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pc aep paa popa 2-e ae pooo, aop cxoe ec a e C COEPAHE . pecoe Beee aa 1 Ocoe o 1.1 Tepoo 1.2 ...

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24.13 eeyae apo eeyaa apoa pecae coo acoy apoy, o paepy ope a pea apoa, c cpoeo oepo pocxeo. e capa - epe ae a e 20 oy aa - o -a paecx opae oooc peaoa ae apo oac oo pe p o e aa. C ex op o ca oyp, a opao Epoe. Bo ox cpaax eey ae apo coyc oa a eeo. Cyecy eeyae pee apo, eeyae ee apo, eeyae apo eo yoo. Aepace oa o ycy pex apoe paoa a exooe, epe ecoo e ae axyae aepa yy oc eeyae apo cox yaax.

eeyaa apoa coep ae oep (oo 8-o popoeccop), O (eep oaa), (pepo 6-8 oa), ecoo oa o EPROM (cpaeoe popa pyeoe ) EEPROM (epoo cpaeoe popapyeoe ). Oe a eeya x apoax ceyeo ooe aepa opace, o opeeee ece opae apy ae pacpe. apoa coye co oepaoy ccey, popa ae. (eo e e, a o coa a, epoep oaec, oa apoy ca cae.) apoa eo aca. B ae eec pe, oa e oep yoy oepy, eeoy, a ey yoo, oee yepe coe apoe, oopa xpac ae yae.

B eeyax apoax oy cooac pae popaece pooo aop. O oy epo oeo, aa oooc pa oya epoe a e. apo oy cooac poooax poep ooc c ye ae, o oy oaa coce a poa. Booo, o oo oca oye ca opoy c oepx popa.

Heoope eeyae apo cac yco oy, a opao ce aco a a opaa, poae apo. a oce e xoe, o o e x eeya y apoy ac cee ooe ee.

eeyae apo - o oe epeca ea, a oopy acao oeco epayp. Xo poe oopo cae o popa eeyax apoax oe cy [672]. Eeoo po oc oepe: CARTES ope ape CardTech apee Baoe, opy oy. Tpy yx pyx oepe o eeya apoa oo a [342, 382]. B oac eeya x apoe cyecy co aeo, ac paeae epoec oa. epece opo c yyeo cooa eeyax apoe - poepa eococ, ayopc opo, aa o opoa, epoe ae, oaa oox pacxoo - oca [1628].

24.14 Caap popa c op a Caap popa c op a ( Public-Key Cryptography Standards, PKCS) - o oa oa RSA Data Security, Inc oece poe caap popa c op a. o pa a ea aac ANSI, o, ya eyy cya popaeco oe, RSADSI pea, o ye o ce cea ca. Paoa co oeco oa, RSADSI papa oaa aop caapo. Heoope x coec c py caapa, a eo ope - e.

caap e c caapa oepo cce oo coa, o e copac e o o coa a PKCS. o co coce coa RSADSI "ye eceo opaae, paooo p a pee o ao caape, ye epecapa caap o epe eoxooc " [803].

ae o ye coce. Ec eyepe, ae cpyyp ax cacc cooa p popa poa popa c op a, caap e xye ax-o pyx. oy e, a a o e acoe caap, oee ocpo x o co y.

aee peeo paoe ocae aoo PKCS (PKCS #2 PKCS #4 e PKCS #l).

PKCS #l [1345] ocae coco poa eppoa RSA, a opao coa pox oce pox oepo, ocax PKCS #7. pox oce cooee xpyec, a ae x-aee pyec ap o ocaeo. Coecoe pecaee cooe x-ae opoo ocao in PKCS #7. pox oepo (poae cooe) cooee caaa pyec cep aopo, a ae cooe pyec op o oy a e. Coecoe pecaee poaoo cooe poaoo a oo cooecoa PKCS #7. a eoa coec co caapa PEM. cpyyp cepao ( x oo) o px apx e RSA pex aopo oc - MD2 RSA, MD4 RSA, MD5 RSA - PKCS #l ae ocae cacc, e caccy X.509 PEM.

PKCS #3 [1346] ocae coco peaa oea a o cxee Diffie-Hellman.

PKCS #5 [1347) ocae coco poa cooe cepe o, oye apo.

Caap coye MD2 MD5 oye a apo pye cooe c oo DES pee CBC. o eo peaae a opao poa apx e p x epeae o oo oepo cce pyo, o oe cooa poa cooe.

PKCS #6 [1348] ocae caap cacc cepao opx e. Cacc ec aoeco cepaa X.509, p eoxooc oo e cepa X.509. ooee apy e opaa poecc cepa oo op o. O coepa pyy op a , apep, apec epoo o.

PKCS # 7 [1349] pecae coo o cacc ocaex pyex ax, ap ep, pox oce pox oepo. Cacc ec peypc, ooy oo opa o a oeoc oepo oca -o oc o paee apoa a. Cacc ae papeae ece c coepae cooe poepy ooc pyx apyo, apep, eo pee. PKCS #7 c PEM, ooy ocae apoae cooe oy peopaoa c o oe PEM, aoopo, e ooex popaecx oepa. ypae a c o o cepao PKCS #7 oe oepa oeco apxeyp - oo x ec PEM.

PKCS #8 [1350] ocae cacc opa o apx ax, a ap aop a pyo, cacc poax apx e. poa opa o apx ax o o cooa PKCS #5.

PKCS #9 [1351] opeee pae apyo pacpex cepao PKCS #6, cooe c poo oc PKCS #7 opa o apx ax PKCS #8.

PKCS #10 [1352,] ocae caap cacc apoco cepa. Cepa ae yaoe , op (eoaeo) aop apyo, oope oca o, pca apoc. apoc cepa pcac ceppy opa, oop peopaye apoc o cepa opoo a X.509, o cepa PKCS #6.

PKCS #11 [1353], Caap API popaeco e (Cryptographic Token API Standard), opeee epec popapoa, aae "Cryptoki", opax popaecx ycpoc cex o. Cryptoki pecae coo ooey oecy oe, ooy poe o popaece oepa a opax ycpocax, e a eae coyeo exoo. o caap ae opeee po poe : aop aopo, oope oe oepa ycpoco.

PKCS #12 [1354] ocae cacc xpae popao oecee opx e ooa e e, aex apx e, cepao pyo cao popaeco opa. e oo ec caapa eoo aa e, coyeoo o poe.

caap cecopo, o e ceoe. Moe opoc ocac a peea x caapo :

poea pcoe e, epopaece opoc, acaec cepa, e yc o pax apaepo. PKCS pa oece opa epea ax, ocoao a p o pa c op a, pacpyypy, oepay ay epeay.

24.15 epcaa ccea epox aee epcaa ccea epox aee ( Universal Electronic Payment System, UEPS) pecae coo aocoe poee, coyee eeyae apo, epoaao papaoaoe ceco o Ap, o oee poe oco aoc pya o cpa. aay oa AP o yeo ooo 2 oo apoe. a ccea ae pa Ha, paep aec o pae epe o poccc ao.

Ccea ooe cooa eoace ee apo, oxoe peoo, oopx o xa eeoa ce eae eooo aooy poepy. apo ec oyaee, y poao, oyae oy cooa co apo epeoa ee poaa. poae oe ocooac coe apoo, o oo a oec e a co aoc ce, oyae oe o c ooac coe apoo, o oo a epeec e a co apoy. He eoxoo c aoc o aooc, yo oece oo ay o oeeca.

Bo a pooo c ey oyaee Aco poao oo (B eceoc, A ca o poco ca co apo ay oa oe paa.) oa Aca epe oyae co apoy, oa oyae apy e, K1 K2, a ce x, coy ee eo o py cepey y. Too apo poao cpoe cepee cpeca, eoxoe c e e ooaee.

(1) Aca ocae oy coe , A, eo , B, cyaoe co RA, py x c oo DES: caaa o K2, ae K1. Oa ae ocae coe op eco.

A, ( (A,B,RA)) EK EK 1 (2) o ce K1 K2 o e Ac. O pacpoae cooee, yeaec, o A B pa , ae pye eapoay opy ooy cooe Ac o K2.

(A,B,RA) EK o e ocae o cooee Ace, 56 o poeca caoc o K3. o ocae Ace coe , ee cyaoe co, RB, py x c oo DES: caaa o K3, ae K1.

( (B,A,RB)) EK EK 1 (3) Aca aao opao ce K3 pacpoae cooee oa, yeac, o A B pa , ae pye eapoay opy ooy cooe oa o K3.

(B,A,RB) EK Aca e ocae o cooee oy, 56 o poeca caoc o K4. ae Aca oc ae oy coe , eo poepooe aee C. o poepooe aee coep ea op a e oyae, ay, opoy cyy, oeco a MAC. Bce o pyec DES: caaa o K4, ae K1. O MAC oe poepe ao Ac, a opo oe poepe oo paceo-acco epo. Aca yeae co ce a cooecyee aee.

( (A,B,C)) EK EK 1 (4) o aao opao ce K4. p yco, o ce ea coaa, pao oea poepa, o pae ae.

Beoe ooeee o poooe ec o, o aoe cooee ac o peyeo.

aoe cooee cyae yocoepee cex peyx cooe. o oaae, o oop capoe cooee oy e yacc, oyae poco oa e pacpye eo. Me pac a e, ye pe, o oa oy pooe peee, a oo cae poo ec a.

pyo payo e o poooe - aae pao peaa. Ec papao po e epao peaye pooo, o poco e ye paoa.

Oe apo coxpa ac ao paa. oa apo pao oo ycao aoooe coeee c ao (poae - oo e a ce, a oyae - c co cea), a ee a c oceyeo opo.

Aapaypa oaaec ycoo oy, o oea oy yaco cop a e. Aca e coe e aee coe apo. opoa ac oeceae ae oap y e apee oeecx paa. B apoax coyc yepcae cepe - MAC apoax oyaee, y peopaoa e ooaee K1 K2 - o caec, o peee opao aa x cepeo ocao o pyo.

a cxea, oeo e, ecoepea, o oa eoacee yax eo ox ex apoe.

coo ypo oeeca c e oee pa, a oyae poa. UEPS peocae ay o ax oyopee.

Oe cooe ec pepac pepo ycooo poooa: B ao cooe pcyc y ea oex copo, a opa, yay cooe, aoe cooee opao ac o cex peyx.

24.16 CLIPPER Mpocxea Clipper (eca ae a MYK-78T) - o papaoaa NSA, ycoa oy pocxea, peaaea poa epeoopo ooco. o oa yx cxe, peayx pa ece Caap ycooo poa (Escrowed Encryption Standard, EES) [1153]. VLSI Technologies, Inc. ooa pocxey, a Mykotronx, Inc. apopapoaa ee. Caaa ce pocxe Clipper yy xo eoacoe eeooe ycpoco Model 3600 AT&T (c. pae 24.18). Mpocxea peaye ao p poa Skipjack (c. pae 13.12,), papaoa NSA cepe aop c poae ce pe o, oo pee OFB.

Ca poope oeo pocxe Clipper, EES eo, ec pooo ycooo pye e (c. pae 4.14). ao pocxe ec cea, ey cooe, . o coyec poa o a cooe aoo ooae. B xoe poecca cxpo a epeaa pocxea Clipper eeppye ocae pae oe ocya oe a oa (Law Enforcement Access Field, LEAF). LEAF coep o eyeo ceacooo a, apoa o o cea o (aae o oy). o ooe paece pocyae oy ceaco pacp op ec paoopa.

o coa peopa NIST [812]:

peycapaec, o ccea "c ycoo pye o" oece cooae pocxe Clipper a aooocyx aepae. B ao ycpoce, coepae pocxey ye a yax "a", a ca, oope oaoc yoooe paece opaa e ppoa cooe, apoax ycpoco. p ooe ycpoca oa a yy o e e opo yx aax ax " ycoo pyex e", opopyex eepa poypopo.

ocy a ye papee oo paece oa c ao papeee o ocyaee ycpoco.

paeco ae copaec oop pooe pacpocpaee ax eeox aapao, o o e ae, o oe poo c aa ax ycoo pyex e.

oo oecx aceo, co ooop o ypee cpyype LEAF [812, 1154, 1594, 459, 107, 462]. LEAF - o cpoa, aa ocaoo opa, o p oecee paoopa o o o pacp ceaco Ks p yco, o a ycoo oyx ypee yy ecoa cooa. LEAF coep 32-o eaop oy U, ya ao pocxe Clipper. Oo ae coep ey 80-o ceaco , apoa ya o oy pocxe KU, 16-oy opoy cyy C, aaey eaopo ycooo py e . opoa cya pecae coo y ceacooo a, IV ooo pyo opa.

p o pyc cpoa o o KF, o cex aoecyx pocxe Clipper. O , coyee pe poa, ea opoo cy oa cpyypa LEAF acepee. Booo o oe oxoe a o-o oooe :

EK (EK (K,U,C)) s F U KU oc pocxe Clipper p ooe. o ae paeec (c. pae 3.5) xpa c yx aax ax ycoo pyex e, oxpaex y pa ypee.

o Ea oa e Ks LEAF, oa oa caaa pacpoa LEAF o KF oy U.

ae oa oa oy ocaoee cya aoo ypee ycooo pye, aoe o opx opaae ooy KU aoo U. Ea oe XOR oex oo oyae KU, ae oa coye KU oye Ks, Ks - ocya paoopa.

opoa cya oa oea apye o cxe, paa pocxea Clipper e oe o eppoae, ec opoa cya epaa. Oao cyecye 216 oox ae opoo cy, aoe LEAF c pao opoo cyo, o epa o, oe aeo pepo a 42 y [187]. Ho o e oe ooe ocya paoop, e y c c oo Clipper. Ta a pooo oea a e ec ac pocxe Clipper, 42 yoe cpe pyo co oo oeo oce oea a, oo e oe o e o o eeooo oa. Taoe cpe oe paoa p epeae aco p cooa apo Fortezza (c. pae 24.17).

peooeo pocxea Clipper oa pooco eepoy cp, oeoy "ope, xopoo" [1154], o o cyxa Sandia National Laboratories yceo poe cceoae o o pocxe. ae ec cyx o, oopea, o ca py po pooe aoe eepoe cpe oe o ca, eo cpo ec oo opoco pecypco opa.

C o eo cao oeco opoco o ae oc. Moocee py a paacx coo ey ay oa po oo exaa ycooo pye e, oop ac pa ecy pao ocya paa. Bc ooc o, o, xo a cxea oa e poxoa epe opecc, NIST oyoa EES aece FIPS [1153], oo oee aooae poecc. Ce ac ce , a ec EES xo eeo ypa, o caap coco pooa co oyy eeoc.

B 22- epece pae opaa, yacye o popae. a ace e, o oa ypee ycooo pye oocc oo coeo e ac? o caee o ype ex ycooo pye, oope o cy eo e a o aax a ocyae oy oo ceo oop x? o ace ee o p paeco cepeoo aopa aece oepecoo caapa?

Ta. 24-2.

Opaa, yacye EES.

Mcepco c - Cocop cce, aee oeo a NIST - Pyooco popao, xpae ycoo pyeo ac a FBI - ooae-epo, aee oeo a Mcepco aco - Xpae ycoo pyeo ac a NSA - Papao popa B o cyae, cooae Clipper opo eao poe p opae cy. He aae, Clip per paoae oo pee OFB. o a oe e oop, o pe e oeceae eococ poepe ooc. peoo, o Aca pecaa epe cyo, ac oaaec ec e e o paoop, apoa pocxeo Clipper. Aca yepae, o oa oa e oa, ooc - e ee. Aop ca pe acoo ox, o ooa ooc Ac pyo, o oee yepae, o, a a pacpoa paoop oo oo c oo ycoo pyeoo a Ac, o oo cea c ee eeoa.

Aca ae, o paoop oea cooec c [984, 1339]: a poec op ec, oe x c oo XOR, oo oy eo oo. ae o eo oo oo o e c oo XOR c acoo py op eco, oya a poec, oop ae oe peopaoa a op ec, oop oaec a epaop pocxe.

pa o e, o oo oe eo oce coee p pcx, oope e coy eeo paoop oaaeco.

pyo coco cp, aae Bcae ( S ueeze), ooe Ace a ce a oa. Bo a o pocxo [575]: Aca o oy, coy Clipper. Oa coxpae o eo LEAF ece c cea co o. ae oa o po (po oopy eco, o ee ocya ). p ycaoe a Aca eae ceaco e oy, oop oa cooaa paoopa c oo. oo opeyec oa eeo, o o epyo. ae eco oo, o oca coe LEAF, oa ocae LEAF oa. o paoe LEAF, ooy eeo po eo e ae. Teep oa oe oop po ce, o axoe - oa o pacpye LEAF, oa oapy, o oo pae oy. ae ec Ace e yacc a ce a oa, ey pec oaa co eooc cye, o oe oe opaa peee ooo cxe.

Opa oxpa paoopa Coeex ao e o pa coe pe, aac copo opa yoox pacceoax, oopy e cooa cye. ae ec ycooe pyee e oc eoxo ee, Clipper - o e y coco peaa o e.

24.17 CAPSTONE Capstone (ec ae a MYK-80) - o pya papaoaa NSA CC, peaya Caap yc ooo poa paeca CA [1153]. Capstone peaye ceye y [1155, 462]:

Aop Skipjack o epex ocox peo : ECB, CBC, CFB OFB.

Aop oea a (Key Exchange Algorithm, KEA) a ae opx e, copee ceo Dif fie-Hellman.

Aop poo oc (Digital Signature Algorithm, DSA). * Aop eoacoo xpoa (Secure Hash Algorithm, SHA). j Aop oee cee oeo aae.

eepaop cyax ce c cooae co yooo coa.

Capstone oeceae popaece oooc, eoxoe eoaco epoo opo pyx oepx poe. ep peee Capstone ec apoa PCMCIA, aaa Fortezza. (Caaa oa aaac Tessera, oa a o e oaoaac oa Tessera, Inc..) NSA yo oooc ye opoo cy LEAF Capstone epcx apoe oo, o oea paee paccopeoy cp LEAF. Beco oo a oaea oooc o epeayc apo oce 10 epax LEAF. Me o e eao - pe oca paoo LEAF oo a 10 poeo, o 46 y.

24.18 eoac eeo AT&T MODEL 3600 TELEPHONE SECURITY DEVICE (TSD) eoac eeo AT&T (Telephone Security Device, TSD) - o eeo c pocxeo Clipper. Ha cao ee cyecye epe oe TSD. Oa coep pocxey Clipper, pya - coppye pe aop poa AT&T pe - pe aop cooa yp cpa c cop pye aop, a eepa ae Clipper, ype coppye aop.

aoo eeooo oa TSD coy o ceaco . apa TSD eeppye ceaco c oo cxe oea a Diffie-Hellman, eace o pocxe Clipper. Ta a Dif fie-Hellman e ae poep ooc, TSD coye a eoa peopae cp "eoe cepee".

ep ec pa. TSD xpye ceaco o x-aee a aeo pae e epex ecaapx p. Coece poep, o a x pa ee oaoe p.

aeco ooca ocaoo xopoo, o o o ya py pya o oocy.

Bce e Ea oe cp y cxey. yc e yaoc c ey oo Aco. Oa c oye TSD a c Aco opoa TSD a c oo. ocepee oa copae a eeox oa. Aca aec cea paoop eoac. Oa o opao eeppye , o oaec c Eo, ae ce a oa. Ea pacpae c oo opoaoo TSD eae a, o , oop oa ceeppoaa oa, e aoe e x-aee. o cpe a e oe peao, o eo peopae TSD coyec opoa.

TSD eeppye cyae ca, coy co ya xao yce c poo opao c. O eeppye o oo, oop poycaec epe ocoea p a ae p o oo poeccopa.

Hecop a ce o cpaoo pyooce TSD e coa o eoacoc. Ha cao ee a ac a o [70]:

AT&T e apapye, o TSD a o cp apoao epea paece ypeee, eo aea pee copoo. oee oo, AT&T e apapye, o TSD a o cp epeaaeo opa c oo eoo, oxox poae.

aa oa 25.1 Aeco aoao eoacoc (NSA) NSA - o Aeco aoao eoacoc (National Security Agency, oa-o pacpoaoc ya a "No Such Agency" (aoe aeco) "Never Say Anything" (oa eo e cay), o eep o oee op), oa opa paeca CA o opoca eoacoc. Aeco o coao 1952 oy peeo app Tpyeo oe Mcepca eoacoc, oe o cepee xpaoc ca a eo cyecoa. NSA ocpaoc a epoa paea, eo aa xoo ocya pacpoa ce ocpae c epecax Coeex ao.

Ceye aa opaoo ooe o NSA, ocaoo 1952 oy peeo Tp y eo paccepeeoo cyc oo e [1535]:

B aa COMINT Aeca aoao eoacoc (NSA) o xo ee opaa ypa e e paeaeo eeoc Coeex ao oac eeoya, pooo po ocpax paec, o oece eocy ecey oy cooecye ep. coye o pe e ep "epoa paea" ("communications intelligence") "COMINT" ooaae ce ec eo, co yee epexaa eeoya, ca apyee peccy paoeae, oye opa, pe a aeo pea py oyaee, o cae eypy, a ae pooco pacpocpaee oyeo pa eaeo opa.

Ceaa ppoa ec COMINT peye, o o o cex ooex pooc oeo o pyo oe paeaeo eeoc. pa, pe, yaa peoea oo opaa coeo ac, acaec copa, oye, eoacoc, opao, pacpocpae cooa paeaeo opa epe ooe ec COMINT, ec o e ooopeo ocoo, oye e yy a o e e pecaee aeca, xo paeco. pye pe Haoaoo coea eoacoc peopy P cae pe, ae peopo P, e o pec ec COMINT, ec o e ye ceaa pea Haoaoo coea eoacoc, aca ac COMINT.

NSA ee cceoa oac poo, aac a papaoo eoacx aopo a oya Coeex ao, a poaaece eo pocya oy a a peea CA research. eco, o NSA ec pye pe paooaee ae a o. Oo ae ec pye pe oyaee oepo aapayp. Booo popa ec o NSA a oo e oopac o coco e opo aye ( ac aopo, o p ac poooo). Hecoeo Aeco oe oa oe coyex ceo cce. Ho, coopae aoao eoacoc, o c opa o NSA - ae ee e - acepeea. (o cyxa e Aeca cocae ooo 13 apo oapo o - a oeoe acpoae poeo NSA oay epcoaa - , o cyxa, e paoae 16 c eoe.) NSA coye co ac, o opa opy ocyoc popa oea a o a paa cooa co ce eo poa, o Aeco oo x oa.

ec Macce (James Massey) aapye y opy ey ay oe cceoa p opa [1007]:

Ec ca, o poo ec pepoao paeca, o, oeo, oa ac pooecx c ceoa oa ecc a ap ep. e coo coe oeco e, ax ceo poo e c cceoa, aoo oe, e oeco e, paoax opo poo. Ope poo ece cceoa poo eyc oo ocee 10 e. Mey y cceoaec cooeca yy o. Ope cceoa peca coo o oc a, oopoo eo ae op oe e c oo oepe, peea ya ayx ypaax. Ho oe pae cea opaa, oecea a cpe po pyx ocyapc, pecoa ya pa, oop e oa? Moe cceoae c co coec yoa oo p, oope oe cec a e ce yc oo oa, axoxc a cye eo paeca ? Moo acaa, o ya oaao eoa c oo pa aca ce paeca ec ce ooo "eea" Ccoa, o eoxoo o, o op e cceoa popa o oecx ecx oo opao oee cepex, e o ox pyx oacx ay. c ao e oy, o paecee opaa a oe poo oy c ea c cceoae, a oy, o o (o pae epe e, o oopx a eco) a eae a cae.

ec op (James Bamford) aca yeaey y po NSA: The Puzzle Palace [79], (ope ooooo), eao opaoay ece c Bo Mece ( Wayne Madsen) [80].

oepeca npopaa cepmuuauu onmepo eonacocmu oepeca popaa cepa oepo eoacoc (Commercial COMSEC Endorsement Program (CCEP)), oooe Overtake, - o peoee, ceaoe NSA 1984 oy paoe oe papaoy oepo cpec c c cpoe popaec oooc [85, 1165].

Oo c papaoy ax e oaa oee, o oxooc eeeo. NSA ocao, o ec oa oy poaa aapaypy ap, opopa, ae ocpa, o oo ye pacxo ceoe oe. Aecy oe e peoaoc poep coecoc oop y oa c eepa caapo 102.7, ae CCEP peocaa ocy oopeoy paec o popaecoy oopyoa [419].

NSA papaoao p popaecx oye paoo aae. B x oyx pax poe coyc pae aop, pooe oya oooc e o oy ca pyo acoc o ea ea. Cyecy oy oeoo cooa (T I), oy "ecepeoo, o aoo" paeceoo cooa (T II), oy opopaoo cooa (T III) oy coppoa (T IV). Pae oy, x peee aa cee 24-.

Ta. 25-1.

Moy CCEP peee T I T II Pe/ocopoca epeaa ax Winster Edgeshot oep Tepache Bulletproof Bcoocopoca epeaa ax Foresee Brushstroke Ceyee ooee Countersign I Countersign II a popaa ce ee ecye, o oa e aa yaa y oo poe paeca. Bce oy ae o cp, ce aop acepee, a ooae o oya o NSA. opopa oa peao e ep e cooa cepex aopo, aax p a eco. aaoc , NSA oyo ae ypo, o oe e oya peee Clipper, Skipjack pocxe poa c yco pye e e.

25.2 Haoa ep oepo eoacoc (NCSC) Haoa ep oepo eoacoc ( National Computer Security Center, NCSC), oeee NSA, oeae a oepey paecey oepy popay. B acoee pe ep poo oey poyo oepo eoacoc (popax aapax), acpye cceoa yye x peaya, papaaae exece pyooca oeceae oy oepy oy e e.

NCSC ae caao ecy "Opaey y" [465]. Ee acoee aae - Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (pep oe eapaea oopox oepex oepx cce), o o a pyo oapa, oy e y opaea ooa. Opaea a aec opee peoa eoacoc, ae pooe oepo oe coco ep eoacoc x cce yaae , o eoxoo cpaa eoace poy. a ocea oepo eoacoc, o popa e o cy oopc e oe oo.

Opaea a opeee epe pox aeop a eoacoc. B e ae opeec acc a yp eoopx x aeop. O cee 23-.

Ta. 25-2.

acca Opaeo D: Minimal Security (Maa eoacoc) C: Discretionary Protection (aa o ycope) C1: Discretionary Security Protection (aa eoacoc o ycope) C2: Controlled Access Protection (aa ypaeoo ocya) B: Oaea aa B1: Labeled Security Protection B2: Structured Protection (Cpyypa aa) B3: Security Domains (Oac eoacoc) A: Verified Protection (ocoepa aa) A1: Verified Design (ocoepa papaoa) oa pooe oop " oeceae eoacoc C2". B y o e acca Opaeo . a oee opoo opae opaaec [1365]. Moe oepo eo acoc, coyea x pepx, aaec oe Bell-LaPadula [100, 101, 102, 103].

NCSC a ey cep o oepo eoacoc, oa aaey Payo (ce o o e pae ea). Hapep, Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria [1146] (eppea pepe oe oepex oepx cce ooe oepex cee), oa aaea paco o, oye ooe Opaeo o ooe ce ceeoy oopyoa. Trusted Database Management System Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria [1147] (eppea pepe oe oepex oepx cce o o e cce ypae aa ax) - ae e ac oca e oo - eae o e caoe a ax. Ceo cyecye ce 30 ax , e ooe eoopx x opaee.

a o oeo Pay opaaec o apecy Director, National Security Agency, INFOSEC Awareness, Attention: C81, 9800 Savage Road, Fort George G. Meade, MD 2,0755-6000;

(301 ) 766-8729. He oo pe , o ac oca .

25.3 Haoa cy caapo ex NIST - o Haoa cy caapo ex (National Institute of Standards and Technology ), opaeee Mcepca opo CA. Paee o aac Haoa po caapo ( NBS, Na tional Bureau of Standards) e 1988 oy. C oo coe aopaop oepx cce (Computer Systems Laboratory, CSL), NIST poa ope caap aoec, oope, a o a ec, ycop pae ocoax a oepax opacx poeoc. acoey pee NIST yc caap pyooca, oope, a o cae, yy p ce oep ccea Coeex ao. Oae caap oyoa a a FIPS (eepae caap o pao opa.

Ec a y o oo FIPS ( pyx a NIST), cec c Haoao cyo ex eco opa Mcepca opo CA - National Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. De partment of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161;

(703) 487-4650;

ocee go pher://csrc.ncsl.nist.go* oa 1987 oy opecc p A o oepo eoacoc ( Computer Security Act), NIST yoooe opee caap, oeceae eoacoc ao, o e cepeo opa p a ecex oepx. (Cepea opa ae peypeae opa axoc cepe pc NSA.) A papeae NIST xoe oe peaaex execx caapo copy a c py paece opaa ac pep.

NIST ae caap popaecx y. Opaa paeca CA oa co o a x ao, o ecepeo opa. aco caap pac ac ceopo. NIST yc DES, DSS, SHS EES.

Bce aop papaoa c eoopo oo NSA, aa o aaa DES o poepoa DSS, SHS aopa Skipjack EES. Heoope py NIST a o, o NSA oo cee oe opopoa caap, xo epec NSA oy e coaa c epeca NIST. Heco, a ec eo NSA oe o a poepoae papaoy aopo. Ho p opaex a epcoa, e pecypc NIST peee NSA aec pay. NSA oaae o oooc, a yy pe oepe cpeca.

Oa "Meopay o aooa" ( "Memorandum of Understanding", MOU) ey y op aa ac:

MEMOPAHM O BAMOOHMAH ME PETOPOM HAOHAHOO HCTTTA CTAHA P TOB TEXH PETOPOM AEHTCTBA HAOHAHO EOACHOCT OTHOCTEHO PMEH E H HOO AOHA 100- Coaa, o:

A. B cooec c paeo 2 Aa o oepo eoacoc o 1987 oa (y ao 100-235), (A), a Haoa cy caapo ex (NIST) a ac eepaoo paeca oaaec oeceoc a:

1. Papaoy execx, acpax, ecx caapo, caapo ypae pyooc pe a ex eoacoc aeoc ao opa eepax oepx c ce, opeeex Ae;

, 2. Papaoy pyooc o execo eoacoc cooecyx oepx cce Aeca aoao eoacoc (NSA).

B. B cooec c paeo 2 Aa NIST oa paoa eco aoec c py opaa, a NSA, oecea:

1. Macaoe cooae cex cyecyx apyex popa, aepao, cceoa oeo, a caxc eoacoc aeoc oepx cce, o ea eyoo opooo ypoa pao ;

, 2. caap, papaoae NIST cooec c Ao, acao ooo cee o co a coa coec co caapa poeypa, papaoa a cepeo opa eepax oepx cceax.

C. B cooec c Ao oaoc Mcpa opo, oope o epeopyae NIST, xo aaee eo ocyaoo oea o eoacoc aeoc oepx cce ( Computer System Security and Privacy Advisory Board), o pae epe ea, peca eo NSA.

Ceoaeo, oecee ee aoo MOU peop NIST peop NSA aco pa ceyee:

I. NIST ye:

1. Haaa ocya oe o eoacoc aeoc oepx cce o pae epe o o o pecae, aeaeo peopa NSA.

2. Opac a papaoae NSA pyooca o execo eoacoc oepx cce o o cee, oopo NIST opeee, o pyooca oea peoa, pee ae ao opa e e pax oepx cceax.

3. paa ceppoa NSA pe oepex cce cooec c popao pepe oe eoacoc oepex oepo e ooeo cep.

4. Papaaa caap eoacoc eeoya a ax ecepex oepx ax, acao opac a peya cep papao Aeca aoao eoacoc, o o oaoc coepeeo eo.

5. o oooc ea ypoa, papa coece pao c NSA oye oo NSA.

6. apaa oo NSA o ce opoca, ca c popaec aopa popaec eoa, a cceoa, oey papao, oopee, o e opaac ec.

II. NSA ye:

1. Oecea NIST exec pyooca o oepe exoo, eoacoc eeoya ea oc, oope oy cooa peaex cceax a ax oepx a x.

2. poo poa cceoaece poee popa o oepe exoo, eoacoc eeoya, popaec eoa eoa ea oc.

3. o poca NIST oaa oo ooe cex opoco, cax c popaec aopa popaec eoa, a cceoa, oey papao, oopee, o e opaac ec .

4. caaa caap oop e pee eoacx cceax, oxaaex 10 USC pae 2315 (opaa opepa).

5. o peoa eepax opaa, x opo pyx acpyex paeco cyeo p o o oey oooc paeco paeaeo eeoc ooe eepax opaox cce, a ae oecea execoe coece peoeoa e, oopee pee eoacx cceax, o pooco ao ypoe.

III. NIST NSA yy:

1. ooppoa co a o oecee eoacoc aeoc oepx cce, a oope NIST NSA ecy oeceoc cooec c paeo 6(b) Aa.

2. Oeac exec caapa pyooca, ec o eoxoo oce ee Aa.

3. Coeco paoa a ocee ee oo eopaya c acao eoc, ea eyoo ypoa yc.

4. oepa epep ao, apapy, o aa opaa ye axoc a oaoo ypoe copeex exoo opoco, x a eoacoc aoapoax opaox oe p x cce.

5. Opaoa execy paoy pyy oopa aaa oace coecx epeco, acaxc a cce, opaaax ay pyy ecepey opa. a pya ye coco ec e e pax cyax, o poe o NIST NSA, p eoxooc oe yeea a ce pecaee pyx opa a. Te pao py oy opeec o aecee peopa NSA o opaoo eoacoc, o aecee peopa NIST, o oy poac cao pyo c ocey oopee aecee peopa NSA o opaoo eoacoc aecee peopa NIST. B eee ecox e oce oc a o epe pyo opoca o aecee peopa NSA o opaoo eoacoc, o aecee peopa NIST pya oa peca oe o oe pao o oy opocy , p eoxooc, a ae eo aaa.

6. Ha eeoo ocoe oeac aa pao o ce cceoaec ocpyopc poea, ca c ao cce, opaaax ay pyy ecepey opa, a oepee exoo, ay eococ ocyoc ax, eoacoc eeoya eoo ea oc. Oe opae o poea oe pocxo eeapao, oop coco poeo oe o copo peo c ac o apocy pyo copo.

7. poep oop execo paoe py o oyoa cex opoco, acaxc ex oecee eoacoc cce, papaaaex cooa p ae ao opa eepax oepx cceax, o apapoa coecoc pacp x e c aoao eoacoc Coeex ao. E c NIST NSA e coy pe oo opoc eee 60 e, a opaa oe o o opoc e pe Mcpo oopo Mcpo opo. paec, o a opoc c oo NSC oe epea pee peey. Hae ec e o pepac o ooaeoo pee opoca.

8. Opee ooee paoe coae, aee ey NSA NIST, a poe oy MOU.

IV. a copo oe pepa ece oo MOU ce yeoee, apae a ec ece o pepae ec. o MOU caec ece p a oex oce.

/ocao/ PMOH. . AMMEP coe peop, Haoa cy caapo ex, 24 apa 1989 oa . O. CTMEH Be-apa, BMC CA, peop, Aeco aoao eoacoc, 23 apa 1989 oa 25.4 RSA Data Security, Inc.

RSA Data Security, Inc. (RSADSI) a ocoaa 1982 oy papao, epoa oep e coo cooa aea RSA. oa ec p oepecx poyo, a oe ae eoacoc epoo o, pae popaece oe (ocye e cxox eco oeoo oa). RSADSI ae peaae a pe cepe aop RC2 RC4 (c.

pae 11.8). RSA Laboratories, cceoaeca aopaop, caa c RSADSI, oe yaea e popaece cceoa oaae ocyaoe ycy.

p aepecoaoc ex poyax yo opaac peopy o poaa ( Director of Sales, RSA Data Security, Inc., 100 Marine Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065;

(415) 595-8782;

ac: (415) 595 1873).

25.5 PUBLIC KEY PARTNERS aeo, epecex 22-, paea Public Key Partners (PKP) Caa (Sunnyvale), aop, apepcy RSADSI Care-Kahn, Inc. - poeco oa Cylink. (RSADSI oyae poeo p, a Care-Kahn 35 poeo.) PKP yepae, o ae 4218582 ocoeo pe o ce cnocoa ucnooau popa c op a.

Ta. 25-3.

ae Public Key Partners aea aa opeae Haae aea 4200770 29.3.80 Hellman, Diffie, Merkle Oe a Diffie-Hellman 4218582 19.8.80 Hellman, Merkle Pa Merkle-Hellman 4405829 20.9.83 Rivest, Shamir, Adleman RSA 4424414 3.3.84 Hellman, Pohlig Pohlig-Hellman 4995082 19.2.91 Schnorr oc Schnorr B [574], PKP caa:

ae [4200770, 4218582, 4405829 4424414] oxaa ce ece eo cooa cycca op x e, a apa, ooeo ece a ElGamal.

aoap pooy pacpocpae pox oce RSA eyapoo cooece Public Key Partners pe eo oope x ee caap poo oc. M aepe ce aepecoae copo, o Public Key Partners oc ce pee ANSI IEEE, acac ocyoc epoa oo cycca. Ocoeo oep x paex caapo, coyx poy oc RSA. Public Key Partners aco aep e, o e a cooae oce RSA yy peocac paye cpo, a payx ycox e a o-o cpa.

paa o, ac o oo, c e oope. e PKP, a pao, cepe, ooy cocoa poep, oaec aa e o pyx, e cyecye. Xo oa yepae, o oy e oaaa ae e, o pae epe e oa oop o o, o e aa e a.

PKP aeo oxpae co ae, ypoa ce, o coye e epoa popa c o p a. aco o pea a aeoe aooaeco CA. Ec aey aea e ya ec aaa apye aea, o oe oep co ae. o oo paoopo o aooc x aeo, o ae paoopo eo e oo. Bce aoe pee aea PKP ypeypoa o cya.

e copac o e aa pece coe. Moe ae RSA e yco epe cyo.

Moe ae e pe o ce popa c op a. (eco oop, e o a, a o oxaa ElGamal pocce c ec p.) Moe oy-o yacc pa poecc po PKP RSADSI. Ho e aae, o opopa c opo pec o ea, apep, IBM, Microsoft, Lotus, Apple, Novell, Digital, National Semiconductor, AT&T Sun, e poa RSA cooa cox poyax, a e opaac cy. Boeing, Shell Oil, DuPont, Raytheon Citicorp - ce epoa RSA coeo ypeeo cooa.

B oo cyae PKP oyo poecc po TRW Corporation o ooy cooa e epo a aopa ElGamal. TRW yepaa, o e e ya e. PKP TRW oc coae e 1992. opooc ypeypoa oa eec, o cpe x - coace TRW oy e a ae. o e peeae eo xopoeo. TRW oa oo cee xopox pco. oy oo peoo, o, ec TRW a yepea, o coe pa poecc, e opa eepooo o eca ee, oa e oaaac o op.

Te e eee PKP cyecy co ypee poe. B e 1994 oa Care-Kahn oaa cy a RSADSI, a, cpe ceo ocaoo, o ae RSA epae epe [401]. Oa apepa o ac paopa coe apepco. ao ae e? Hyo ye ooae oya e o Care-Kahn, o ooac aopo RSA? oy ye paea ae Schnorr? Booo o eo ye ypeypoao oey xoa o .

ae ece eee Patents 17 e e oy oooe. 29 apa 1997 oa oe a Diffie-Hellman ( aop ElGamal) cay oeocy. 20 cep 2000 oa cae oeocy RSA. oee a cox aeapx.

25.6 Meyapoa accoa pooecx cceoa Meyapoa accoa pooecx cceoa ( International Association for Cryptologic R e search, IACR) - o cepa popaeca cceoaeca opaa. Ee e ec pae eop pa poo cax oace. Ee eo oe ca o. Accoa cyae cocopo yx eeox oepe, Crypto (pooc ayce Caa-apape ) Eurocrypt (pooc Epoe), eeapao ae The Journal of Cryptology IACR Newsletter.

Apec a-app IACR eec ece co ceo peea. Tey apec: IACR Business Office, Aarhus Science Park, Custav Wieds Vej 10, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

25.7 Oea po eococ RACE (RIPE) popaa cceoa pa epeox cpec c Epoe ( Research and Development in Ad vanced Communication Technologies in Europe, RACE) a poaa Epoec cooeco o ep peapeo popao eeoyaox caapo exoo, oepax eppoae coocopoce cpeca c ( Integrated Broadband Communication, IBC). B aece ac o pao RACE ypeo ocopy Oe po eococ RACE (RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation, RIPE), o copa oo eoe ae exoo, cooecyx oo peoa eoacoc IBC.

ocopy RIPE opaoa ec eyx epoecx popaecx cceoaecx py :

ep o aeae oep aya ( Center for Mathematics and Computer Science ), Acepa;

Sie mens AG;

Philips Crypto BV;

Royal PTT Nederland NV, PTT Research;

Katholieke Univesiteit Leuven Aarhus Universitet. oce oe o pee aopo 1989 1991 oax [1564], oa 32 ao, pcax co ceo pa, coceo oeaeo poea eoc 350 eoeo-ece, ocopy oy oa RIPE Integrity Primitives [1305, 1332]. Oe coep eee, ecoo ocox oe eoc oc x p: MDC-4 (c. pae 14.11), RIPE-MD (c. pae 14.8), RIPE-MAG (c. pae 14.14), IBC-HASH, SKID (c. pae 3.2), RSA, COMSET (c. pae 16.1) eepa e RSA.

25.8 co ocy Epo (CAFE) co ocy Epo (Conditional Access for Europe, CAFE) - o poe paax popa ES PRIT Epoecoo cooeca [204, 205]. Paoa aaac eape 1992 oa o ay oa aoc oy 1995 oa. Opaoa ocopy coco py coax cceoa cceoa pa (Cardware, Institut fur Sozialforschung), ooee popaoo oecee aapayp (DigiCash, Cem plus, Ingenico, Siemens), a ae popao (CWI Amsterdam, PTT Research Netherlands, SPET, Sintef Delab Trondheim, Universities of Arhus, Hildesheim and Leuven).

e poea ec papaoa cce ycooo ocya, ocoeo pox aex cce.

aee cce o oecea aeoc aoo ooae peoa a oo e e ep ce - aeoc e oa ace o ycooc yc poc oy.

Oco ycpoco CAFE cy epo ya: ae oep, oe oxo a apa ayop. eo ec aapea, aaypa, pa papac aa c c py yaa. aoo ooae co coce ya, oop oeceae eo paa apa pye eo eoacoc.

ycpoca c aaypo pao ec opeeeoe peyeco epe eeyao apo oo oe paoa eaco o epaa. ooae oe eocpeceo ec co apo cy y aea. Oe o peo ap ooae e yo oaa co ya oy-o, o o paa. ooe oooc c :

Aooe paa. Ccea peaaea ae opae eox cy ax, aooa ccea a co pooa.

cooc oep. Ec ooae oepe co ya, ya coaec, eo ypay, ooae e oepe co e.

oepa pax a.

Opa apxeypa opa ccea. ooae oe e oooc aa a po oe ycy, apep, oy aae, eeo, oece pacop, peocaee pa ocaa. Ccea oa oecea aoece oo oeca eo epox ee, a ae aoece yao pax o pooee.

Ha cooc.

oey aca o cyecye oo popaa epc cce, ocopy oo p a oae a aapa pooo.

25.9 ISO/IEC B cepee 80-x ISO caappoa DES, oop ye cooac aece FIPS caapa ANSI.

oce eoopo oeco o ISO peo e caappoa popaece aop, a pe cppoa x. apecppoa oo oo aop poa, pecppoa x-y cxe oc e. apecppoa aop oe a aoaa opaa.

B acoee pe oa a a pecpa pex aopo (c. 21-). oaa a ae opa o cooa, apaepax, peaax, peax ecox eopax. opooe ocae eoaeo, oo oaa a pecpa cepee aop.

a pecpa aopa eo e oop o eo aece. Pecpa e ec oopee a o pa ISO/IEC, oa poco oaae, o oa aoax opaa xoe apecppoa a o p, eaco o pepe, coyex ao opaae.

Me e eaa a e. Pecpa eae poeccy caapa. Beco oo, o p e coo aopo, ISO pecppye o aop. p ao opoe oo apecppoa ce, o yoo, aee c o pao copooa co aop yo oao "apecppoa ISO/IEC 9979 ". B o cyae peecp ee National Computer Centre Ltd., Oxford Road, Manchester, MI 7ED, United Kingdom.

Ta. 25-4.

apecppoae aop ISO/IEC Pecpao oep Haae 0001 B-CRYPT 0002 IDEA 0003 LUC 25.10 poeccoae poee py, a ae py a o paacx coo opauo emp no empoo mae uocmu (EPIC) opao ep o epoo ae oc ( Electronic Privacy Information Center, EPIC) ypee 1994 oy pee oeceoo a oa opoca a oc, c a c Haoao opaoo pacpyypo, ax a pocxe Clipper, peoe o poo eeo, aoae cce eaox oepo, a cop oe poaa cee o opeex. EPIC ee cyee poecc, cocpye oepe, yye oe, ae EPIC Alert poo aa o opoca a oc. eae pcoec oy opac o apecy Anyone interested in joining should contact Electronic Privacy Information Center, 666 Pennsylvania Avenue SE, Suite 301, Washington, D.C. 20003 (202,) 544-9240;

ac: (202) 547-5482;

Internet: info@epic.org.

o empooo pomupa (EFF) o epooo popa (Electronic Frontier Foundation, EFF) oc ce ae paacx pa eppocpace. Paccapa popaecy oy CA, EFF cae, o opa ocy popa c yaea paa, ooy c x o c paecee opae. o opaoa paoy pyy o poo eoacoc ae oc (Digital Privacy and Security Working Croup), oopa ec oae 50 opaa. pya pooecye aoy o poo eeo ae Clipper. EFF ae coecye ee poecco po opo a c opo popa [143]. eae pcoec EFF oy cac c Electronic Frontier Foundation, 1001 C Street NW, Suite 950E, Washington, D.C. 20001;

(202) 347 5400, ac: (202) 393-5509;

Internet:

eff@eff.org.

Accouau no ucumeo mexue (ACM) Accoa o ceo exe ( Association for Computing Machinery, ACM) - o eyapoa oepa poea opaa. B 1994 oy oe oeceo o ACM CA peca pepac oe o popaeco oe CA [935]. Eo co poa aoy, o epec y ec oo popa. Eo oo oy c oo aooo ftp c info.acm.org /reports/acm.

crypt_study/acm_crypto_study.ps.

cmumym ueepo no empuecmy u pauoempoue (IEEE) cy eepo o epecy paoepoe ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE) - o pya poeccoaa opaa. Oeee CA yae opoc, cae c ao oc, a popaecy oy, eaoe oepa, aa a Internet, pa paaae cooecye peoea.

Accouau npououmee npopaoo oecneeu (SPA) Accoa pooee popaoo oecee ( Software Publishers Association, SPA) - o opoa accoa, oopy xo ce 1000 oa, papaaax popaoe oeceee epc o ax oa. O cya a ocaee copoo opo popa oepa ep e e oepec ocyx apyex poyo.

25.11 Sci.crypt Sci.crypt - o eeoepe Usenet o poo. Ee a pepo 100000 eoe o cey py.

oco cooe - oa eyxa, epepaa o, pyoe oopeeo. Heoope cooe acac o, a oco ocax - poc peoca cee oe. oa o ee oepe cyao oaac pae caopo eoopa oea opa. Ec a sci.crypt peypo, oo ya, a cooa eo, aaeoe ao-ye.

pyo eeoepee Usenet ec sci.crypt.research, oee yepea eeoepe, ocea ocye pooecx cceoa. B e ee cooe, o opao epecee.

25.12 poa poa (Cypherpunks) - o eopaa pya e, aepecoax oye ye popa. O ae cepepy c popae, ac ec ee oxo. o x e ce popaece cceoa e pec oecy eo xopoeo, a a oo e ocooaoc o c e popa.

B "Maece poao" p X (Eric Hughes) e [744]:

M, poa, cpec coa aoe cce. M aae a a c oo popa, c o o cce aoo opa o, c oo pox oce epox ee.

poa y o. M ae, o o-o oe aca popaoe oeceee, aaee a o c, a a oa o e ceao, e coe oece coxpaee cox a, copaec aca ae popa . M yye a o, o a py poa o opaoac opa c . Ha o cooo oe cooa o yoo e yoo. Hac e oe oye, pac a popa, oope e. M a e, o popaoe oeceee eooo papy, o eooo pepa paoy paccex cce.

Te, o xoe pcoec ccy pacc poao Internet, o opa oy apec majordomo@toad.com. Cco pacc xpac a ftp.csua.berkeley.edu /pub/cypherpunks.

25.13 ae Bopoc o popax aeax eooo cy pa o . Xopo o e, o cye cy. B Coeex aax oo aeoa aop, o ce popaece. IBM aee aea DES [514]. IDEA aaeoa. aaeoa o ce aop c op a. NIST ae aaeoa DSA. ece pa popaecx aeo o opoao eaeco NSA, cooec c Ao o cepeoc opee ( Invention Secrecy Act) o 1940 oa Ao o aoao eoacoc (National Security Act) o 1947 oa. o oaae, o eco aea opeae oyae ce peoe ocaoee, ey apeaec ocya eo opeee c e-y ee.

NSA ec ocoe oooc p aeoa. Aeco oe opac a aeo ae o poa eo ay. Coa oec cepeoe ocaoee, o eep NSA oopeeo opeae, ae ocaoe. oa cyc eoopoe pe cepeoe ocaoee oeec, pecpaoa oopa ae ae, ecy caape 17 e years. o oee o aae opeee, e xpaee eo cepee. Ec oy-y yacc opec o e caoe, NSA ye oao ay a ae.

Ec oy pyoy e yacc opec o e caoe, opeee ocaec ce pe.

Hecop a o, o poecc aeoa oe e oo aa opee, o pacpa x, aoap o yoe NSA oe epa ae oe 17 e. Oce 17-eeo cpoa aaec c oe a a aea, a e oa a. oa eco, a ce oe ec c c paae ooopa o GATT Coee aa.

25.14 copoe aooaeco CA Coaco paecy CA popa oocc oeoy cape. o oaae, o po pa oec e e aoa, o paea TOW a M1 Apac. Ec poaee popae c poy e cooecye copo e, o - eyapo opaac opye. Ec e xoe cop ae pee cpoo o pea eepao pe, opae ae a a o oaeco.

C aao 1949 oy xooo o ce cpa HATO (poe ca), a ae Acpa, o ca, opaoa OOM - oopao oe oocopoeo opo a copo (CoCom, Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls ). o eoaa opaa, paa ooppoa aoae opae, acaec copa ax oex exoo Coec Co, pye cpa Bapacoo ooopa acy Hapoy Pecyy. pepa opopyex exoo c oep, ca eaopoaa popa. e o opaa oc aeee epea exoo yaae cpa, cepae, a opao, x oeoo oe aa.

C oo xooo o cpa OOM ocoa, o oe opo oe ac yc a pe. B acoee pe, o oy, e poecc oppoa "Hooo opya", pyo eyapoo opaa, oopa copaec ocao oo oex exoo cpa, oope e pac ea opaa.

B o cyae copa oa CA ooe cpaeecx oapo peypyec paec e ao o cope (Export Administration Act), Ao o opoe a copo oopye (Arms Ex port Control Act), Ao o aoo ep (Atomic Energy Act) Ao o epacpocpae epx oop y e (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act). opo, ycaoe aooaeco, peayec c o o ox oaox ao, o x e ooppye pyo. Ce opaa, a oee cy, ocyec opo, aco x eeoc epepaec oye.

oopoe exoo yppy ecox ccax. popa, o pa oocac oopye, oec epee oopye CA ( U.S. Munitions List, USML), Meyapoo epee oopye (International Munitions List, IML), epee opo a opoe (Commerce Control List, CCL) Meyapoo poeo epee ( International Industrial List, IIL). oceapae oeae a USML, o yyec a ac Peypoa eyapooo paa opy (International Traffic in Arms Regula tions, ITAR) [466, 467].

cop popa CA opopyec y paece opaa. Oo ec oe o ypae copo (Bureau of Export Administration, BXA) Mcepce opo, yoo oe paa peypoa copa ( Export Administration Regulations, EAR). pya - o pae e o peypoa poa cpec oopo (Office of Defense Trade Controls, DTC) ocyapceo eapaee, yoooeoe ITAR. o oy peoa BXA Mcepca opo eee cpo, o caaa ec popaec cop pocapaec DTC oceapaea (oopoe oyae coe o exe aoao eoacoc o NSA , aec, cea ceye coea ), oopoe oe oa a epea pao pee BXA.

ITAR peypye o poecc. (o 1990 oa paee DTC aaoc paee o opo a oopyee, ooo, yc oac "a pe" apae a o, o a, o ee eo c oa ya.) copec DTC copooc ae copx e a cpeca poa cee opeeeoo ypo - xo o o, ao o ypoe, oa e cooaoc.

Ceye pae ITAR [466, 467]:

120.10 Texece ae.

Texece ae - o, acoe oye :

(1) opa, oa o popaoo oecee, opeeeoo 120.10(d), oopa ya poepoa, papao, pooca, opao, ooe, cop, pao, peoa, oep oa cpec oopo.

o, apep, opa ope ceoo, epee, oopa, ao, cpy oye a;

(2) Cepea opa, acaac cpec oopo oopoo eeoc ;

(3) opa, oxaaea ocaoee o acepea opee ;

(4) popaoe oeceee, opeeeoe paee 121.8(f) eocpeceo caoe co cpeca oopo (5) o opeeee e ae opa, acayc oeayx, aeaecx eepx p o, oo yaex oeocyx oax, oeax yepceax, a opeeeo 120.11. Oo ae e ae aoy poy opa o y, aae oecceo oca cpec oopo.

120.11 Op ocy.

Op ocy ooaae opa, oopa oyoaec oe oeocyo :

(1) C oo poa ocax x aaax ;

(2) C oo oc, oopa ocya e opae oo, o xoe oy popec oy o ay opa;

(3) C oo oox pe opoo acca, ax paeco CA ;

(4) B oeax, opx y, oopx ya oe oy oye ;

(5) C oo aeo, ocyx o aeo oope ;

(6) C oo eopaeoo pacpocpae a oepe, cpee, ceape, peea cae, o c yx oo ye Coeex aax ;

(7) C oo cooe ea (.e., eopaeoe pacpocpaee) o ope (apep, eoaeo oyoao), oopex oee opaa CA (c. ae 125.4(b)(13)).

(8) C oo yaeax cceoa aye exe apeoax cx yex aeex CA, e oyea opa oo yyec poo pacpocpaec ayo cooece. yaea aac aoe pae cceoa aye exe, oa oyea opa oo yye c poo pacpocpaec ayo cooece oe o cceoa, peya oopx e paaac -a pa coceoc opeeeoo opo ocya pacpocpae paeco CA. epcece cce oa e cac yaea, ec :

(i) epce eo cceoae coaac c py opae a ya ayo-execo opa, oyeo peyae pao a poeo, (ii) cceoa acpyc paeco CA, a ocy peyaa cceoa x pacpocpaee a xoc opae c e a opa.

120.17 cop.

o copo oaec:

(1) epeaa o cpec oopo a pee Coeex ao cocoo, poe yeec a p e e Coeex ao a, e a a exece ae ;

(2) epeaa ocpaoy y pa pecpa, ypae coceoc a o caoe, cyo cy , pcycy epee oopye CA, Coeex aax a x peea ;

(3) Pacpe ( o ce ycoe yaoe ) epeaa Coeex aax x cpec oopo oco cy, ypee opaee ocpaoo paeca (apep, oaec cc );

(4) Pacpe ( o ce ycoe yaoe) epeaa execx ax ocpaoy y Coeex aax a x peea;

(5) Boee oopoo eeoc o e o ocpaoo a Coeex aax a x peea.

(6) aycae aapa oea apya e o, p ayce aoo aapaa, paccapac a cop.

Oao opeeex ee (c 126.1 oo oya), ooe oo oya pe poaa py cocoa epea cpec oopo poyo oopoeo eeoc.

ac 121- epee oopye CA 121.1 Oe ooe. epee oopye CA Category XIIIooeoe oeoe capee (1) popaece (a ypaee a) cce, aapaypa, ocpy, oy, epae cxe, ooe popaoe oeceee c oooc oep cepeoc oeaoc opa opaox cce, poe ceyeo popaecoo oopyoa popaoo oecee :

(i)Ceao cpoepoaoe oe ae o opoa popa oeceee oo y eppoa p yco, o ypaee eppoae eocyo ooae.

(ii) Ceao cpoepoaoe, papaoaoe opoaoe cooa aax aocx oepa eex paa, oopoe oo cooa oo ax paa. Ma aocx oepa eex paa a aoaece accoe aapa, caoocyaee eaae yc poca, opoe epa oopyoae poa eaocx paa .

(iii) coyee oo aaooe eo popaeco opao, oopa oeceae eoacoc opa ceyx poex....

(iv) epcoae eeyae apo, cooae oopx ooo oo oopyoa cceax, e oaax o peypoae USML.

(v) C opaee ocya, ae a aoaece accoe aapa, caoocyaee eaae ycpoca opoe epa, oope oecea ay apoe epcoax eaox oepo (PIN) aaox ax, o peopa ecaopoa ocy cpeca, o e oy poa a ec, e ocpeceo e cae c ao apoe PIN.

(vi) Ocyecee oo poepy ooc ax c oo ce oa poep ooc coo e (MAC) aaoo y poep, o ec e o eceo ee, poep o o c ooaee, o oopoe e cooa poa ax, eca pyo opa oo eox o o poep ooc.

(vii) coyee oo cpoae eo ca opoa ax.

(viii) coyeoe oo paoea, aoo eee aaox eeox cce c opa eo ayope, e pooo poa, oopx pooe eppoae opaeo oo eo- ay o y ypaee.

(ix) popaoe oeceee, cpoepoaoe opoaoe a o oyex oepx opee, (apep, pyco).

(2) popaece (a ypaee a) cce, aapaypa, ocpy, oy, epae cxe, ooe popaoe oeceee c oooc eepa pacpocpaex oo ooo oeca cce ycpoc:

(3) popaece cce, aapaypa, ocpy, oy, epae cxe, ooe popaoe oeceee.

125.2 cop ecepex execx ax.

(a) Oe ooe. copa ecepex execx ax eoxoa e (DSP-5), ec ae e ce epyx peoa aoo oya. B cyae aooo a ea peoaaex cy c c o epea paee o peypoa poa cpec oopo cep execx ax.

oo peocaeo ce o execx ax e cycc.

(b) ae. p cope execx ax peyec e, aa paee o peypoa poa cpec oopo, ec ae pea eoxoe aoe ypee aeo a aoe ocpao aeo a, ec ype aa e a aoea. a a aeoae a pyeo, oee ax aeax yye, oa ooe o peypoac paee o aea opo aa CA cooec c 37 CFR, ac 5. cop execx ax, eoxox aeoa pyx cp a ax, ec cyeo op, aaex paee o aea opo aa CA, cooec c 35 U.S.C.

184.

(c) Pacp. ycoo, yaoo oyeaoo pacp execx ax paaa CA o cpa a peyec e, ec ao oye e ooopeo oe. e peyec eaco o op epea execx ax (apep, o, o eeoy, epece, epo cpeca, ..). e pe yec ax pacp, eaex paaa CA p ocee ocpax oaecx cc o cyc.

a aee. B o oyee aoo oe opa. Ec copaeec coppoa p o pa, coey a o eo o ocooac ycya pca, oop o ce o papae c.

B eceoc cop popaecx poyo opopyec NSA. Ec a yo oy ceeco o pa aeo poya peeo oeo opee ( Commodity Jurisdiction, CJ), o peca a poy a oopee NSA oa ocyapce eapae ay a o yee CJ. oce oope oceapaee eo oaae o pc Mcepca opo, oo poe oa ocoeo e epecoaoc popae. Oao ocyapce eapae oa e ac CJ e oope NSA.

B 1977 oy oe A. Meep (Joseph A. Meyer), cya NSA, aca co - ecaopoaoe, cooec c oao cope ea - IEEE, peypeaee, o apyeoe pecaee opao pao RSA apy ITAR. The Puzzle Palace:

Bo eo oa pe. ITAR oxaae c "ecepey opa, oopa oe cooaa, aa poaa cooa, p poepoa, pooce, ooe, peoe, aao peoe, epepaoe, ocpypoa, papaoe, ec, oepe occaoe" epecex aepao, ae a "y exoo, oopa paae opeeeoe yee coae ooe oac, oopa ee aoe oeoe peee Coeex aax." cop eceo a epeay opa a ceo e, a c oo ycx yax cpec, a pae ocye coy, a oopx pecae ocpa .

Ho, yao cey yaoy, aco co pocpaoy aooaecy, aec, peyec, o a, o copaec aca a o-o a ey, acayc epe oopye, caaa oy oopee ocya p ceoo eapaea - a ya epcea o poope epo opae peye oepe Bepxo cyo.

B oe oo NSA pao ec Meepa ecaopoa, paoa o RSA a oyo aa, a apoaoc. po opeaee e o pepo ax ec, xo oe oa ao, o x paoa yea oooc apyeo popa opao oe, e o-y, oy oaoe o oo.

cop popa ocyaec ceye ae NSA [363]:

popaece exoo cac eo a epeco aoao eoacoc, a o oece epec, oee epec epec ee o.

M e coac c ae, cea 7 a 1992 oa a cyax Cyeoo oea, oce ae ca, oope a, o cope ao CA ea aepac pa oaa cooa copeeoe poaoe oopyoae. Ha eeco o oo cyae, oa -a copx opae CA aepaco pe oea oaa cooa aapaypy poa yp cpa, aepaco pe o ee oepe oa oea cooa aapaypy poa a peea CA. B eceoc, NSA cea oepao cooae poa aepaco ece a ao opa a oa, a a pae.

copa pye cpa NSA, eec ac Mcepca oopo, (ece c ocyapce eapae o Mcepco opo pocapae cope e ocax exoo opaoo eoacoc, oaax o ece copoo paeceoo aooaeca Peypoa eyapooo paa opy. Aaoa ccea opo copa ecye o cex cpaax OOM o ox pyx cpaax, a a exoo oceeco cac a. He cyecye oeo apea a cop oox exoo, a c y a paccapaec oeo. p o oe opeoac oy e a ae cce, p oye oopx aapyec e copa o cce a epec aoao eoacoc - a epec ooeco, oeo oeco eoacoc. cope e ac e ac acoc o a aec o aoo oopyoa, peoaaeoo cooa peoaae oo ooae.

Ha aa oaae, o CA pye poo pooce cope exoo opaoo eoa c oc. NSA oope copa ce 90% pooecx poyo, apaex NSA ocyapce eap aeo epoa. cope e a poy opaoo eoacoc, oaae o p c Mcepca opo, ac e yac NSA Mcepca oopo. Cpe x - poy, coy e ae eo, a DSS RSA, oeceae poepy ooc opo ocya oepa ce. Ha cao ee, poo NSA pao ay po yceo ocaa ocae copoo opo a RSA exoo poep ooc. eo ocoeo a p pee poe xaepo eca opoaoo cooa pecypco.

a, aeo, o NSA opaae cop oo poyo poa, o e poep ooc.

Ec copaeec coppoa poy oo poep ooc, oyee papeee opa c eocpae oo, o a poy e e aex epeeo cooa poa.

oee oo, popaeca poeypa poyo poep ooc aoo poe, e poy o poa. cce poep ooc oya oopee oceapaea ( CJ), ccea poa peye oopoo oope ao epc poya ae p ao poae.

e CJ a pec apaa papeee a cop c pa, oa axoe coppoa p o y. ocyapce eapae e papeae coppoa poy c c poae, ae coye DES. Oee ce cea oepx p aepacx oa oooc apo c c, eoopx aocx poe cop oex ooaee CA. Accoa pooee popaoo oecee (SPA) ea epeoop c paeco o o c ae opae a cope. Coaee, aeoe SPA oceapaeo 1992 oy, oe o paa a copx e yx aopo, RC2 RC4, p yco, o a co yeoo a e pec 40 o. opooc oo a paee 7.1.

B 1993 oy aae pecaee Map ae ( Maria Cantwell) (D-WA) o poce oa papaoo popaoo oecee eca aoopoe, oca cop opo a p o paa. Ceaop Mppe (Patty Murray) (D-WA) eca cooecy ceae. aoopo e ae oae oey aoy o opoe a copo, poxoey epe opecc, o yae oeo o paee o c aee NSA. oa NSA o-y eae, oo paae ce yc - oe eoyo pooocoa a yaee opypo. a oceee pe e po pyoo cya, o pya aooaee o-o ceaa eoyo.

B 1995 oy a epe (Dan Bernstein) p oepe EFF oa cy a paeco CA, a c oea paecy opaa ya popaecx oyeo popaoo oec e e [143]. B ce yepaoc, o ao o copo opoe eocyo oc "eooee apope opae caa apyee epo opa". opeo ce yepaoc, o copee poecc opo a copo :

ooe popaa opaa ya e pee cya.

Oeceae co ao poeypx oooce a pa cooec c epo opa o.

Tpeye o aee pecppoac paece, coaa e "epoao pecc ".

Oaae ox yax, pey epoa aoo oyae.

ocaoo aya, o poce e o a, aoe oeee pao, a aoe - e.

Co pocpae, a a apeae oeee, oopoe o aaec (apep, paoop c o cpaa yp Coeex ao ).

peec co poo, apea cop popaoo oecee e coepaeo p o pa, cxo coopae, o popa oe oaea oe.

o apyae epy opay, apea ace ece o popa, a a paeco e ae eco oo aa ye co popaece .

Mo cocoa peae ooo, peocaee a opecco copo aoo a ece, a ocye.

Moo pee, o peee oo ea ae ecoo e, o pee, e oo aoc, e ooo.

Te e eee, ocya oe o eoacoc aeoc (Computer Security and Privacy Advisory Board), oa ocya NIST, ape 1992 oa pooocoa a o, o epecope aoao oe popaece opoc, a copy oy. o aeo, o c opa oa opeeec oo opaa, oea a aoay eoacoc, e yea o pe opaa, cax c pae opo. cae c aoao eoacoc o p aa ea ce ooo, o eo e eoc, o eoxooc epee ye apea.

25.15 cop op popa a pyeo B pyx cpaax cyecye coe copoe opoe pao [311]. pee oop eoo o oo ycape. Cpa oy a ao e opaa a x a, e e aoo, o a o opao opaa cop, op cooae.

Acpa peye a cepaa y oppyeoo popaecoo poya oo o p e oa cpa-copepa.

B aae e opo opa, a opo copa aaoe aepacoy. cop poyo aaa oe opae, ec o e epee opo copa, cooecy A y papee copa opa. B ooe popaecx exoo aaa ceye opa e OOM. poae ycpoca oca o aeope , ac a aacx pa copa. These provisions aao aeop paecex paax copa CA.

a coye cxey epoa oppyex poyo, copep o ao a y Mcepce apyeo opo. Ha ocoe acoo epe apeeoo opaeoo copa opa, poo 1987 oy, a opaae op cop ycpoc opo a pe.

Bo pa e ceaoo aooaeca ooceo opa popa, o cyecy a o, acaec poa cooa popa cpae. poy o cep poa: o o o cooecoa oyoa cea, o pea ce a oa oa peocaea paecy. paeco oe ae apeoa a ycpoca coceoo cooa. oa oa e a poay pop a o pa, e yaaec pooe aaee. ooaee oa e a oyy cooae popa, e eo ooee o o, o ooae o oo epea co paecy eee epex ece oce coo a . o opaee oa oycae ce : ao, ox oa, .. popa , coppyeo CA, eoe peoa ocycy.

epa ceye ooe OOM, pey epoa cop popa. pooc ce a opo oeocyoo popaecoo popaoo oecee.

B pae ec opae opa, o, o oy, o e ae ae.

e, a, o, Hepa Beopa cey ooe OOM, pey e poa cop popa.

B pa, , Mece, Pocc, Cayoco Apa, ca, o Ape, e e ap opo copa opa popa ocycye.

25.16 paoe opoc c poe oc aco oc ? yy o pa cyo? Heoope pea pee paoe cceoa pe e, o poe oc yy cooecoa peoa aox oyx oce oe ac pee, a oepecoe cooae, o peeeoe Eo coe aoo o opoe (Uniform Commercial Code, UCC). Peee pae o o e yxaep (GAD, General Accounting Office), eceoe o poce NIST, yepae, o poe oc cooecy pao caapa pyocx oce [362].

A o pox ocx aa a cy ece 1 a 1995 oa, oecea aoy ocoy c ooa pox oce ccee cyopooca. aop paccapae cooecy aoopoe, a Opeoe Baoe papaaa co ao. Texac opa a ao. oey a oco ao poe o y.

Aepaca peca accoa (Oe EDI opaox exoo ce ay ex ) papaoaa opae aa, oop oe cooa aa poecce aooopeca. A ae c ca poe oc cyecyy oce paoy pacpyypy : E co aoo o opoe, ao eepao peepo cce Coeex ao, oee pao o opaax o cx, oe OOH o opaa eyapoo poa oapo oe OOH o eyapo aoa o oeax o pa oo oaeca. B a e ooe o oece o c oaocx ceppyx opao, opoc oeceoc, a ae opae oa.

B Coeex aax ao o ocx, opaax opox oepax axoc pc a o, ooy o a-opae papaoa ao. Ooaeo e ec eepa a, o ec ce aaec a ypoe ao, y NSA ee oooce ce coa.

ae p o, oa paoc pox oce e ye ocopea cye, x paoo cayc oc a ec eopeee. oo, o poe oc oaa e e eao oo o c, o pyoce oc, o caaa o cooa oca aooo, ae ocope cye oo copo. Toa cy paccop eoacoc cxe oc ece peee. Cyc eoopoe pe, oa oopc oo cya, pee o o, ae eo poo oc ae paep e oaoc, o poa oc a paa aoo, ye eceo a ocoe peyx pee. Booo oo opeyc o.

o ex op, ec a eoea xo cooa poe oc opaa( ao a oyy, pao o paoe, ..), peoeyec, o o oca a yae opa, c oopo o co a ac yye paa e oye, ocae x po oc [1099]. B o oy ee o opeec aop, paep a ce ocae apaep. B e oe, oy e, opeee coco papee copo.

ocecoe Ma ea O cax oacx oeo poo (, ceoaeo, ao ), ec o, o a o yaec ep ee. ae e, cocoo paoe a oe poaaecx e oo ooe oe ( ocyc acoe eop poepoa po ) " oe pao", e oxo cp opeoo pa. Co e coa epao cooa oe aece oe ep eoacoc cce. B peao pe y oa ec ya oe oooce, e cooae ooo poaaa. aco ycex ocaec c oo cp poooo, pocx oe, pyco, epoaoo opo, eco opoea, aaa aya aee a, oo oepaoo cce pax popa, aapax oo, oo ooaee, ecoo ocya, pao cooo, aa coepoo cao, o aeo e ce.

Bcooaecee p pooo c a cpeca, o ca o cee o e ae peacx, pecx pae o o, o eceo yo a, a oy o a pae ypo oopo (o, oe oo, peo opaac c, xopoo ope e e oe ayoo pa). Pocc Aepco (Ross Anderson) po pep popaec c x cce ( aoco ycp), oope e yco epe ypoa peaoo pa [43, 44]. ae oa y oa ec ocy oo poecy, epe ayec eae pe pyx acx c c e oe pococ ocaoo opa, o cea xopoy poccey ecoeo. Co o opo poo oe oa pa eeo , a opao aeo coy o oepaopo [1587].

NSA oe a opoc, oe paeco cpa DES, eo aeo, o peae cc e acoo eeoac, o o o ae e co ecooc. coae, e cyecye pocx pe eo, a cea ccey eoaco, ae aeoe poepoae pec aa eoo o. Xopoe pocce ea oa aoo pyee, e aooo ooae, o o e a ooe o cex ocax aceo eoacoc oepo cce c. Paccop ceye (aepa e ce) "ec ax ypo eoacoc peax cce ", ay oopx ee ocyec, e peopa.

1. eaoe cocoe popaoo oecee. Bce eco, o o e ae, a ca p o paoe oeceee. Copeee cce co, a co c cpo oa, a x oe ope eoacoc. popax oye, cax c eoacoc ea o ee pyee.

2. Heea aa po cp c oao o ycy. B eoopx popaecx po o oax oycaec aooc. cooae aox poooo oe ocoeo oa c , ec o yea oooc eooaoo aaa apy peocaee ycy ooy aoe cce o ocoeo yco cp c oao o ycy. B yc ox cex oepa aooc oe ee - e p oo-o co oye ae oo aox xox oe oce ycox cee, ax a eeo a ce ooa ccea, e oeoy ooae ooceo pyo ( opoo) a pyoacae aap.

3. He eca xpae cepeo. pocce aa oe cepe a (a). coae, copeee oep e ocoeo xopo a ae aex cepeo.

Mooooaece ceee paoe ca oy oa, a x a - copoe poaa. Oeo coe, ooooaece a oy ypae copoep o a pyca, oope opay acxpoy yey cepeo. aee cepep, e oe e ooae, oeo apoy pay (o c. ypoy 5), peca coo ocoeo pyy poey.

4. oxa eepa cyax ce. e ceacox epeex y xopoe co epecayex o. po paoaeo oepa ea, o peoe poee coco pao cooa ee. o peoeo oeco eoo oya co cyae ca popa opao (coyc epecayeoc pee oe oepa oa oa, pacxoe aoo aco aepa, ae ypyeoc oyxa yp opyca epoo ca), o ce o oe yce eae ee cpe, oopx o coyc.

5. Cae apoe pa. oco popaecoo popaoo oecee peae p o e xpae eepa e a ocoe coaaex ooaee apox pa, oope cac ocaoo epecaye eepa xopoeo eoo aepaa, oope ae eo aoac ooy e pey eoacoo xpae. B o pe, a coape cp c xopoo eco poeo opox apoe, o cocoax cp e, coax a ocoe pax ooae apox pa, eco ao. eo oaa, o po acoo eca y oe 1 a a co, o, o oy, ooe co oa po apox pa pyy cy. Oao oa e oe oo, oo a yop o a apoe pa. oa e paepec a ceye, a cpa apoe pa, e oe, acoo o ca c.

6. Hepaoe oepe. o ce ocyoe popaecoe popaoe oeceee peo a ae, o ooae axoc eocpeceo oae c cceo oyec ae cocoo ocya. Hapep, epec popaa, oo PGP, peoaa, o x a poe pa ocya o ooae o aeoy y, apep, c oao oco. Ho o e cea a, paccop poey e a poao o p oe o ce.

To, o poepo cce cae ae, oe e cooecoa opeoc o a peax ooaee, ocoeo oa popa oeceee oo ypa y a eo o eeoac aaa.

7. oxo oaeoe aoece poooo ycy. C poco ycoee cce aco po c xo cpae e, ae pyo o-y o o-y, ae oa pooe aa y aap. ep Internet pacpocpac c oo yaoo c y oe eoo cpe ca popa epea o. Coo ee oooce ao oece popa oa a eoa cec, oope oo y coeo o p?

8. Hepeaca oea ypo pca. cep o eoacoc cpec coeppoa co yc a ypoax, oope eco a oepoa peopaa. coae, o o cp a ae cocex a, e oac peo coaa. Co o o "eoacx" cce o cpoepoao e yea peao oox ec oa.

9. epec, oope ea eoacoc opoo eyoo. Ec yo cooa cpeca oecee eoacoc, o o o yo ocaoo popa, o eceo ooac . Hepyo cpoepoa exa poa, oope pa o a oo a ce pooeoc poco cooa, ee ee coa exa, oop poopye o. eoacoc oo pyee , e ;

eca c, eoe cce eceo a p aoa.

10. Co ceoee peoa eoacoc. a poea xopoo eca o ce, e cace cao c poae poyo ycy eoacoc. oa cyecye poo pacpocpae oe peoae ceoee eoacoc, cpeca pacpyypa, oeceae eo pe a a, yy opo eocy ox poe. aco o poea oa pacp ypo oacoce peax poex, a aco poea poepoa cce, oopx eoacoc e aaaec aao, a oaec oe.

oee o cco ocyee oox ypo oe eo ao y aoo e paepa, p o poea ye ea apoya. o eae x ocoeo py oac, a o o, o e cyecye aoo aecoo cocoa ac o x, poe xopoeo aaa xopoe eepo pao. eco popa oe oya pa cycca.

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