ce ocaoc ee .

Ha 1- oaaa ooa apaa GDES. GDES paoae c oa opoo eca epeeo . o poa ec a q 32-ox ooo, ooe co oopx ac o ooo paepa oa (oop o ee oe ec, o cpoa opeo peaa). B oe cyae q pao paepy oa, eeoy a 32.

Op ec (1) (2) (3) (q-1) (q) B0 B0 B0 B0 B F K (1) (2) (3) (q-1) (q) B1 B1 B1 B1 B F K (1) (2) (3) (q-1) (q) B2 B2 B2 B2 B F Ki (1) (2) (3) (q-1) (q) Bn-1 B B B B n-1 n-1 n-1 n- F Kn (1) (2) (3) (q-1) (q) Bn Bn Bn Bn Bn poec Pc. 12-11. GDES.

y f aoo aa paccaec o pa paeo paoo oa. Peya p oo oepa XOR oeec co ce oca ac, oope ae ec ceac apao.

GDES coye epeeoe co ao n. B oce a eceo eaeoe eee, o p o ecc poa eppoa oac oo opo oe (oo ae, a DES). e ceo, ec q = 2 n = 16, o oca aop pepaaec DES.

xa ap [167, 168] oaa, o epea poaa cpae GDES c q = 8 n = c oo ceo ec pax opx eco. p cooa eacx oe peyec 16 pax opx eco. GDES c q = 8 n = 22 cpaec c oo ceo 48 pax opx eco, a cp GDES c q = 8 n = 31 peyec ceo 500000 pax opx eco. ae GDES c q = 8 n = 64 caee, e DES - eo cp yo oo 249 pax opx eco.

eceo, a oee cpa, e DES, cxea GDES ec ae eee eoaco (c. -3-).

Heao oc ee o apa o cxe [1591]. Booo o e oee eoace, e opa GDES. Oe cyae o apa DES c o oa, oop cpee DES, copee ceo eee eoace o cpae c DES.

DES c ueeu S-oau pye oa DES ca c S-oa. B eoopx poeax coyec epee opo S-oo. pye papao e coepae cax S -oo. xa ap oaa [170,172], o ocpoee S-oo ae x opo oa c o pe ycooc epeaoy p oaay:

eee opa oc S-oo DES (e ee x ae) ae aeo ocae DES: DES c 16 a a ope ee opo cpaec pepo a 2 ao.... oaao, o DES co cya S oa cp oe eo. ae aoe eee ooo eeo S_oo DES oe c yco oc DES cp.

S-o DES e opoa po eoo poaaa. Cyecy ye S-o, e peaaee DES, o eya aea S-oo o - e caa ya e.

B -3- [167, 169] epece eoope oa DES oeco pax opx eco, yoe oe epeaoo poaaa. B ay e ea oa oa, o ea ey pay oo c oo coe o oy 24 eco XOR, ee 2 pa pyee cp, e DES [689].

RDES RDES - o oa, oopo oe aoo aa oeac eca paa ea oo c cooae aco o a epecao [893]. Oe eca cpoa ac oo o a. o oaae, o oe 15 oeo, acx o a, 2 oox apao, a ae o a oa e ycoa o ooe epeaoy poaay [816, 894, 112]. RDES ooe oeco cax e. eceo, o a caee, e DES. c ooa y oa e.

ye ec e o oe eca oo peeax pao oo aae aoo aa. pyo xopoe ee ec oee oea acoc o xox ax, a e a ca e co y a. Cyecye oeco oox apao [813, 815]. B RDES-1 coyec ac a o ax epecaoa 16-ox co aae aoo aa. B RDES-2 peec aca o ax epecaoa ao aae aoo aa oce 16-ox epecaoo, aaox RDES-1.

Pae o e ec RDES-4, .. RDES-1 yco epeaoy [815], eoy poaay [1136]. o oy, RDES-2 oceye apa ocaoo xopo.

Ta. 12-15.

Bcp apao DES c oo epeaoo poa aa eee pao oeco pax opx eco o DES (e ee) P-epecaoa He oe yc Toecea epecaoa opo S-oo aea XOR coe 239, S-o Cyae 218 - Cyae epecao 233 - Ooeee Oopoe a aee E-pacpe opo E-pacpe XOR oa GDES (pa =8) 16 ao 6, 64 aa 249 (eac ) snDES pya opecx cceoaee o pyooco ao a (Kwangjo Kim) oaac a aop S-oo, oao ycox po epeaoo, po eoo poaaa. x epa oa, eca a s2DES, pecaea [834], oaaac, a o oaao [855, 858], eee yco o, e DES, po epeaoo poaaa. Cey apa, s3DES, pecae [839] oaac eee yco, e DES, eoy poaay [856, 1491, 1527, 858, 838]. xa pe o eaeo e aop, o cea s3DES eoac o ooe epea oy, eoy poaay [165]. cceoae epyc co oepa papaoa yy ey exy poepoa S-oo [835, 837]. O peo s4DES [836], a ae s5DES [838, 944].

B -4- pee s3DES (c opae S -oa 1 2), oope eoac o ooe oo a poaaa. cooae oo apaa ece c pexpa DES aepa oeae po a ay.

DES c S-oau, aucuu om a e epea poaa paoa oo, ec aay eco cpoee S-oo.

Ec S-o ac o a pac popaec c eoo, o e epe a poaa aeo ycoc. Xo ao o, o ae y xpaxc cepee cya o coax S-oo oe oxe epeae ee xapaepc.

Ta. 12-16.

S-o s3DES (c opae S-oa 1 2) S-o 1:

13 14 0 3 10 4 7 9 11 8 12 6 1 15 2 8 2 11 13 4 1 14 7 5 15 0 3 10 6 9 14 9 3 10 0 7 13 4 8 5 6 15 11 12 1 1 4 14 7 11 13 8 2 6 3 5 10 12 0 15 S-o 2:

15 8 3 14 4 2 9 5 0 11 10 1 13 7 6 6 15 9 5 3 12 10 0 13 8 4 11 14 2 1 9 14 5 8 2, 4 15 3 10 7 6 13 1 11 12 10 5 3 15 12 9 0 6 1 2 8 4 11 14 7 S-o 3:

13 3 11 5 14 8 0 6 4 15 1 12 7 2 10 4 13 1 8 7 2 14 11 15 10 12 3 9 5 0 6 5 8 11 13 14 3 0 9 2 4 1 10 7 15 1 11 7 2 8 13 4 14 6 12 10 15 3 0 9 S-o 4:

9 0 7 11 12, 5 10 6 15 3 1 14 2 8 4 5 10 12 6 0 15 3 9 8 13 11 1 7 2 14 10 7 9 12 5 0 6 11 3 14 4 2 8 13 15 3 9 15 0 6 10 5 12 14 2 1 7 13 4 8 S-o 5:

5 15 9 10 0 3 14 4 2 12 7 1 13 6 8 6 9 3 15 5 12 0 10 8 7 13 4 2 11 14 15 0 10 9 3 5 4 14 8 11 1 7 6 12 13 12 5 0 6 15 10 9 3 7 2 14 11 8 1 4 S-o 6:

4 3 7 10 9 0 14 13 15 5 12 6 2 11 1 14 13 11 4 2 7 1 8 9 10 5 3 15 0 12 13 0 10 9 4 3 7 14 1 15 6 12 8 5 11 1 7 4 14 11 8 13 2 10 12 3 5 6 15 0 S-o 7:

4 10 15 12 2 9 1 6 11 5 0 3 7 14 13 10 15 6 0 5 3 12 9 1 8 11 13 14 4 7 2 12 9 6 15 10 4 1 5 11 3 0 8 7 14 12 6 3 9 0 5 10 15 2 13 4 14 7 11 1 S-o 8:

13 10 0 7 3 9 14 4 2 15 12 1 5 6 11 2 7 13 1 4 14 11 8 15 12 6 10 9 5 0 4 13 14 0 9 3 7 10 1 8 2 11 15 5 12 8 11 7 14 2 4 13 1 6 5 9 0 12 15 3 Bo a oo cooa 48 ooex o a coa S-oo, ycox a eoy, a epeaoy poaay [165].

(1) e opo S-oo DES: 24673158.

(2) Bpa 16 ocaxc o a. Ec ep 1, oe eca epe ocee a pa S-oa 1. Ec opo 1, oe eca epe ocee oce coo S-oa 1. o op o e caoe peeo eepoo o S-oa 2. oop o e caoe S-oo c o 8.

(3) B ocaec 32 a a. Bo XOR epx epex o c a eeo S-oa 1, XOR ceyx epex o c a eeo S-oa 2, a aee.

Cooc cp ao cce c oo epeaoo poaaa coca 251, c o o eoo poaaa - 253. Cooc cepaeo epeopa coca 2102.

o xopoo o apae DES a o o, o o oe peaoa cyecye aapaype.

Pae oca pocxe DES poa pocxe DES c oooc apy S-oo. Moo peaoa o coco eepa S-oo e pocxe ae apy x ee. epe aoo eoo poaaa yo a oo ecx pax opx eco, o c o co cp caoc eocyec. Bcpe pyo co ae pyo cee peca, e o o e aoe yeee copoc.

12.7 Hacoo eoace ceo DES?

Oe oopeeo poc, pye. p poco oee yaec oo a a (c. pae 7.1). Maa cp DES pyo co, cocoa a cpee a 3.5 aca, 1993 oy coa 1 o oapo [1597, 1598]. DES coyec oe poo, ao o peoaa, o NSA aaoe opaa pyx cpaax e ocpo o aoy ycpocy. e aae, o cooc yeaec 5 pa ae 10 e. C eee pee DES ye caoc ce eee eee eoac.

pyoo oea yo oac oe poaaece eo. epea po a a ece NSA aoo o cepe 70-x, oa DES epe ca caapo. Hao ca, o c ex op eope NSA eo e ea, o aepa o papaoa oe poaaece e o , oope oo cooa po DES. Ho ao y ac e, o cyx.

B apay (Winn Schwartau) e, o NSA ocpoo opoy apaey ay cp DES ye cepee 80-x [1404]. o pae epe oa aa aa a ocpoea Harris Corp. C c ooae Cray Y-MP. peooeo cyecye p aopo, oope a ecoo opo yea cooc cp DES pyo co. oece aop, ocoae a ypee paoe DES, oo opoc p e, coy ace pee. Cacece aop yea ey y a ee cee. pye aop ae poep epoe - coa, e a aee oceoaeoc ASCII, .. (c. pae 8.1). o cyxa NSA oe cp DES a pe o 3 o 15 y, acoc o oo oo ye oe oe peapeo opao. aa aa aa co opa 50000 oapo.

Coaco py cyxa, ec y NSA ec ooe oeco opx eco poeco, eo c ep oy o eoope cacece pace ae ca apxa a oecx c ax.

o, o o oo cyx, e ae e yco yepeoc DES. o aop oe oo oe oo e. o oe eee DES ocy ooeo ao, oe oy c p ye eee yco cp, o y NSA oe e oaac cpec pee o opeo aa.

peoey cooa cxey xaa acx o a S-oo. Oa oe eo pea oaa popao aapao (c oo pocxe c apyae S-oa), e po oepe eoc o cpae c DES. a cxea oae ycooc aopa cp pyo co, ycoe epea e poaa acae NSA coyc c aopo, o pa e epe a e c a DES, o py.

aa 13 pye oe p 13.1 LUCIFER B oe 60-x IBM aaa oee cceoaeco popa o oepo popa, a ao epo (Lucifer) pyooo caaa Xopco ecee (Horst Feistel), a ae oo Ta e o (Walt Tuchman). o e aae - Lucifer - oy o aop, oc peyae o popa aae 70-x [1482, 1484]. B eceoc cyecye o ee epe a pax a o pa c a ee [552, 1492]. [552] coep p poeo cea aopa. Bce o peo aeo yae.

Lucifer - o aop epecaoo ocaoo, eo o oxo a o DES. B DES peya y f oeec c oo XOR co xoo peyeo aa, opay xo ceyeo aa. S-oo a o pa Lucifer 4-oe xo 4-oe xo, xo S-oo pecae coo epeacoa xo S_oo peyeo aa, xoo S-oo epoo aa ec op ec. opa coy e oo S-oa yx oox peec a. (Lucifer peaye o, a o T-o c 9 a a xoe 8 a a xoe.) B oe o DES oo oa ey aa e epecac ooe oe oo oa e coyec aope Lucifer. oo aopa 16 ao, 128-oe o oee pocoe, e DES, pacpeeee e.

pe epea poaa epo peaa Lucifer'a, xa ap [170, 172] o a a, o Lucifer c 32-o oa 8 aa oe oa c oo 40 pax opx eco a 239 ao, o e coco oo cp Lucifer c 128-o oa 8 aa c oo 60 pax opx eco a 2 ao. 18-a, 128-o Lucifer cpaec epea poaao c oo 24 pax opx eco a 2 ao. Bce cp cooa ce S-o DES. pe epea poaa po opo peaa Lucifer, xa ap oapy, o S-o aoo caee, e DES. ae aa oaa, o oee oo oox e e c eoac [112]. poaa co ca a oe oa 128-o Lucifer c co ao c oo 2 pax opx eco pax e 265 ecx opx eco pax e [158]. Bopa peaa Lucifer ee caee [170, 172, 112].

Heoope ya, o Lucifer eoacee, e DES, -a oe a aoo oeca oy oax cee. Ho oeo, o o e a.

Lucifer ec oeo ecox aeo CA: [553, 554, 555, 1483]. Cpo ec cex x a eo ce.

13.2 MADRYGA B.E. Mapa (W. E. Madryga) peo o o aop 1984 oy [999]. O oe e o peaoa a popaa: e e aoex epecaoo, ce oepa oc a a a. Co epec aa, oope pea aop p poepoa aopa:

1. Op ec e oy poeca e oo a. (o oaae oo o, o a op eoace.) 2. oeco oepa, yoe opeee a o ec poecy opoy e cy, oo cacec pao poee oeca oepa p poa a co oox e. (o oaae, o aoe cpe c op eco e oe ye, e cpe pyo co.) 3. ecoc aopa e e a cy pa. (eoacoc ooc op eeec o.) 4. eee ooo a a oo a oo e opoo eca paaoe eee poeca, eee ooo a opoo eca oo a oo e a pa aoe eee poeca. (o a e.) 5. Aop oe coepa eoyay oa ocaoo epeca oo.

6. ocao epecao, coyee aope, o opeec xo a, o.

7. oe py o opoo eca o ooc aacpoa poece.

8. a poeca oa pac e opoo eca.

9. He oo pocx aoce ey oo a ocoeoc poeca.

10. Bce ooe o aa c p. (He oo cax e.) 11. a a eca oy peypoac peaa pax peoa eoacoc.

12. Aop oe oo ey popay peaa a ox peax, oepax, pooepax c oo cpeo o. (o cy coyee a o pe y opae XOR o co.) DES yoeop ep e peoa, o ocee p o. B peooe, o y cocoo cp aopa ec pya ca, epeea a a, oeo e, aca a oa ex, o cae, o 56 o - o co ao. Tae oy peaoa o aop c o yo o a. A o, o oa-y ac peaoa DES popao, opayec aopy, oop yae oooc popax pea a.

Onucaue Madryga Madryga coco yx oex o. Be oopec oce pa (o o oeco o e yeeo oe) coep peee ypeeo a opoy ecy. Bype pepaae op ec poec, oopc aoo 8-ooo oa (aa) op o o eca. Ceoaeo, ec op ec oce pa oceoaeo opaaaec a opo.

epa ypeeo a oeppye c 3-ao oo ax, aae pao apo (c. 12 ). o oo ceaec a 1 a a epa. (p paoe c oce 2 aa ae cac ec ay.) epe a aa paoeo apa ec cac a epeeoe co o, a oceeo aa oec XOR c eoop a a. o epe poe paoeo apa ce a oceoaeo "paac" oepac oepa XOR c ac a. oceoaee p a e epeea peya peyx oepa XOR pae, a peya XOR e a pa e e. o eae ec poecc opa.

Tec 1 2 3 4 5 6...

TL-2 TL-1 TL yc WF(1) WF(2) WF(3) pao 8 o 8 o 8 o ap ROT Oe Ce ec c ca ca 3 a peopaoae Oe peopaoa 8 o XOR 1 2 3...

KL XOR X-aee 1 2 3...

KL a Pc. 13-1. Oa epa Madryga.

Ta a a a ax e a a aa cea o ce a o a cpaa, oce oc pox o o a a poeca ac o 16 ao cea o oc ao cpaa.

p poa aa epa ypeeo a ycaaae pao ap a peoce a opoo eca ec epeeae eo ay opoo eca, peey cea o oceeo. Ca a a ec oepaec oepa XOR co cyao ocao ae ec ceaec eo a a. Mae p a aeo aa paoeo apa coxpac, o opee paee ocax yx ao. ae aeo aa paoeo apa oec oepa XOR c a ao a.

aee oeee yx capx ao ec ceaec eo a epeeoe co o (o 0 o 7).

Haoe pao ap ceaec pao a o a ec poecc oopec.

Cc cyao oca o, o pepa ceocyay oceoaeoc. a oca oa paa e a. p oee a aoe o ooac ocao oaoo . 64-ooo a Mapa peoeye ocay 0x0f1e2d3c4b5a6978.

p eppoa poecc eppyec. p ao epa ypeeo a pao ap yc a aaec a a, pe cea o oceeo aa poeca, ec epeeaec opao apae o aa, oop axoc a 2 aa eee oceeo aa poeca. , 2 aa poeca poecce ec ceac apao, a XOR oec epe ec ca.

punmoaau u Madryga cceoae Texecoo yepcea cae (Queensland University of Technology) [675] c ceoa Madryga ece c eoop py o pa. O oapy, o o aope e poec a e peopaoa opoo eca poec. poe oo, o ox poecax poe e e, e poe ye.

Xo y e e cee o poee opaoo aaa oo aopa, o e poo ea e e cyepaeoo. p oepxoco aoce c xa pe cey oa [160]:

Aop coco oo ex oepa (ecoe ceee XOR), eaeo eex ac oc o ax.

B o e eo oxoeo a o S-oo DES.

eoc cex o poeca opoo eca eea ac oo o a. ooy, oaa op eco cooecy poeco, oo pecaa eoc poeca oo opoo eca.

o oeoc oo x aea e c pec, o o aop e ae y e ooex o. e peoey cooa Madryga.

13.3 NewDES NewDES (o DES) cpoepoa 1985 oy Poepo Coo (Robert Scott) a ooa a e a DES [1405, 364]. Aop e ec oae DES, a oe oaac eo aa. O o e ppye 64-o oa poeca, o coye 120-o . NewDES poe, e DES, e e aao aeo epecaoo. Bce oepa oc a e aa. (Ha cao ee NewDES o opao e ec oo epce DES, aae o pao eyao.) o opoo eca ec a oce 1-aox ooo: B0, B1,..., B6, B7. ae oo poxo epe 17 ao. B ao ae oce ec. B ao ec o ooo oepaec oep a XOR c ac a (ec oo cee), aeec py ao c oo y f ae oepaec oepa XOR c py ooo, oop aeec peyao. 120-o e c a 15 ooo a: K0, K1,..., K13, K14. poecc ee o, ye eo cxey, e poa eo o cae. Aop poa NewDES oaa a 11-.

a B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B K f K f K f K f a K f f K f K f a 3- a K f f K f K a f K f K f K f K f B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B Pc. 13-2. NewDES.

y f oc eapa eacoc. opooc oo a [1405].

Co oaa, o a oa opoo eca e a a poeca ye oce 7 a o. O ae poaapoa y f e ae ax-o oex poe. NewDES oaae o e oeapoc, o DES [364]: ec EK(P} = C, o EK'(P'} = C'. o yeae oe pao, eo xoo cp pyo co, c 2 ec o 2119. xa ae, o oe eee ooo a a, peeoe o ce aa a ax, ae po oeapoc [160]. o yeae oe pyoo cp o 2112 ec.

o e ec p, o peoeoe xao poaaecoe cpe co ca 33 a oe cp NewDES c oo 2 pax opx eco pax e a 2 e c [160]. Xo aoe cpe peye oo pee oo cee ec eopeec, oo o aae, o NewDES caee, e DES.

13.4 FEAL FEAL peoe Axpo yy (Akihiro Shimizu) o My (Shoji Miyaguchi) NTT Japan [1435]. B e coyc 64-o o 64-o . Eo e coco o, o coa a o p, oo DES, o c oee co ye aa. coy ee ao, o aop o p a oa cpee. ecac eceoc oaaac aea o ee poea.

Onucaue FEAL Ha 10- pecaea o-cxea ooo aa FEAL. B aece xoa poecca poa coyec 64-o o opoo eca. Caaa o ax oepaec oepa XOR c 64 a a. a e o ax paceec e ey pay oo. Oeee eo pao oo c oo XOR opaye oy pay ooy. ea ooa oa paa ooa poxo epe n ao (epoaao epe). Ha ao ae paa ooa oeec c oo y f c ecaa a a c oo XOR - c eo ooo, coaa oy pay ooy. cxoa paa o oa (a aao aa) caoc oo eo ooo. oce n ao (e aae, o ea paa oo e epecac oce n-o aa) ea ooa coa oeec c oo XOR c pao ooo, opay oy pay ooy, ae ea paa coec ece 64-ooe eoe. o ax oeec c oo XOR c py 64 a a, aop aepaec.

Op ec (K8,,, ) 64 a K9 K10 K,,, )} {(K12 K13 K14 K 64 a 32 a 32 a L0 {R8} R0 {L8} L0 {R8} K0 {K7} f R0 {L8} K1 {K6} L1 {R7} f R1 {L7} K7 {K0} L7 {R1} f R7 {L1} R8 {L0} L8 {R0} 64 a (K12,,, ) K13 K14 K,,, )} {(K8 K9 K10 K poec {}: eppoae Pc. 13-3. O a FEAL.

y f epe 32 a ax 16 o a ceae x ece. Caaa o ax paaec a 8-oe yco, oope ae oec c oo XOR ae py pya. o-cxea y f pecaea a 9-. e y S0 S1 opeec cey opao:

S0(a,b) = ec c eo a a a (( a b) mod 256) S1(a,b) = ec c eo a a a(( a b 1) mod 256) b 16 o b S a f(a S,b) a1 a 32 a S a S a Pc. 13-4. y f.

To e aop oe cooa eppoa. Ece oe ec o, o p eppoa opo cooa ace a eec a opa.

Ha 8- pecaea o-cxea y eepa a. Caaa 64-o ec a e o o , oop pec oepa XOR y fk, a oaao a cxee. Ha 7- oaaa o-cxea y fk. a 32-ox xoa paac a 8-oe o, oeee aeee cooec co cxeo. S0 S1 opeec, a oaao a pcye. ae aope poa/eppoa coyc 16-oe o a.

Ha popoeccope 80286/10 M acceepa peaa FEAL-32 oe poa ae co cop o c 220 /c. FEAL-64 oe poa ae co copoc 120 /c [1104].

o a 64 a 32 a 32 a A0 B fK K0, K A D1 B fK K2, K A7 B D 32 a K14, K15 fK Pc. 13-5. Opaoa a FEAL.

a 32 a a a0 a1 a b S b 32 a b S b X b S0 S X ai, bi - 8 Y 32 a fK(a,b) Y=S0(X1,X2)=Rot2((X1+X2) mod 256) Y=S1(X1,X2)=Rot2((X1+X2+1) mod 256) Y: xoe 8 o, X1,X2 (8 o): xo Rot2(Y): ec c eo a 2 a 8-ox ax Y Pc. 13-6. y fK.

punmoaau FEAL ce poaa FEAL-4, FEAL c ep aa, oe c oo cp c pa op eca [201], a oe caoc oo aopa a oaaa [1132]. oceee cp e, oeoe Co Mep (Sean Murphy), o ep oyoa cpe, cooa epea poaa, eo opeoaoc oo 20 pax opx eco. Oeo papaoo ca 8-a FEAL [1436, 1437, 1108], poaa oopoo pecae xao apo a oepe SECURICOM '89 [1424]. cp FEAL-8 c pa op eca opeoaoc oo 10000 oo [610], o acao papaoo aopa acy pyaa ope e FEAL-N [1102, 1104], aop c epee co ao (oeo e, o 8).

xa ap pe po FEAL-N epea poaa, xo o o ee cpee cp eo pyo co (c oo eee, e 2 poa paoo opoo eca) N, eeo 32. [169]. cp FEAL-16 yo 2 pax 246.5 ecx opx eco. 37. cp FEAL-8 peyec 2000 pax 2 ecx opx eco. FEAL-4 oe cp c oo ceo 8 pao pax opx eco.

Papao FEAL opee ae oa FEAL - FEAL-NX, oopo coyec 128 o (c. 6-) [1103, 1104]. xa ap oaa, o oo ae N FEAL-NX co 128 o o aa e coee, e FEAL-N c 64-o o [169]. Heao peoe FEAL-N(X)S, yca FEAL a ce aeco y oea eca [1525].

o a (KL|KR): 128 o Opaoa a eoc KR KL 32 a A0 B fK Q K0, K D A1 B Q fK K2, K D A2 B Q fK K4, K DN/2+ AN/2+2 BN/2+ QN/2+ KN+4, KN+5 fK BN/2+ DN/2+ AN/2+ 32 a fK QN/2+ KN+6, KN+ KR1 KR KR1 KR K2(r-1): ea ooa Br (16 o) Qr=KR1 KR2, r=1, 4, 7,...

K2(r-1)+1: paa ooa Br (16 o) Qr=KR1, r=2, 5, 8,...

co epa:N/2+ Qr=KR2, r=3, 6, 9,...

Pc. 13-7. Opaoa a FEAL-NX.

oee oo. B [1520] o pecaeo pyoe cpe FEAL-4, peyee oo 1000 ecx op x eco, FEAL-8, oopoo yo oo 20000 ecx opx eco. pye cp p e e [1549, 1550]. Hay ec oeoe Mypy May (Mitsuru Matsui) Aypo a (Atshuiro Yamagishi) [1020]. o o epoe peee eoo poaaa, oo ooo cp FEAL-4 c oo 5 ecx opx eco, FEAL-6 - c oo 100 ecx opx eco, a FEAL-8 - c oo 215 ecx opx eco. aee yoe oo a [64]. epe a poaa ooe cpa FEAL-8, coy oo 12 pax opx eco [62].

o e ope o eo poaaecoo cp, aec, o o cea caaa poye eo a FEAL.

amem FEAL aaeoa Coeex aax [1438], cooecye ae p paccope A, pa epa. ea epoa cooae aopa oe cac c epa aeo eeyao coceoc (Intellectual Property Department), NTT, 1-6 Uchisaiwai-cho, 1-chome, Chiyada-ku, 100 Japan.

13.5 REDOC REDOC II pecae coo pyo o aop, papaoa Mao Byo (Michael Wood) Cryptech, Inc. [1613, 400]. B e coyc 20-ao (160-o) 80-o o.

REDOC II oe ce ay - epecao, ocao XOR c o - c aa, o a op ee p popao peaa. REDOC II coye eec ae y. B oe o DES, eeo cpoa (xo opoax eoacoc) aop a oc a oo epecaoo REDOC II coye ace o a opoo eca aop a (o cy S oo). REDOC II 10 ao, a a pecae coo coy oceoaeoc ay c oo.

pyo yao ocoeoc ec cooae aco, oope c ca, oye a e, coyc opa a ao y aoo aa. opa a y coyc a aee ax, a ac.

p yco, o ca e cpeco cp oo aopa ec pya ca, REDOC II oe aee: cp a peyec 2 oepa. Toac y (Thomas Cusick) o po a a ooo aa REDOC II, o ey e yaoc pacp cpe a ecoo ao [400]. coy epea poaa, xa ap oc ycexa poaae ooo aa REDOC II c oo 2300 pax opx eco [170]. O e co pacp o cpe a ecoo a o, o yaoc oy p ae ac oce 4 ao. O pyx oax poaaa e e eco.

REDOC III REDOC pecae coo ypoey epc REDOC II, ae papaoay Mao Byo [1615].

O paoae c 80-o oo. a a oe ec oca 2560 ao (20480 o). A o p coco oo oepa XOR ao a opoo eca, epecao ocao e coyc.

(1) Coa ay e 256 10-aox e, coy cepe .

(2) Coa 2 10-aox oa ac M1 M2. M1 pecae coo XOR epx 128 10-aox e, a M2 - XOR opx 128 10-aox e.

(3) poa 10-aooo oa:

(a) Bo XOR epoo aa oa ax epoo aa M1. Bpa a e, paccao a ae (1). cooa ceoe aee XOR aece eca a. Bo XOR aoo, poe epoo, aa oa ax c cooecy ao paoo a.

(b) Bo XOR opoo aa oa ax opoo aa M1. Bpa a e, paccao a ae (1). cooa ceoe aee XOR aece eca a. Bo XOR aoo, poe opoo, aa oa ax c cooecy ao paoo a.

(c) pooa ceo oa ax ( ao c 3 o 10), oa a a e ye cooa opa a a oce oe eo XOR c cooecy aee M1.

ae o XOR c o aoo, poe cooaoo opa a, aa.

(d) oop M2 a (a)-(c).

o aop ecoe cp. Ha 33 eaepoo poeccope 80386 o pye ae co copoc 2.75 M/c. By oe, o oeeppoaa peaa a CC c 64 oo o ax oa poa ae co copoc ce 1.28 /c p aoo acoe 20 M.

REDOC III e eoace [1440]. O ycee epeaoy poaay. occaoe oex aco yo ceo pepo 223 pax opx eco.

amem u ueuu Oe epc REDOC aaeoa Coeex aax [1614]. Paccapac ocpae ae.

p aepecoaoc REDOC II REDOC III opaaec May Byy (Michael C. Wood, Delta Computec, Inc., 6647 Old Thompson Rd., Syracuse, NY 13211).

13.6 LOKI LOKI papaoa Acpa epe pecae 1990 oy aece ooo aepa DES [273]. B e coyc 64-o o 64-o . Oa cpyypa aopa co o a a ocaa [274, 275], a cxea S-oo - [1247].

coy epea poaa, xa ap co oa LOKI c 11 eee aa cpee, e pyo co [170]. oee oo, aop oaae 9-oo oeapoc, o ye a e cooc cp pyo co 256 pa [170, 916, 917].

apc yce (Lars Knudsen) oaa, o LOKI c 14 eee aa ycee epeaoy poaay [852, 853]. poe oo, ec LOKI coyc aepae S-o, oyac p epoo ae ye ycee epeaoy poaay.

LOKI B oe a cp papao LOKI epyc a epey ocy epecope co aop.

Peyao o oee LOKI91 [272]. (peya epc LOKI a epeeoaa LOKI89.) o oc ycooc aopa epeaoy poaay ac o oe apoc, opa poe ece ceye ee:

1. Aop eepa oe ee a, o oo epecac e oce aoo, a oce aoo opoo aa.

2. Aop eepa oe ee a, o oeco o ecoo ca e oo oa o pao o 12, o 13 a.

3. ycpae aaa aea oepa XOR oa a.

4. a eea y S-oa c e ca XOR po S-oo (o oc x yco oc epeaoy poaay), e oyc, o aoo-o ae o oc f(x) = 0, e f - o oa E-, S- P-oo.

Onucaue LOKI Mexa LOKI91 oxo a DES (c. Pc. 13-8). o ax ec a ey pay oo p o xo epe 16 ao, o oe oxoe a DES. Ha ao ae paa ooa caaa oepaec o e pa XOR c ac a, a ae a e oec epecaoa c pacpee (c. Ta. 13-1).

Op ec L 32 R KL KR ROL P S E K(2) P S E ROL K(3) P S E ROL K(4) P S E ROL K(15) P S E ROL K(16) P S E ROL poec Pc. 13-8. LOKI91.

Ta. 13-1.

epecaoa c pacpee 4, 3, 2, 1, 32, 31, 20, 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 48-o peya ec a epe 12-ox oa, aoo oopx oec ceya ocaoa c cooae S-oa: epec a 12-o xo, o 2 pax ex pax p a x a coyc oye oepa r, 8 epax opay oep c. Peyao S-oa O - ec ceyee aee:

O(r,c) = (c ((r* 17) 0xff) & 0xff)31 mod Pr Pr peeo Ta. 13-2.

Ta. 13-2.

Pr r: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, Pr: 375, 279, 391, 395, 397, 415, 419, 425, 433, 445, 451, 463, 471, 477, 487, ae epe 8-ox peyaa coa oec, opay 32-ooe co, oopoe oepaec oepa epecao, ocao Ta. 13-3. Haoe oye oo eo oo oec XOR pao oo c pee eo ooo, a ea ooa caoc oo pao ooo. o ce 16 ao oye ooaeoo poeca coa oec XOR oa a.

Ta. 13-3.

epecaoa c oo P-oa 32, 24, 16, 8, 31, 23, 15, 7, 30, 22, 14, 6, 29, 21, 13, 5, 28, 20, 12, 4, 27, 19, 11, 3, 26, 18, 10, 2, 25, 17, 9, o a ec ocaoo poeo. 64-o paaec a ey p a y oo. Ha ao ae oo ec ea ooa. aee oa ec caec eo a 12 13 o, ae oce ax yx ao ea paa oo ec eca. a DES poa eppoa coyec o o e aop c eoop ee co oa oe.

punmoaau LOKI yce pep oy poaaa LOKI91 [854, 858], o ae, o o aop yco epeaoy poaay. Oao ey yaoc oapy, o cpe co ca a pax opx eco yeae cooc cp pyo co o eepo. o cpe coye caoc cooa a oe ae peeo, ec aop coyec a e ce ooapaeo x-y (c. pae 18.11).

pyoe cpe co ca a oe cp LOKI91 c oo 2 pax opx e co pax e c oo 2 ecx opx eco pax e [158]. o cpe e ac o ca ao aopa. (B o e paoe xa cpae LOKI89, coy p oaa co ca a, c oo 2 pax opx eco pax e c oo 233 ecx opx eco pax e.) Hecoo oc ycooc LOKI91 cp aoo a, yco cxey cooa a.

amem u ueuu LOKI e aaeoa. o yoo oe peaoa aop cooa eo. cxo o, p e e o e, aca epcee Hooo oo ca. p ea cooa y pea a ( pye peaa, oope a ecoo opo cpee) oepeco poye opaaec peopy CITRAD, aye oepx ay, epcec oe, epce Hooo oo ca, Aae acpacx oopyex c, aeppa, Acpa (Director CITRAD, Department of Computer Science, University College, UNSW, Australian Defense Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia;

FAX: 61 6 268 8581.

13.7 KHUFU KHAFRE B 1990 oy Pa Mep (Ralph Merkle) peo a aopa. B ocoe x poepoa ea ceye p [1071]:

1. 56-o paep a DES co a. Ta a cooc yee paepa a pee peo aa (oepa a eopoa ocya), o oe yee.

2. ecoe cooae epecaoo DES xo yoo aapax peaa, pe ao apye popae peaa. Haoee cpe peaa DES o epec a o a opao. pocop a oe oece e e xapaepc "pacce", o coceo epecao, oe cea peaa aoo oee o.

3. S-o DES, ceo c 64 4-o eea, co a. Teep c yeee a o yec S-o. oee oo, ce oce S-oo coyc oopeeo. Xo o yoo aapayp, popao peaa o aec ey opaee.

o peaoa o paep S-oo oceoaeoe (a e apaeoe) x c ooae.

4. poo pao, o aaa aea epecao popaec eccce, ooy o o ycpae.

5. Bce cpe peaa DES apaee pacca aoo aa. p ao yco e cca yco ce.

6. B oe o DES pep poepoa S-oo o oeocy.

oy epe Mep, ooo, eep oa "ycooc epeaoy eoy poaay", e o pe coco cp e ec.

Khufu Khufu - o 64-o o p. 64-o op ec caaa paaec a e 32-oe oo, L R. Ha oe ooa opeee ac a oec oepa XOR. ae, aaoo DES, peya poxo epe eoopy oceoaeoc ao. Ha ao ae a aa a L coyec aece xox ax S-oa. aoo S-oa 8 xox o xox a. aee pa S-oe 32-o ee oepaec oepa XOR c R. ae L ec caec e ecoo oc o, L R ec eca, a aaaec. Ca S-o e ec caec, o eec ae oce ao. Haoe oce oceeo aa a L R o ec oepa XOR c py ac a, oo oec, opay o poeca.

Xo ac a coyc XOR c oo poa aae oe aopa, aa e a -eepa S-oo. S-o - cepe, o cy c o c ac a. o paep a Khufu pae 512 a (64 aa), aop peocae coco eepa S-oo o y. oeco ao aopa ocaec op. Mep yoy, o 8-a Khufu ycee cp c pa op eco peoeye 16, 24 32 aa [1071]. (O opaae op oeca ao ca, pa oc.) Ta a Khufu coyc ace o a cepee S-o, o yco epeaoy poaay. Cyecye epeaoe cpe 16-aoo Khufu, oopoe pacpae oce pax opx eco [611], o eo e yaoc pacp a oee oeco ao. Ec y cocoo cp Khufu ec pya ca, o eo aeoc poo coe eaee. 512-o oeceae cooc 2512 - opooe co p x ycox.

Khafre Khafre - o opa pocce, peoex Mepo [1071]. (Khufu (Xyy) Khafre (Xap) - o ea eecx apaoo.) o ocpy o aop oxo a Khufu, o o cpoepoa p o e, e coyx peapex ce. S-o e ac o a. Beco oo Khafre c oye cpoae S-o. o poa oepaec oepa XOR c o e oo epe ep ao oce oceeo, o oce ax 8 ao poa.

Mep peoo, o c Khafre o cooac 64- 128-oe , o Khafre o peyec oe ao, e Khufu. o apy c e, o a a Khafre coee aa Khufu, eae Khafre oee ee. ao Khafre e y ae peape pace, o ooe cpee poa eoe op ax.

B 1990 oy xa ap pe co eo epeaoo aaa po Khafre [170]. yaoc oa 16-a Khafre c oo cp c pa op eco oce 1500 pa x poa. Ha x epcoao oepe o ao ooo aca. peopaoae oo cp o cpe c ec op eco opeye ooo 238 poa. Khafre c 24 aa oe cp c oo cp c pa op eco a 253 poa, a c oo cp c ec op eco - a 259 poa.

amem Khufu, Khafre aaeoa [1072]. cxo o x aopo coepc aee. p ea oy e a o oa aopa ceye opac peopy o epoa opop a Xerox (Director of Licensing, Xerox Corporation, P.0. Box 1600, Stamford, CT, 06904-1600).

13.8 RC RC2 pecae coo aop c epeeo o a, cpoepoa Poo Peco (Ron Rivest) RSA Data Security, Inc. (RSADSI). Oeo "RC" - o copaeoe "Ron's Code'' ("o Poa"), xo oao o "Rivest Cipher'' ("p Peca"). (RC3 oa RSADSI poecce papao, RC1 e e a pee aco Peca.) O pecae coo acy coceoc, eo ea e oyoa. He yae y, o o yeae eo eoacoc. RC2 ye oc o epecx poyax. Hacoo e eco, RC2 e aaeoa ae oo a opo ce pe.

RC2 - o p c 64-o oo epeeo o a, peaae ae DES. B coo ec c yepe oa popae peaa RC2 p paa cpee DES. Aop oe cooa epeeo , o 0 ao o acao cpo, oepaeo o epo cceo, copoc poa e ac o paepa a. o peapeo coyec aoe 128-aoo a, ace o a. ooy oeco eceo pax e cocae 21024. RC2 e coye S-oo [805], coyc e oepa - "ceae" "epeeae" ("mix" "mash"), aoo aa paec oa x. B cooec c epaypo [1334]:

... RC2 e ec epa o po. o peoaae, o RC2 oee yco epeaoy eoy poaay, e pye oe p, eoacoc oopx opaec a opoae cxe DES.

Oa RSADSI oyoa RC2 acae coeac aepex o oa. Oa oeae p e oca ea aopa ce, o oe coaee o epacpocpae opa, yepae, o oo poaaa oyoa e oapyee eae peya. Me eeco o oo poaae, e paoae o oa, o cceoa aop, a a o o cy oaao o paoy o aay oa.

Te e eee, Po Pec - e apaa. O yaae oee popa. o ae o cee ep o aop, xo o e e oa. RC4, ae c eeyao coceoc RSADSI, oyoa Internet (c. pae 17.1), , epoo, oyoae RC2 e c oo opoco pee.

o coae ey Accoae aee popaoo oecee (Software Publishers Association, SPA) paeco CA RC2 RC4 (c. pae 17.1) oy cea cop cayc (c. pa e 25.14). poecc oye papee a cop poyo, peayx o x yx aopo, aeo ypoe p yco, o a a e peae 40 o.

ocaoe 40-o ? Cyecye ceo o po oox e. p yco, o aoee e eoo poaaa ec cpe pyo co (ooe oyee, e a op oa e oyoa), o pocxea pyoo cp oe poep o e ceyy, oc paoo a ae 12.7 e. Tca a, paoax apaeo, coy pa c p a aa y.

RSA Data Security, Inc., yepae, o, xo poae eppoa oc cpo, c epaeo oca opeyec aoo oe pee. aeoe oeco pee pac a op poae aa cooa a. Xo o pe peepeo ao p poa eppoa cooe, o e a p poepe aoo oooo a.

paeco CA oa e ooo coppoa o aop, oop oo, o pae epe eop, e coo cp. Oo oe coa ay ey CD c ope oo o poo eca, apoa a oo o. cp cooe ocaec oo c a ey cpa o poeca cooe c oa poeca a ee. p coae o o poep oo ocope, ee cooee ao-y cc. Ec o epy aco cpeac o (ce y, ASCII-co poea, ..), o eo ye paoa. Oe ax, y xpae peyao poa 64-ooo oa opoo eca ce 10 oo a, cocae 8 epaao - oe peao. o ooy epoa RC2 opaaec RSADSI (c. pae 25.4).

13.9 IDEA ep apa pa IDEA, peoe cyea a (Xuejia Lai) eco Macc (James Massey), oc 1990 oy [929]. O aac PES (Proposed Encryption Standard, peoe caap p o a). B ceye oy, oce eocpa xao apo oooce epeaoo p oaaa, aop yc co p po aoo cp aa o aop IPES (Improved Proposed Encryption Standard, yye peoe caap poa) [931, 924]. B 1992 oy a a e IPES o eeo a IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm, eyapo aop po a ax) [925].

IDEA ocoaec a eoopx eax eopeecx ooex , xo poaa oc eoopx ycexo ooe apao c yee oeco ao, aop ce ee aec c. o oey e o ca y ca eoac o aop, oyoa ce o .

yyee IDEA oa eco. oo ae DES pepo e o, aco ooy, o o a a eoa oe epoa oepecx poe, aco ooy, o oa ce ee y, aa acoo xopoo oee ce aop pecoe o poaaa. Eo ce o ecoc ocec e, o o ec ac PGP (c. pae 24.12).

Oop IDEA IDEA ec o po, o paoae c 64-o oa opoo eca. a a - o. poa eppoa coyec o o e aop.

a pye, ye paccopee oe p IDEA coye ayae, paccee. oco, eaa ocoe poea, pecae coo "oeee oepa pax aepaecx py".

Ceac p aepaece py, ce o oy eo peaoa a aapao, a p o pao:

XOR Coee o oy oee o oy 216 1. (o oepa oo paccapa a S-o IDEA.) Bce oepa (a aope coyc oo o, epecao a oo ypoe e pe c) paoa c 16-o ooa. o aop ae eee a 16-ox poeccopax.

Onucaue IDEA Cxea IDEA pecaea a Pc. 13-9. 64-o o ax ec a epe 16-ox ooa:

X1, X2, X3 X4. epe ooa caoc xo a epoo aa aopa. Bceo a o pe oce ao. Ha ao ae epe ooa oepac oepa XOR, coe yo e py c pyo c ec 16-o oa. Mey aa oeac eca opo pe oo. Haoe epe ooa oec c ep oa ooaeo peopa o a. Ha ao ae co pocxo ceye oceoaeoc:

(1) epeoac X1 ep o.

(2) Caac X2 opo o.

(3) Caac X3 pe o.

(4) epeoac X4 eep o.

(5) Boec XOR a peyaa ao (1) (3).

(6) Boec XOR a peyaa ao (2) (4).

(7) epeoac peya aa (5) o.

(8) Caac peya ao (6) (7).

(9) epeoac peya aa (8) eco o.

(10) Caac peya ao (7) (9).

(11) Boec XOR a peyaa ao (1) (9).

(12) Boec XOR a peyaa ao (3) (9).

(13) Boec XOR a peyaa ao (1) (10).

(14) Boec XOR a peyaa ao (4) (10).

X1 X2 X3 X (1) Z1(1) Z2 Z3(1) Z4(1) o a Z5(1) Z6(1) ee ce a 9) 9) 9) (9) Bxo Z1( Z2 Z3( Z4( Y1 Y2 Y3 Y Xi : 16-o oo opoo eca Yi : 16-o oo poeca Zi(r) : 16-o oo a : oooe "caee " (XOR) 16-ox ooo : coee o oy 216 16-ox ex : yoee o oy 216+1 16-ox ex p yco, o yeo oo cooecye Pc. 13-9. IDEA.

Bxoo aa c epe ooa - peya ec (11), (12), (13) (14). oee eca a ypex ooa (o e ocee ae), oye cxoe ae ceyeo aa.

oce ocoo aa oec aeoe peopaoae:

(1) epeoac Xl ep o.

(2) Caac X2 opo o.

(3) Caac X3 pe o.

(4) epeoac X4 eep o.

Haoe epe ooa coa coec, opay poec.

Tae ecoo coaa o. Aop coye 52 x (ec aoo oc ao ee epe aeoo peopaoa). Caaa 128-o ec a oce 16-ox oe. o epe oce oe aopa (ec epoo aa a - opoo). ae ec caec aeo a 25 o coa ec a oce oe. epe epe coyc a ae 2, a ocaec epe - a ae 3. ec caec aeo a 25 o oye ceyx oc oe, a o oa aopa.

eppoae oec oo ae a cee oo, o o eppyc cea ec. o p eppoa peca coo opae ae e poa o ooe oepa o coe, o yoe. ( IDEA oo, cocoe ox ye, cac pa 216 = -1 yoe o oy 216 1, ceoaeo, opa aee 0 ooc eo yoe ec 0.) ce oy a eoopoe pe, o x yo o o pa aoo a eppoa. B Ta. 13-4 pecae o poa cooecye o eppoa.

Ta. 13-4.

o poa eppoa IDEA a o poa o eppoa 1Z1(1) Z2(1) Z3(1) Z4(1) Z5(1) Z6(1) Z1(9)-1 -Z2(9) -Z3(9) Z4(9)-1 Z5(8) Z6(8) 2Z1(2) Z2(2) Z3(2) Z4(2) Z5(2) Z6(2) Z1(8)-1 -Z2(8) -Z3(8) Z4(8)-1 Z5(7) Z6(7) 3Z1(3) Z2(3) Z3(3) Z4(3) Z5(3) Z6(3) Z1(7)-1 -Z2(7) -Z3(7) Z4(7)-1 Z5(6) Z6(6) 4Z1(4) Z2(4) Z3(4) Z4(4) Z5(4) Z6(4) Z1(6)-1 -Z2(6) -Z3(6) Z4(6)-1 Z5(5) Z6(5) 5Z1(5) Z2(5) Z3(5) Z4(5) Z5(5) Z6(5) Z1(5)-1 -Z2(5) -Z3(5) Z4(5)-1 Z5(4) Z6(4) 6Z1(6) Z2(6) Z3(6) Z4(6) Z5(6) Z6(6) Z1(4)-1 -Z2(4) -Z3(4) Z4(4)-1 Z5(3) Z6(3) 7Z1(7) Z2(7) Z3(7) Z4(7) Z5(7) Z6(7) Z1(3)-1 -Z2(3) -Z3(3) Z4(3)-1 Z5(2) Z6(2) 8Z1(8) Z2(8) Z3(8) Z4(8) Z5(8) Z6(8) Z1(2)-1 -Z2(2) -Z3(2) Z4(2)-1 Z5(1) Z6(1) aeoe Z1(9) Z2(9) Z3(9) Z4(9) Z1(1)-1 -Z2(1) -Z3(1) Z4(1)- peopaoae Copocm IDEA Copeee popae peaa IDEA pepo a paa cpee, e DES. Ha oepe c i386/33 M IDEA pye ae co copoc 880 /c, a a oepe c i486/33 M - co copoc 2400 /c. B o oya, o IDEA oe ocpee, o yoe - eeeoe yooc e. oee yx 32-ox ce a poeccope i486 aae 40 ao (10 a poeccope Pentium).

Peaa PES a ae CC pye ae co copoc 55 M/c p aoo acoe 25 M [208,398]. pya CC, papaoaa ETH Zurich cocoa of 251000 pacopo a pcae o a 107.8 2, pye ae c oo aopa IDEA co copoc 177 M/c p aoo acoe 25 M [926, 207, 397].

punmoaau IDEA a a IDEA paa 128 a - oee e a paa ee a DES. p yco, o aoee e ec cpe pyo co, cp a opeyec 2 (1038) poa. Co ae pocxey, oopa oe poep ap e ceyy, oee ap ax p o cxe, a opeyec 1013 e pee poe - o oe, e opac ceeo. 10 ax po cxe oy a a e, o o ceeo e aec coo aoo pe, o ocpo ay ay. Haoe eo-o oc, xo eoopx ex opocax ye ocayc copo a aee.

Moe cpe pyo co - e y coco cp IDEA. Aop ce ee co o, o oo o oop o ax-o opex popaecx peyaax. Papao cea ce oooe, o cea aop yco epeaoy poaay. O opee o e apocoo pa poeocppoa, o ycooc epeaoy poaay oe pooepoaa oeea oeceo [931, 925]. ( cpae c aopo IDEA, ycooc oopoo epeaoy poaay a ycea, oop oaa a Pc. 13-9, a Pc. 13- pee epoaa aop PES. eo, a ae eaee ee oy pec co o pa.) B [925] a (Lai) yepa (o pe oepee, o e oaaeco), o IDEA yco epeaoy poaa ye oce 4 8 ao. Coaco xay, eo oa cp IDEA c oo poaaa co ca a ae e yeaac ycexo [160].

X1 X2 X3 X (1) Z1(1) Z2 Z3(1) Z4(1) o a Z5(1) Z6(1) ee ce a 9) 9) 9) (9) Bxo Z1( Z2 Z3( Z4( Y1 Y2 Y3 Y Xi : 16-o oo opoo eca Yi : 16-o oo poeca Zi(r) : 16-o oo a : oooe "caee " (XOR) 16-ox ooo : coee o oy 216 16-ox ex : yoee o oy 216+1 16-ox ex p yco, o yeo oo cooecye Pc. 13-10. PES.

B Maep (Willi Meier) cceoa p aepaecx oepa IDEA oaa, o, xo o ec o ec, ec cya, oa oepa oo ypoc a, o eoopo cee oe [1050].

Eo cpe 2-aoo IDEA oaaoc eee cp pyo co (2 oepa), o IDEA c 3 oee aa eoc oo cp a e cp pyo co. eoacoc ooo 8 aoo IDEA ocaac eooeo.

oa e (Joan Daemen) opa acc cax e IDEA [405, 409]. e c c a o cce, oopo ca eoope DES, oopx y poa opaa cao cee. Caoc x e coco o, o o oe eo opee x c oo cp c pa op eco. Hapep, ca ec cey ( ecaapo ac):

0000,0000,0x00,0000,0000,000x,xxxx,x B o "x" oe co a pa. p cooa aoo a oooe XOR opeeex ap opx eco pao oooy XOR oyxc ap poeco.

B o cyae epooc cyao eepa ooo ax cax e oe aa: 1/2. Oac oc cyao pa ao paec e cyecye. oy e, ecoo opoa IDEA a, o c ae cax e - ocaoo o XOR aoo oa c co 0x0dae [409].

Xo oo o poaa IDEA o oo, e eeco o oo yceo.

Peu paom u apuam IDEA IDEA oe paoa o peo pao ooo pa, ocax ae 9. po ox peaa IDEA oe pepo o e cpe "cpea ocepee", o po DES (c. pae 15.1). Oao, a a IDEA oee e a paa ee a DES, o cpe epao. Oe yo aoo cp a coca 64*2 o, 1039 ao. Moe o ceeo oc a oo aep, o ocpo aoe xpae, o o coeac.

Ec yaee oooc cooa apaeo ceeo, coye ypoey pea a IDEA (c. pae 15.2):

C = EK (DK (EK (P))) 3 2 Taa peaa ycoa po cp "cpea ocepee".

poe oo, oey a e peaoa IDEA eac oa, ocoeo ec a cpeca pacpeee e oo paoa c a. IDEA yo ceo 52 16-ox a, oe o 832 o. o apa opeeeo eoace, o o e coe caa acoo.

B ao oa oe yee oe paep oa. Aop ae pepaco paoa c 32-o ooa eco 16-ox c 256-o o. poae ooc cpee, eoacoc opoca 232 paa. e? Teop, a oopo ocoa aop, opaec a o, o 216+1 ec poc co. A 232 1 poc co e ec. Moe aop oo e a, o o paoa, o eo eoacoc ye coce o. a oop, o aca paoa ao aop ye eeo [926].

Xo IDEA aec aoo eoacee DES, e cea oo eo ae o aop py c y ecye poe. Ec aa aa ax ao cooe oy paoa c 64-o o, peaa 128-ooo a IDEA oe ooo.

ax poe coae 128-o , oe 64-o ca c coo. He aae, o a oa aeo ocae IDEA.

Ec ac oe oye copoc pao, a e eoacoc, opoye apa IDEA c e co ao. Ceo yee cpe IDEA cpee cp pyo co oo 2.5 eee ao [1050], 4-a IDEA ye a paa cpee , acoo e eco, eo eoacoc e yec.

Caveat Emptor IDEA - o ooceo o aop, oe opoc oa ocac op. Opaye IDEA pyy? (a yae, o e [926].) He cyecye oa e opx cocoo cp oo pa? IDEA epa eopeeca ocoa, o coa coa aaec eoac aop aypy epe o opa poaaa. P py aaeecx oex cceoaee e oyoa co peya poaaa IDEA. Booo, o-y ye oc oa-y oec ycexa.

amem u ueuu IDEA aaeoa Epoe Coeex aax [1012, 1013]. ae pae Ascom-Tech AG.

eoepecoo cooa epoae e yo. p aepecoaoc e o epecoo pee aopa ceye opac o apecy Ascom Systec AG, Dept CMVV, Cewerbepark, CH-5506, Mgenwil, Switzerland;

41 64 56 59 83;

Fax: 41 64 56 59 90;

idea@ascom.ch.

13.10 MMB Heooco cooae IDEA 64-ooo oa poa peo coa oo o o aopa o aae MMB (Modular Multiplication-based Block cipher, oy o p, c oy yoe) [385, 405, 406]. B ocoe MMB e eop, coyea IDEA: epeea e oepa pax py. MMB - o epa aop, a opao coco e x ec (XOR cooae a) apaeoe cooae epex ox eex ex o opo ocaoo. ocao opeec c oo yoe o oy 232-1 c oco oe. Peyao pee x ec ec aop, coy 128-o 128-o o.

MMB oeppye 32-o ooa eca ( x0, x1, x2, x3) 32-o ooa a (k0, k1, k2, k3). o eae yo peaa aopa a copeex 32-ox poeccopax. epeyc c XOR, ec pa coyec eea y f. Bo o aop (ce oepa c eca oc o oy 3):

xi = xi ki, i = 0 o peypeee oyae f(x0, x1, x2, x3) xi = xi ki 1, i = 0 o f(x0, x1, x2, x3) xi = xi ki 2, i = 0 o f(x0, x1, x2, x3) xi = xi ki, i = 0 o f(x0, x1, x2, x3) xi = xi ki 1, i = 0 o f(x0, x1, x2, x3) xi = xi ki 2, i = 0 o f(x0, x1, x2, x3) y f p aa:

(1) x1 = ci * xi, i = 0 o 3 (Ec a xoe yoe o e, o a xoe - oe o e.) (2) Ec a aa x0 = 1, o x0 = x0 C. Ec a aa x3 = 0, o x3 = x3 C.

(3) xi = xi-1 xi xi 1, i = 0 o Bce oepa c eca oc o oy 3. Oepa yoe a ae (1) oec o o y 232-1. B ao aope ec opo oepa - o 2 -1, o peya ae pae 232-1. B aope coyc ceye oca:

C = 2aaaaaaa c0 = 025f1cdb cl = 2 * c c2= 23 * c c3 = 27 * c ocaa C - o "pocea" ocaa c co po eco, ye a aa o e pyoo cep. oca c0 ecoo e xapaepc. oca c, c2 c3 c ce l e epc c0, coyc peopae cp ocoax a cep. opooc oo a [405].

eppoae ec opa poecco. a (2) (3) aec a co epc. Ha ae (1) eco ci-1 coyec ci. ci-1 = 0dad4694.

eonacocm MMB Cxea MMB oeceae a ao ae aeoe eacoe o a paccee. B IDEA pa c cee o opeeeo cee ac o opex oe. B oe o IDEA y MMB e cax e.

coae MMB - o yep aop [402]. o yepee cpaeo o o pa, xo poaa MMB e oyoa. Bo epx, o poepoac e yea peoa ycooc eoy poaay. Bop yax oee oece ycooc epea oy poaay, o o eo poaae aopa aopa o ee eeco.

Bo opx, xa peaoa eoe cpe c pa o [160], coyeee o a, o ce a e, a p cooa poco ec caec a 32 a. B pex, ecop a o, o popae peaa MMB oe e, aapao coe a op eee ee, e DES.

o peaae, o o, o axoe yy MMB, oe caaa poaapoa yoee o oy c oo eoo poaaa oopa o oe, a ae cea ocay C pa o aoo aa [402]. ae, yy cooae a, oa a ao oca c e ycpae cee. Ho ca e ca aac papaoa 3-Way (c. pae 14.5).

13.11 CA-1. CA - o o p, ocoa a eox aoaax papaoa oapo yoo (Howard Gutowitz) [677, 678, 679]. O pye 384-oe o opoo eca 1088-o o (a cao ee coyec a a - 1024-o 64- o). -a ppo eox aoao a o p aoee ee p peaa ox apaex eppoax cxeax.

CA-1.1 coye a opae, a eopae paa eooo aoaa. p opao pa e aoe cocoe cpyyp oyaec eceoo peecyeo coco, a p eopao pae y aoo coco oe ecoo peeceo. p poa eopae paa oaoo opaac o pee. poe opao o eyeo coco cya opao o o pac oo coco-peeceo. o poecc oopao oopec. Ta opao, opaa epa cy cea cyao opa c opaae cooe. CA-1.1 co ye oco cop aco eoo eopaoo paa, aoo, o oo aoo coco oe cpo ocpoeo cyaoe cocoe-peece. Ha eoopx cax poa coyc opae paa.

Opae paa (poce apaee epecao ooo coco) ee. Heopae paa ooc opeec o, a opae ac a o a, a o cyao opa, caeo xoe poa eopa paa.

CA-1.1 ocoa a cpyype ox ce. To ec, opaoa oa cooe aco oeea o o pao ooa cyao opa, caeo p poa. a cyaa opa cy c py c pyo ca poa. Oa ae oe cooaa c c ooo poe ca. opa c eeppyec a ac poa.

Ta a CA-1.1 pecae coo o aop, co pao ea ae-o ae o eo e o acoc. yo yoae eoope ooe cp, a epea poaa, o ey e yaoc cp aop. B aece cya yo peo apay 1000 oapo "epoo eoea, oop papaoae ocyy poeypy cp CA-1.1."

CA-l.1 aaeoa [678], o ocye eoepecoo cooa. p eoxooc oy e a aop oey apay a poaa opaaec oapy yoy o apecy Howard Cutowitz, ESPCI, Laboratorie d'Electroni ue, 10 rue Vau uelin, 75005 Paris, France.

13.12 SKIPJACK Skipjack papaoa NSA aece aopa poa pocxe Clipper Capstone (c. pae 24.16 24.17). Ta a o aop oe cepe, eo opooc oa e yoac. O y e peaoa oo a aea o oa aapaypa.

o aop oe cepe e ooy, o o oae eo aeoc, a ooy o NSA e x o e, o Skipjack cooac e exaa ycooo pye e Clipper. Aeco e xoe, o popae peaa aopa pacpocpac o cey py.

eoace Skipjack? Ec NSA axoe coa eoac aop, oo, copee ceo, o ceae. C pyo copo, ec NSA axoe coa aop c aeo, o oo coe cea o. Bo o o oyoao [1154, 462].

o epa o p.

Paep oa - 64 a.

Aop coye 80-o .

O oe cooa peax ECB, CBC, 64-o OFB, o 1-, 8-, 16-, 32- 64-o CFB.

Oepa poa eppoa coco 32 ao.

NSA aao paoy a 1985 aepo poepy 1990.

B oyea a pocxey Mykotronx Clipper yepaec, o aepa ae peyaa, pc y a aopy Skipjack, cocae 64 aa. o oaae, o a a a pxoc a aa: o peooeo ocao c oo S-oa, a pyo - aeoo XOR oe aoo aa. (He aae, epecao p aapax peaax e aa pee.) B oyea Mykotronx a yxaa oepa aaec "G-oo", a ce ece - "co". (ac G-oa oc aae "F-a" ec ae oca, a oe ae y.) o o cyxa Skipjack coye 16 S-oo, a o py xpae S-oo yo ceo 128 a a. Heoxoe, o oa x cyxa pao.

Ee o cyx yepae, o a Skipjack, oe o DES, paoa e c ooo oa. o e ce c aeae o "cax" cyao ae a Crypto '94 o o, o Skipjack peec "48 oa ype cpyypa", ooe cea o, o aop o coe cxee oxo a SHA (c. pa e 18.7), o coye epe 16-ox ooa. Tp ooa, opaoae ace o a o o apaeo ye, a 16 o, oope oepac oepa XOR c ocac ooo. ae ec o ec caec a 16 o ocyae a xo ceyeo aa, ca. p o a e coyc 128 ao ax S-oa. oopea, o S-o ac o a.

o coe cpyype Skipjack epoo oxo a DES. NSA oae, o eo aea o oa aap a ypa oe oo ye cpa cceoaa, o e yy pcoa a epeo popa ec eoa.

To, o NSA apye cooa aop Skipjack poa coe Cce a cooe (Defense Messaging System, DMS), ceecye o eoacoc aopa. o ye ceo, NIST pape occ "yaaex epaecex cepo... oy ocy oea opooc aopa, o o cceoa eo oooc oyoa peya cox cce o a " [812].

B peapeo oee o occ cepo [262] (ooaeoo oea e o, ooo o a e ye) cooaoc:

pa o ae, o cooc cex ooce yeaec a paa ae 18 ece, co oc cp Skipjack cpaec c ceoe cooc cp DES oo epe 36 e. Ceoaeo, pc, o Skipjack ye oa ae 30-40 e, eaee.

Heaee pc oa Skipjack c oo oee cpx cocoo cp, a epea p oaa. aopa e cax e, ocycye coco oeapoc. cep ocyce pee caocoeoo ooo cceoa aopa y pecaeoe NSA ocae papao poep a o pa cooc Skipjack poaay e ac o xpae ae caoo aopa.

a, yac cycc e co opaoa c aopo ocaoo oo, o p a y oa caocoeo. Bce, o o co cea - o y a peya, oaae NSA.

Ocac e oea opoc, ec oc pocpaco e Skipjack (c. pae 8.2). ae ec y Skipjack e e, cax cce DES, p ocoeoce poecca cooa a oe cea o cee pyx. Skipjack oe 2 cx e, opao oe e y DES, epo oc cyao pa o x cx e ye peo 1 1000. o ya, o p o cpaco e Skipjack - ocoe, o o, o o o o e a yo, ae peoy.

Skipjack aaeoa, o cooec c coaee o cepeoc aea [1122] o ae xpac ae. ae ye oyoa oa oo oa, oa aop Skipjack ye yceo occaoe e-o ocopo. o ae oooc paecy ocooac peyeco a aeo, peyeco oeeaoc opooo cepea.

aa ee o ox pax 14.1 OCT OCT - o o aop, papaoa e Coeco Coe [655, 1393]. Haae "OCT" ec copaee o "ocyapce caap", eo oxoee a FIPS a cee oo, o o aae oy oc caap paec oo a. (o aae ec "ocyapce caap Coa CCP", "ocyapce caap Coa Coecx Coacecx Pecy".) H o ep aoo caapa - 28147-89. Bce caap yepac ocyapce oeo o caapa Coa CCP.

e a, cooac OCT 28147-89 acepeeoo paa oo paacoo poa. aeae aae caapa ac, o aop "yoeope ce popaec p e oa, a cee aaeo opa e opaaec". ca yepe, o o aop epoaao cooac oo oe ax c, a cepee oee oy a , o y e e oepe.

Onucaue OCT OCT ec 64-o aopo c 256-o o. OCT ae coye ooe , oop paccapaec e. B poecce pao aopa a 32 aax oceoaeo oec poco aop poa.

poa ec caaa paaec a ey ooy L pay ooy R. Ha ae i coy ec o Ki. Ha ae i aopa OCT oec ceyee:

Li = Ri- Ri = Li-1 f(Ri-1, Ki) a OCT oaa a Pc. 14-1. y f poca. Caaa paa ooa i- o caac o oy 232. Peya paaec a oce 4-ox ycoo, a oopx ocyae a xo c o eo S-oa. OCT coye oce pax S-oo, epe 4 a oaa ep S-o, ope 4 a - o opo S-o, .. a S-o pecae coo epecaoy ce o 0 o 15. Hapep, S-o oe e a:

7, 10, 2, 4, 15, 9, 0, 3, 6, 12, 5, 13, 1, 8, Bop oa Li- Ri- ocaoa S-oo ec c eo Li- Ri- Pc. 14-1. a OCT.

B o cyae, ec a xoe S-oa 0, o a xoe 7. Ec a xoe 1, a xoe 10, .. Bce oce S-oo pa, o aec c ooe e aepao. S-o o xp a c cepee.

Bxo cex oc S-oo oec 32-ooe coo, ae ce coo ec caec eo a 11 o. Haoe peya oeec c oo XOR c eo ooo, oyaec oa paa ooa, a paa ooa caoc oo eo ooo. Boe o 32 paa, ce op e.

eepa oe poca. 256-o paaec a oce 32-ox oo: k1, k2,...k8. Ha ao ae coyec co o, a oaao Ta. 14-1. eppoae oec ae, a poae, o eppyec opo oe ki.

Caap OCT e opeee coco eepa S-oo, oopc oo, o o o p e ocae a-o opao [655]. o opoo oc o o, o coec pooe oe oca xopoe S-o "xopo" opaa oxe S-o e opaa, oopx pooe copaec ay. o oe oe a, o eoae epeoop c poccc pooee pocxe OCT pyy aepay. pooe coae epecao S-oa caocoeo c oo eepaopa cyax ce.

Ta. 14-1.

cooae oe a pax aax OCT a: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 o: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a: 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 o: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Coce eao ca ec aop S-oo, coyex poex epaoo aa P. S-o ae coyc ooapaeo x-y OCT (c. pae 18.11) [657]. O epec e Ta. 14-2.

punmoaau OCT Bo ae pa ey DES COST.

DES coye coy poeypy eepa oe e. B OCT a poeypa oe poca.

B DES 56-o , a OCT - 256-o. Ec oa cepee epecao S-oo, o o oe cepeo opa OCT coca pepo 610 o.

S-oo DES 6-oe xo 4-oe xo, a y S-oo OCT 4-oe xo xo. B oox aopax coyec o oce S-oo, o paep S-oa OCT pae oo eepo paepa S-oa DES.

B DES coyc epeype epecao, aae P-oo, a OCT coyec 11 o ec c eo.

B DES 16 ao, a OCT - 32.

Ta. 14-2.

S-o OCT S-o 1:

4 10 9 2 13 8 0 14 6 11 1 12 7 15 5 S-o 2:

14 11 4 12 6 13 15 10 2 3 8 1 0 7 5 S-o 3:

5 8 1 13 10 3 4 2 14 15 12 7 6 0 9 S-o 4:

7 13 10 1 0 8 9 15 14 4 6 12 11 2 5 S-o 5:

6 12 7 1 5 15 13 8 4 10 9 14 0 3 11 S-o 6:

4 11 10 0 7 2 1 13 3 6 8 5 9 12 15 S-o 7:

13 11 4 1 3 15 5 9 0 10 14 7 6 8 2 S-o 8:

1 15 13 0 5 7 10 4 9 2 3 14 6 11 8 Ec y cocoo cp OCT ec pya ca, o o oe eoac aop. OCT c oye 256-o , a ec ya cepee S-o, o a a opacae. OCT, o oy, oee yco epeaoy eoy poaay, e DES. Xo cyae S-o OCT ooo caee cpoax S-oo DES, x cepeoc yeae ycooc OCT epeaoy eoy poaay. oy e, coco cp yce oecy ao - e oe ao, e pyee cpe. OCT coye a paa oe ao, e DES, oo o ooo eae ecocoe epea, e poaa.

pye ac OCT ae e, a DES, caee. OCT e coye cyecyy DES epec a oy c pacpee. aee o epecao DES ocae eo -a yee aoo ea, payo ca, o ocyce ao oepa OCT ocae o aop. Coee, coyeoe OCT, e eee eoaco, e coyea DES oepa XOR.

Ca o pae pecaec cooae OCT ecoo ca eco epecao . epecaoa DES yeae a e. B OCT eee ooo xooo a e a o S-o ooo aa, oop ae e a a S-oa ceyeo aa, p oa ceyeo aa, ... B OCT opeyec 8 ao pee, e eee ooo xooo a oe a a p e yaa, aopy DES oo yo oo 5 ao. o, oeo e, caoe eco. Ho e aae:

OCT coco 32 ao, a DES oo 16.

Papao OCT ac ocy paoec ey eoacoc eoc. O e eoo DES a, o coa aop, oop oe oxo popao peaa.

O, o oy, eee yepe eoacoc coeo aopa oac coecpoa o oe oo o a, coxpaee cepee S-oo yoee oeca epa. Bopoc, yeac x yc coae oee eoacoo, e DES, aopa, ocaec op.

14.2 CAST CAST papaoa aae apaco Aaco (Carlisle Adams) Caopo Taapeco (Stafford Tavares) [10, 7]. O yepa, o aae oycoeo xoo papao oo aoa o epo oco xapaepe poecca, a e o aax aopo. Ocae aop CAST coye 64-o o 64-o .

CAST ee aoy cpyypy. Aop coye ec S-oo c 8-o xoo 32-o xoo. Paoa x S-oo coa ac o peaa, opooc oo a epaype.

poa caaa o opoo eca paaec a ey pay oo. Aop coc o 8 ao. Ha ao ae paa ooa oeec c ac a c oo y f, a ae XOR peyaa eo oo oec oye oo pao oo. epoaaa (o aa) paa ooa caoc oo eo ooo. oce 8 ao (e epecae ey pay o o oce ocoo aa) e oo oec, opay poec. y f poca:

(1) Paee 32-o xo a epe 8-ox ac: a, b, c, d.

(2) Paee 16-o o a e 8-ox oo: e, f.

(3) oae a a xo S-oa 1, b - a xo S-oa 2, c - a xo S-oa 3, d - a xo S-oa 4, e - a xo S-oa 5 f - a xo S-oa 6.

(4) Boe XOR ec xoo S-oo, oya 32-o peya.

ae, 32-o xo oe oee c oo XOR c 32 a a, pa a epe 8 ox ac, oope opaaac S-oa ae oec c oo XOR [7]. eoacoc N ao, opaoax a opao, o oy, cooecye N 2 aa pyoo apaa.

16-oe o ao eo oyac 64-ooo a. Ec k1, k2,...k8 - o 8 ao a, o a aax aopa coyc ceye o:

a 1: k1, k a 2: k3, k a 3: k5, k a 4: k7, k a 5: k4, k a 6: k2, k a 7: k8, k a 8: k6, k Ca oo aopa aea eo S-oax. CAST e cpoax S-oo, aoo p o e o ocpypyc aoo. pep poepoa oca [10], oy y c co S-oo, oeceae eoxoe coca S-oo (c. pae 14.10). Coa ao peaa CAST S-oo ye oe oa e eec. S-o ac o peaa, a e o a.

B [10] o oaao, o CAST yco epeaoy poaay, a [728] - o CAST yco eoy poaay. Heeco oo, e pya ca, cocoa cp CAST.

Northern Telecom coye CAST coe aee popa Entrust oepo Macintosh, PC p a ox ca UNIX. Bpae S-o e oyoa. aacoe paeco cae CAST o caapo poa. aea aa a CAST axoc poecce paccope.

14.3 BLOWFISH Blowfish - o aop, papaoa o o peaa a ox popoeccopax [1388, 1389]. Aop eaaeoa, eo o a e C pee oe o pooo ooa.

p poepoa Blowfish cooa ceye pep:

1. Copoc. Blowfish pye ae a 32-ox popoeccopax co copoc 26 ao a a.

2. oaoc. Blowfish oe paoa eee, e 5 a a.

3. pocoa. Blowfish coye oo poce oepa: coee, XOR opa a o 32 ooy oepay. Aa eo cxe ecoe, o eae p peaa aopa yeae o eco oo [1391].

4. Hacpaaea eoacoc. a a Blowfish epeea oe oca 448 o.

Blowfish opoa ex poe, oopx e aco ce e, ax a c popaa aoaecoo poa ao. p peaa a 32-ox popoeccopax c o e ax, ax a Pentium PowerPC, Blowfish aeo cpee DES. Blowfish e oxo cooa poex c aco ceo e, apep, p oya aeo, c ooa aece ooapaeo x-y. oe peoa a ea eoo cooae oo aopa eeyax aax.

Onucaue Blowfish Blowfish pecae coo 64-o o p c o epeeo . Aop coco yx ace: paepae a poae ax. Paepae a peopaye o o 448 o ecoo acco oe, o oeo 4168 ao.

poae ax coco poco y, oceoaeo oeo 16 pa. a a c o co aco o a epecao aco o a ax ocao. coyc oo coe XOR 32-ox co. Ece ooe oepa a ao ae c epe ee ax ecpoaoo acca.

B Blowfish coyec oo oe. o o pacca o aaa poa eppoa ax.

P-acc coco 18 32-ox oe:

P1, P2,..., P a epex 32-ox S-oo coep 256 eeo:

S1,0, S1,1,..., S1, S2,0, S2,2,..., S2, S3,0, S3,3,..., S3, S4,0, S4,4,..., S4, To eo, coye p ce x oe oca o paee e.

Op ec 64 a 32 a 32 a 32 a P 32 a 32 a F P F Ee 13 epa P F P18 P 32 a 32 a 64 a poec Pc. 14-2. Blowfish.

Blowfish ec ce ecea (Feistel) (c. pae 14.10), cocoe 16 ao. Ha xo oaec 64 o ee ax x. poa:

Paee x a e 32-ox oo: xL, xR i = 1 o 16:

xL = xL P xR = F(xL) xR epeca xL xR (poe oceeo aa.) xR = xR P xL = xL P Oe xL xR 8 o S-o 8 o S-o 32 a 8 o S-o 32 a 8 o S-o Pc. 14-3. y F.

y F pecae coo ceyee (c. Pc. 14-3):

Pae xL a epe 8-ox ac: a, b, c d F(xL) = ((S1,a S2,b mod 232) S3,c) S4,d mod eppoae oec oo ae, a poae, o P1, P2,..., P18 coyc opao ope.

B peaax Blowfish, oopx peyec oe oa copoc, oe paepy, a ce o xpac e. opooc pee [568].

o paccac c oo ceaoo aopa. Bo aoa oa oceoaeoc e c.

(1) Caaa P-acc, a ae epe S-oa o opy apyc cpoao cpoo. a cpoa coco ecaapx p.

(2) Boec XOR P1 c ep 32 a a, XOR P2 co op 32 a a, a aee cex o a (o P18). coyec ec, oa ceo P-acca e ye oea oep a XOR c a a.

(3) coy o, oyee a aax (1) (2), aopo Blowfish pyec cpoa ox ye.

(4) P1 P2 aec peyao aa (3).

(5) Peya aa (3) pyec c oo aopa Blowfish eex oe.

(6) P3 P4 aec peyao aa (5).

(7) aee xoe poecca ce ee P-acca ae o opy ce epe S-oa aec x o o ocoo eeoc aopa Blowfish.

Bceo eepa cex eoxox oe peyec 521 epa. poe oy coxpa o - e eoxooc o poecc x oye oopao.

eonacocm Blowfish Cep Boe (Serge Vaudenay) cceoa Blowfish c ec S-oa r aa, epea 8r poaa oe pacp P-acc c oo 2 pax opx eco [1568]. eo o px cax e, oope eeppy oxe S-o (epooc opa aoo a cocae 1 2 ), 4r o e cpe pacpae P-acc c oo ceo 2. p eecx S-oax o cpe oe oapy cooae caoo a, o e oe opee ca ( S-o, P-acc). o cpe eo oo po apao c yee co ao coepeo ecoeo po 16-aoo Blowfish.

oeo, ao pacpe cax e, ae xo o copee ceo e yy cooac. Ca ec , oopoo a eea aoo S-oa e. o oe paepa a eooo opee, ec o ca. Ec ecooec o o, a pec o pa epae a poep, e S-oaox eeo. Xo e ya, o o a y eoxoo.

Me eeco o yceo poaae Blowfish. eoacoc e peaye Blowfish c ye e co ao.

Kent Marsh Ltd. cpoa Blowfish co poy oecee eoacoc FolderBolt, peaae Microsoft Windows Macintosh. Aop ae xo Nautilus PGPfone.

14.4 SAFER SAFER K-64 oaae Secure And Fast Encryption Routine with a Key of 64 bits - eoaca cpa po e ypa poa c 64-o o [1009]. o e c aco coceoc aop, pap a oa eco Maccee (James Massey) Cylink Corp., coyec eoopx poyo o oa. paeco Caypa copaec cooa o aop - c 128-o o [1010] pooo cepa poe. Eo cooae e opaeo aeo, aopc paa p y opae.

Aop paoae c 64-o oo 64-o o. B oe o DES o ec e ce ecea (c. pae 14.10), a epa o po: eoopoo oeca ao peec oa a e y. Ha ao ae coyc a 64-ox oa. Aop oeppye oo aa.

Onucaue SAFER K- o opoo eca ec a oce aox ooo: B1, B2,..., B7, B8. ae oo opaa ac xoe r ao. Haoe oo oepac aeoy peopaoa. Ha ao ae coyec a oa: K2r-1 K2r.

Ha Pc. 14-4 oaa o a SAFER K-64. Caaa a ooa oec o oepa XOR, o coe c aa oa K2r-1. ae oce ooo oepac ooy yx eex p e opaoa:

y = 45x mod 257. (Ec x = 0, o y = 0.) y = log45 x. (Ec x = 0, o y = 0.) Bxo aa (8 ao) K2i- xor add add xor xor add add xor 45(.) log45 log45 45(.) 45(.) log45 log45 45(.) K2i add xor xor add add xor xor add 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT 2-PHT Bxo aa (8 ao) Pc. 14-4. O a SAFER.

o oepa oeo oe GF(257), a 45 - ee o, c po. B peaax SAFER K-64 cpee o oc ae, e ce pe pacca oe peya.

ae oo o oepac XOR, o caac c aa oa K2r. Peya oo e c poxo epe p ypo ex oepa, e oopx ec yeee aoo ea.

aa oepa aaec ceoaaapo peopaoae (Pseudo-Hadamard Transform, PHT). Ec a xoe PHT a1 a2, o a xoe:

b1 = (2a1 a2) mod b2 = (a1 a2) mod oce r ao oec aeoe peopaoae. Oo coaae c peopaoae, c ep ece aoo aa. Ha B1, B4, B5 B8 oec XOR c cooecy aa o ceeo oa, a B2, B3, B6 B7 caac c cooecy aa oceeo oa. B p e yae oyaec poec.

eppoae pecae coo opa poecc: caaa aeoe peopaoae (c ae eco coe), ae r eppoax ao. Opaoe PHT (Inverse PHT, IPHT) - o:

a1 = (b1 - b2) mod a2 = (-b1 2b2) mod Macce peoeye cooa 6 ao, o oe eoacoc oeco ao oo ye .

eeppoa o coce e pyo. ep o, K1, - o poco ooae. oc e ye eeppyc cooec co ceye poeypo:

Ki 1 = (Ki <<<3i) ci Co "<<<" ooaae ec c aeo. C oec oao, a ci ec ocao aa. Ec cij - o j- a oca i-o aa, o oo pacca ce oca ao o ceye opye cij = 4545^((9i j) mod 256) mod 257 mod Oo ae xpac ae.

SAFER K- o aepa coco cooa a papaoa Mcepco ypex e C a ypa, a ae cpoe Maccee SAFER [1010]. B o cocoe coyc a a, Ka Kb, o a a. pe coco o, o eeppoa apaeo e oceoaeoc oe, a a e epeoa o ao oceoaeoc. o oaae, o p ope Ka = Kb 128-o coec c 64-o o Ka.

eonacocm SAFER K- Macce oaa, o SAFER K-64 oce 6 ao acoo ae o epeaoo poaaa oce 8 ao ocaoo eoace. e oce 3 ao po oo aopa caoc ee e poaa [1010].

yce (Knudsen) oapy caoe eco pacpeee e: paec aoo a cy e cye e ee ooo (a oa ae e) pyoo a, oop p poa aoo-o pyoo opoo eca pepaae eo o e poec [862]. co pax opx eco, oope pyc oao poeca, axoc poeye o 2 o 228. Xo aoe cpe e oe o a eoacoc SAFER a aopa poa, oo aeo yeae eo aeoc p cooa aece ooapaeo x-y. B o cyae yce peoeye cooa e ee 8 ao.

SAFER cpoepoa Cylink, a Cylink pee pae oe co copo NSA [80]. peoeoa opa ecoo e a ec poaa pee, e a-o co oa SAFER.

14.5 3-WAY 3-Way - o o p, papaoa oo eo (Joan Daemen) [402, 410]. O coye o o 96 , eo cxea peoaae oe ey aapay peaa.

3-Way ec e ce ecea, a epa o po. 3-Way oe n ao, e peoeye 11.

Onucaue S-Way o aop oca ecoo. poa oa opoo eca x:

For i = 0 to n - x = x XOR Ki x = theta (x) x = pi - 1 (x) x = gamma (x) x = pi - 2 (x) x = x Kn x = theta (x) p o coyc ceye y:

theta(x) - y eo ocao, ocoo aop ecx co XOR.

pi - 1 (x) pi - 2 (x) - poce epecao.

gamma (x) - y eeo ocao. eo o ece ao cey aopy, oo pecae coo apaeoe oee ocao 3-ox ax.

eppoae aaoo poa a cee oo, o yo e a opa opo o cxox ax peyaa. cxo o, peay 3-Way, oo a oe o .

oa o yceo poaae 3-Way eeco. Aop eaaeoa.

14.6 CRAB o aop papaoa epo ac [Burt Kaliski] Mo Pooy [Matt Robshaw] RSA Laboratories [810]. B ocoe Crab e e cooa eo ooapaex x-y co a cpoo aopa poa. Ceoaeo, Crab oe oxo a MD5, o paee peoa a ec, o ao c aepao paea 18.5.

Crab oe oo o: 1024 aa. Ta a Crab pecae copee a aepa cceo a , a e pea aop, opeo poeyp eepa e e o peoeo. Aop pacco pe eo, oop ooe pepa 80-o p cooaex oa, xo aop ooe eo cooa epeeo . B Crab coyec a aopa ox oe:

epecaoa ce c 0 o 255: P0, P1, P2,..., P255.

Macc 2048 32-ox ce: S0, S1, S2,..., S2047.

Bce o o ce o poa eppoa. poa 1024 aooo oa X:

(1) Paee X a 256 32-ox ooo: X0, X1, X2,..., X255.

(2) epecae oo X cooec c P.

(3) For r=0 to For g = 0 to A = X(4g) <<< 2r B = X(4g 1) <<< 2r C = X(4g 2) <<< 2r D = X(4g 3) <<< 2r For step s = 0 to A = A (B fr(B, C, D) S512r 8g s) TEMP = D D = C C = B B = A <<< A = TEMP X(4g) <<< 2r = A X(4g 1) <<< 2r = B X(4g 2) <<< 2r = C X(4g 3) <<< 2r = D (4) Coa oe X0, X1, X2,..., X255, oya poec.

y fr(B, C, D) aao coye MD5:

f0(B, C, D) = (B C) (( B) D) f1(B, C, D) = (B D) (C ( D)) f2(B, C, D) = B C D f3(B, C, D) = C (B ( D)) eppoae pecae coo opa poecc. eeppoae oe ec epoco a ae. Bo a o 80-ooy y K oe ceeppoa acc epecaoo P.

(1) poapye K0, K1, K2,..., K9 10 aa K.

(2) For i=10 to Ki = Ki-2 Ki-6 Ki-7 Ki- (3) For i=10 to 255, Pi = i (4) m= (5) For j=0 to For i = 256 to 1 step - m = (K256-i K257-i) mod i K257-i = K257-i <<< epeca Pi Pi- S-acc 2048 32-ox co oe ceeppoa aao opao o o oy e 80_ooy y, o o pyoy y. Aop peypea, o ea o "paccapac oo aece oa, oy pye ee cxe, oeceae yy eoacoc" [810].

Crab peoe a cae ce ox e, a e a pao aop. Bo oo o coye e e pe, o MD5. xa ae, o oe oo o ypoae poaa a o pa [160]. C pyo copo Crab oe oo eo cooa oe oo . B o cyae "ypoee poaaa" oe eo e a.

14.7 SXAL8/MBAL o 64-o o aop o [769]. SXAL8 - o ocoo aop, a MBAL pecae coo pacpey epc c epeeo o oa. Ta a yp MBAL oec p yx ec , aop yepa, o o oy oece ocaoy eoacoc a aoe co ao. p e oa 1024 aa MBAL pepo 70 pa cpee, e DES. ecac [1174] oaao, o MBAL y cee epeaoy poaay, a [865] - o o ycee eoy poaa y.

14.8 RC RC5 pecae coo o p c o co apaepo: paepo oa, paepo a oeco ao. O opee Poo Peco poaapoa RSA Laboratories [1324, 1325].

coyec p ec: XOR, coee ece c. Ha oce poeccopo oepa ecoo ca oc a ocooe pe, epeee ece c c eeo ye. ece c, ace o a, o ax, peca coo epecy o e pa.

RC5 coye o epeeo , o poo pepe ocaoc a 64-oo oe ax. poae coye 2r 2 acx o a 32-ox co - S0, S1, S2,... S2r 1 - e r - co ao. coa ceeppye oee. poa caaa pae o opoo eca a a 32-ox coa: A B. (RC5 peoaae ceyee coaee o yaoe ao coa: ep a aae ae pecpa A, ..) ae:

A = A S B = B S For i = 1 to r:

A = ((A B) <<< B) S2i B = ((B A) <<< A) S2i Peya axoc pecpax A B.

eppoae ae poco. Paee o opoo eca a a coa, A B, a ae:

For i = r down to 1:

B = ((B - S2i 1) >>> A) A A = ((A - S2i) >>> B) B B = B - S A = A - S Co ">>>" ooaae ec c apao. oeo e, ce coe a oc o oy 232.

Coae acca e oee coo, o ae poeo. Caaa, a a opyc a c c L c 32-ox co, oo p eoxooc aeoe coo y. ae acc S apyec p oo eoo opyoo eepaopa o oy 2 :

S0 = P for i = 1 to 2(r 1) - 1:

Si = (Si-1 Q) mod P = 0xb7e15163 Q = 0x9e3779b9, oca ocoac a oo pecae e phi.

Haoe, ocae L S:

i = j = A = B = o n pa (e n - acy 2(r 1) c):

A = Si = (Si A B) <<< B = Li = (Li A B) <<< (A B) i = (i 1) mod 2(r 1) j = (j 1 ) mod c o cy, RC5 pecae coo ceeco aopo. Too o opee RC5 c 32-o c o o 64-o oo, e cyecye p, apeax cooa o e aop c 64-o coo 128-o. w = 64, P Q pa 0xb7e151628aed2a6b 0x9e3779b97f4a7c15, cooeceo.

Pec ooa pae peaa RC5 a RC5- w/r/b, e w - o paep coa, r - co ao, a b a a aax.

RC5 ec o aopo, o RSA Laboratories opa ocaoo oo pee, aapy eo paoy c 64-o oo. oce 5 ao caca oe xopoo. oce 8 ao a opoo eca e o pae epe a o ec c. epeaoe cpe peye pax opx eco 5 ao, 2 10 ao, 253 12 ao 268 15 ao. oeo e, cyecye oo 264 oox opx eco, ooy aoe cpe epeo po aopa c 15 oee aa. Oea eoo poaaa oaae, o aop eoace oce 6 ao.

Pec peoeye cooa e ee 12 ao, a ye 16 [1325]. o co oe ec.

RSADSI acoee pe aeye RC5, a o aa aeo, a opoa apa. oa ye p ae, o aa a epoae ye oe aa, o o ye poep.

14.9 pye oe aop Cyecye aop, aae epaype CRYPTO-MECCANO [301], o o e ec eoac.

epe ocx popaa a Eurocrypt '91 peca aop, ocoa a xaox oopaex [687, 688], xa o poaa oo aopa a o e oepe [157]. pyo aop o paec a ooeca eoopoo oeca cyax oo [693]. Cyecye oeco aopo, o c oax a eop oo, cpax o: apa aopa Maaca (McEliece) (c. pae 19.7) [786, 1290], aop Rao-Nam [1292, 733, 1504, 1291, 1056, 1057, 1058, 1293], apa aopa Rao-Nam [464, 749, 1503] aop Li-Wang [964, 1561] - ce o eeoac. CALC ae eeoace [1109]. A o p TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm, poe aop poa) co o, o eo oe poa [1592]. py aopo ec Vino [503]. MacGuffin, o aop, peoe Mo o o, ae eeoace [189], o oa a o e oepe, a oopo o pe o e. BaseKing, oxo o oco a 3-way, o coy 192-o o [385], co o, o eo oepoa.

poe oo, cyecye oeco ox aopo, papaoax e popaecoo cooec a. Heoope x coyc pa oe paece opaa. e e ax o ax aopax. Cyecy ae ec acx oepecx aopo. Heoope x oy xopo, eoope e. Ec oa peoaae, o oyoae ee aopo e ye cy epeca oa, o ye coacc c e e cooa aop.

14.10 Teop poepoa ooo pa B pae 11.1 oca p eoa cee pacce. Cyc ec e oce oo, a p epe copypoa, o ocac paeyo ae poepoa xop o eo ooo pa.

Ceee cy acpo aoce ey op eco, poeco o. o e, a ae eaea acoc ey pe ea oe cooaa p e peao eo poaae? Xopoee ceee acoo ycoe cacy aoce, o e paoa ae oe popaece cpeca.

y pacpocpae e oex o opoo eca a a oo oee oeco poeca. o ae acpye cacece aoc ycoe poaa.

eoacoc ocaoo ooo cee. Aop, coco eceo ace o a a cooec 64 o opoo eca 64 a poeca ocaoo c. poea o, o ao a opeoaoc co oo a: 1020 ao. Cc coa ooo pa coco coa eo-o oxoeo a ay ay, o peeo a oee yepee peoa.

pe coco o, o oo pe pax oax epoec epeea ce a e (c opao e aa) y. o aaec peypy po. oa o p, oop ae oceoaee epecao ocao, aa ce epecaoo ocaoo (substitution-permutation network), SP-ce.

Be coa a y f DES. epecaoa c pacpee P-o peay y, a S o - ceee. epecaoa c pacpee P-o e, S-o - ee. aa oepa caa o cee oe poca, o ece o paoa oe xopoo.

Ha pepe DES ae oo oaa ee ecoo po poepoa ooo pa. ep ec e epaoo ooo pa. p o peoaaec, o poca y aa ye o ceoaeo cooaa ecoo pa. yxa DES e oe ce, o ce peyaa a ce o cex o a cex o cxox ax, yo 5 ao [1078, 1080]. 16-a DES - o c aop, 32-a DES ee cee.

Cemu ecmea oco ox aopo c ce ecea (Felstel networks). a e apyec a a o 70-x oo [552, 553]. Boe o o n paee eo a e oo o n/2: L R. oeo, n oo e. Moo opee epa o p, oopo peya j-o aa opee ec peyao peyeo aa:

Li = Ri- Ri = Li-1 f(Ri-1, Ki) Ki - o o, coye a j-o ae, a f - o pooa y aa.

y oe oo ye DES, Lucifer, FEAL, Khufu, Khafre, LOKI, COST, CAST, Blowfish pyx aopax. oey o a ao? apapyec, o a y ec opaaeo. Ta a oe e eo oo c peyao y aa coyec XOR, ceyee paee oaeo ec c:

Li-1 f(Ri-1, Ki) f(Ri-1, Ki)= Li- apapyec, o p, coy ay ocpy, opa, ec oo occao cxoe ae f a ao ae. Caa y f eaa, o e oaa opao. M oe cpoepoa f acoo coo, acoo axo, a e opeyec peaoa a pax aopa - o poa, a pyo eppoa. Cpyypa ce ecea aoaec oaoc o o.

pocme coomoeu DES oaae cey coco: ec EK(P) = C, o EK'(P') = C', e P', C' K' - ooe ooe P, C K. o coco oe yeae cooc cp pyo co. Coca oeapoc a o pa LOKI yea cooc cp pyo co 256 pa.

pocoe coooee oo opee a [857]:

Ec EK(P) = C, o Ef(K) (g(P,K)) = h(C,K) e f, g h - poce y. o "poc y" opayea y, oope cc eo, aoo ee, e oee epa ooo pa. B DES f pecae coo oooe o oee K, g - oooe ooee P, a h - oooe ooee C. o ec peyao pae a ac eca c oo XOR.

xopoeo ooo pa e cyecye pocx coooe. Meo oca eoopx oox cax ec oo a [917].

pynnoa cmpymypa p ye aopa oae opoc, e opaye o pyy. eea py c o poeca aoo oooo a, a pyoo oepae ec oo. yee pyoo cpyyp aopa pecae coo oy o, acoo yeaec pocpaco poa p oeceo poa.

oe, oao, ec e opoc o o, eceo aop ec pyo, a o o, aco o o o pye. Ec e xaae oo ooo eea, o aop e opaye pyy, o ooe poae o - cacec oop - poco oepe pee. Paoa a DES oaaa, o DES oe ae o py. Cyecye ae p epecx opoco o oypye, oyaeo p poa DES. Coep oa oeco, o ec, e opaye oa pyy? coa, e eeppye oa y eoopa oa oepa poa (e eppoa) oecey y? Ec a, acoo a caa opoa aa oa?

e cceoa ec oea pocpaca e eopeecoo cp pyo co, a p e ya pecae coo aoy pay po pocpaca e.

Cae u B xopoe oo pe ce oaoo c. Oo e poe p aope c a oeco cax e, ao a DES. Bepooc cyao pa o x oe aa, ao eo poep p eoxooc opoc. Oao, oa cae oy aec oa, ec o p coyec a ooapaea x-y (c. pae 18.11).

cmouocm uepeuaoy u ueoy punmoaauy cceoae epeaoo eoo poaaa aeo poco eop poepo a xopoeo ooo pa. Aop IDEA e oe epeao, ooee ocoo e xa paepc [931]. O yepa, o oo coaa oe p, ycoe cp aoo a. Peyao oooo poepoa ec IDEA [931]. oee o oe o opaoao [1181, 1182], oa aca Hep (Kaisa Nyberg) apc yce (Lars Knudsen) oaa, a coaa o e p oayeo eoace o ooe epeaoy poaay. a eop a pa c pea a epea cx opo [702, 161, 927, 858, 860] ace epea [860]. a ec, o epea cx opo pe oo pa c a co ao, o ac e epea pepaco oec c epeaa.

e poaa oee, o ce ee coepecyec. opeee o acca e [1019] ecox pe [811, 812]. Ee oo pacpee poaaa oo a [1270]. B [938] a pepa oa oe epea e poaa oo cp. oa eco, aa eoa poepoa coe pooco oo cp.

yce oc eoopoo ycexa, paccapa eoope eoxoe (o, ooo, e ocaoe) pep oo, o o aa paec eoac ce ecea - po, ycox a epeaoy, a eoy poaay [857]. Hep e eoo poaaa aao o epeao epeao poaae [1180].

ocaoo epeco aec oceoc epeaoo eoo poaaa. a o ceoc caoc oeo a p papaoe eo coa xopox epeax xapa e pc ex pe [164, 1018], a p papaoe pep poepoa, oeceaeo ycooc aopo oo a cp [307]. oa oo eeco, ya aee o apaee cceoa. aaa e papaoa cpae poepoa aopa, ocoay a epe ao eo poaae [402].

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