Московский международный институт эконометрики, информатики, финансов и права Aspects of English Speaking World Мир изучаемого языка Учебное пособие Астремская Е.В., Ляшенко М.А.
Москва, 2003 УДК 42 ББК 81.2 Англ. А 912 Астремская Е.В., Ляшенко М.А., Мир изучаемого языка. Учебное пособие./Московский международный институт эконометрики, информатики, финансов и права. – М., 2003 – 59 с.
2) упражнения для работы над смысловой структурой абзаца (найти ключевые предложения, выделить главную мысль);
3) упражнения для работы над смысловой структурой текста в целом (чтение без заглавия, составление плана и т.д.) Использование вышеупомянутой системы упражнений способствует активизации речемыслительной деятельности обучаемых при смысловом восприятии текста на иностранном языке, сокращая этап смысловой перекодировки с английского на русский. Второй раздел включает задания и тексты для самостоятельного внеаудиторного чтения. Тематика текстов посвящена городам, политическим деятелям, истории стран изучаемого языка. Третий раздел включает тексты, составленные на основе целых текстов, выполнение заданий, требует полного осмысления и адекватного понимания текста. Грамматическое приложение содержит дополнительные теоретические сведения о ключевых грамматических конструкциях, вызывающих наибольшие затруднения у изучающих английский язык и блоки упражнений, закрепляющих практические навыки их употребления.
Раздел 1 Упражнения и тексты для аудиторной работы Unit Задание 1. Прочитайте следующие глаголы и существительные, обращая внимание на ударение. to ex’port – ‘export to im’port – ‘import to pre’sent – ‘present to con’tract – ‘contract Задание 2. Прочитайте пары слов, обращая внимание на суффиксы прилагательных. south – southern nation – national north – northern industry – industrial west - western agriculture – agricultural east – eastern navigation – navigable beauty – beautiful mountain – mountainous Задание 3. Прочитайте и переведите следующие слова. agriculture, canal, climate, continent, form, kilometre, navigable, occupy, ocean, port, region, relief, republic, territory, population, nationality, million, centre, autonomous, parliament, protestant, nation, system. Задание 4. Прочитайте географические названия, пользуясь транскрипцией. The United Kingdom [I ju’naited ‘kingdm] The British Isles [ ‘briti ailz] Wales [weilz] The English Channal [i ‘igli ‘tnl] The Severn [ ‘sevn] The Thames [ temz] The Straight of Dover [ streit v ‘douv] Europe [‘jurp] Ireland [‘ilnd] Text A The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (U.K.) is a country to the north-west of Europe. The English Channel and the Strait of Dover separate Great Britain from the continent. The Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean wash the territory of Great Britain in the west. The U.K. lies on two islands, the larger of them is Great Britain and the smaller is Ireland. These and 500 small islands form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland with the territory of about 244 thousand square kilometres. The climate of the U.K. depends on the Gulf Stream which is a warm oceanic current. Summers are not so warm and winters are not so cold as they are in Europe. The parts of Great Britain are England, Wales and Scotland. England lies in the south of Great Britain. It is the largest of the four countries with an area of about 132 thousand square kilometers. England borders on Scotland in the north and on Wales in the west. Wales has a territory of about 21 thousand square kilometres. Scotland is the most northern part of Great Britain and occupies a territory of about 79 thousand sq. kms. Northern Ireland borders on the Irish Republic. The North Channel, the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea wash its territory. The south-eastern part of Great Britain is a Lowland. There are mountains in the middle of the northern and the western parts of England. They are rather low – from 500 to 1000 meters high. The northern part of Scotland is also mountainous. There are many rivers in the country. They are not long, but very deep and navigable. Canals connect most of the rivers. The longest river is the Severn. The most important river is the Thames. It runs through agricultural regions into the North Sea. London is on the Thames and it is one of the biggest ports of the country. The Thames is the deepest river of Great Britain. The north of England is famous for its beautiful lakes. The U.K. is a highly developed industrial country. She exports machinery, ships, motors and other goods. One of her main industries is the textile industry and a lot of British textiles are exported. The U.K. buys more goods than she sells and she has to import food products and raw materials from many countries of the world including the Commonwealth States. Vocabulary list united – соединенный kingdom – королевство isle, island – остров strait – пролив lie (lay, lain) – лежать, располагаться square – квадратный border (on) – граничить (с) lowland – низменность inner – внутренний deep – глубокий famous – знаменитый depend (on) – зависеть (от) stream – поток current – течение Задание 5. Заполните пропуски прилагательными в сравнительной или превосходной степени. England is the... part of Great Britain. long Ireland is... than Great Britain. small The Thames is the... river of the U.K. warm The Severn is the... river of the U.K. important The Thames is the... river of Great Britain. northern Scotland is the... northern part of Great Britain. large Winters in England are... than they are on the continent. big London is one of the... ports of Europe. deep Задание 6. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу словами. The... is a country to the north-west of Europe. The English Channel and the Strait of Dover... Great Britain from the continent. The U.K.... on two great islands. Its territory is about 132 thousand... kms. England... on Scotland in the north. Canals... most of the rivers of Great Britain. The most... river is the Thames. It... through agricultural regions. The north of England is... for its beautiful lakes. The climate of England greatly... on the Gulf Stream which is a... oceanic.... Summers are not... warm and winters are not... cold as they are in Europe. Задание 7. Ответьте на вопросы. What separates Great Britain from the continent? What seas and oceans wash the territory of Great Britain? Where does the U.K. lie? What are the parts of the U.K.? What is the relief of the country? Which is the most important river of Great Britain? Which is the longest river of Great Britain? What products does U.K. have to import?
Text B. The United States of America.
The USA is a federal republic comprising 50 states. 48 states occupy the central part of the North American continent. They are bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Canada, on the south by Mexico. The newest states, Alaska and Hawaii, lie at the northwestern part of the continent and in the mid-Pacific, respectively. The total area of the nation is 3,615,122 square miles (9,363,123 sq. kms.), making it one of the largest nations in the world. The centre of the USA is a great lowland, reaching from central Canada on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south. To east and west this lowland rises to mountain systems. They are the Appalachians (on the east) and the Western highlands. The Appalachian highlands consist of several parallel ridges and chains. The mountains are old and comparatively low, only a few of the peaks exceed 6.000 ft. The western highland include the region occupied by the Rocky Mts. Many of the great rivers of America have their source in the Rockies, among them the Missouri, Colorado, Arkansas and others. Chief among U.S. rivers is the Mississippi, which, with the Ohio and the Missouri, drains most of the midcontinent. It is one of the world’s great inland waterways. The Mississippi and its eastern branches, chiefly the Ohio and the Tennessee, are navigable for great distances. In the northern section of the midcontinental U.S. there are many small fresh-water lakes. In the north also are the five Great Lakes. The Great Lakes – St. Lawrence system is connected to Mississippi – Ohio by canals. Underground, a wealth of minerals provides a solid base for American industry. America’s yearly production of gold is $ 742,500,000 but it is far exceeded by the value of its petroleum, natural gas, lead and iron. Production value of crude oil alone is about $84 thousand million annually, pumped from petroleum reserves that range from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska’s North Slope. The major characteristic of the United States is its great variety. Its population comprises a wide range of racial, ethnic and cultural types. English is the national language and is spoken by most of the people. Vocabulary list comprise – включать total area – общая площадь ridge – гряда гор bound – ограничивать provide – обеспечивать exceed – превышать chain – цепь branch – приток coast – побережье source – исток drain – зд.: собирать воды variety – разнообразие crude oil – неочищенная нефть range v. – простираться n. – цепь гор pump – качать насосом wealth – изобилие, богатство Задание 1. Подберите к английским словам русские эквиваленты из правой колонки. 1. occupy – оккупированный, занятый occupying – оккупировать, занимать (место, время) оккупирующий, занимающий occupied – 2. connect – соединенный connecting – соединять connected – соединяющий достигнутый 3. reach – reaching – достигать reached – достигающий 4. make – делать making – сделанный делающий made – 5. speak – говорящий говорить speaking – spoken – сказанный Задание 2. Переведите следующие словосочетания, содержащие Причастие I и Причастие II. canals connecting by rivers, rivers connected by canals;
a lowland reaching to a gulf, a peak reached by alpinists;
a speaking student, a spoken language;
mountains occupying the region, the region occupied by the Rocky Mts.;
rivers draining the region, the region drained by the Mississippi. Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова и словосочетания. 1. Two oceans bound the central part of continent. The American states are bounded by Canada on the north. 48 states occupy the central part of the continent, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. 2. Rocky Mountains occupy the western region of the country. Western highlands include the region occupied by the Rocky Mts. The western region is occupied by the Rocky Mts. The area occupied by the Rocky Mts. is on the west. 3. Most of the people in America speak English. English is spoken in many countries. The leading languages spoken in US are English, German, French and Spanish. Задание 4. Перечитайте текст “В” и озаглавьте каждый его абзац. Задание 5. Закончите следующие предложения. The newest states of the USA are.... The Appalachians consist of.... Many great rivers in America have their source.... The five Great Lakes are situated.... The Great Lakes are connected to.... The population of the USA comprises.... Among the leading languages spoken in the USA are.... The USA comprises.... The centre of the USA is.... The western highlands include.... Задание 6. Ответьте на вопросы. How many states does the U.S. consist of? What are the U.S. bounded by in the north, south, west, east? Where do the newest states of the U.S. lie? What mountain system are on the territory of the U.S.? What do the Appalachian highlands consist of? What river drains most of the midcontinent? How is St. Lawrence system connected to the Mississippi? What provides a base for American industry? Задание 7. Прочитайте текст и скажите, о какой стране в нем говорится. It is the largest of all English-speaking countries. With an area of almost 10 000 000 square kilometers it is larger than the USA. The surface of the country is much varied. There are high mountains, forests, valleys, waterfalls, mighty rivers, beautiful lakes in the country. The inland water system of the country includes lakes and rivers, for example, the St. Lawrence River with Great Lakes. They are important water ways and are widely used both for transport and as sources of energy. The population of the country is over 25 million. Over half of it is of British origin, a third – of French. The present population includes many other people from Europe. It is a developed industrial agricultural country. The economic potential of the country lies in its northern part. The country has great forest resources. The growth of the national economy is greatly dependent on the transportation system of the country (air transport, ice-breakers and ships).
Unit Задание 1. Распределите следующие слова по группам: а) глаголы б) существительные в) прилагательные member, active, actual, elect, political, election, legislative, declare, legislation, declaration, policy, officer, govern, department, government, departmental, execute, executive, liber, liberty, oppose, opposition, finance, financial, president, presidential, official. Задание 2. Переведите следующие слова, не пользуясь словарем. parliament, commander, monarch, cabinet, minister, diplomat, officer, political, president, organ, army, fact, Bill, opposition, department, post, Lord, conservative, official, service, tribunal, administration, committee, Congress, senator, finance, interest, monarchy, financial. Задание 3. Переведите следующие словосочетания с предлогом “of”.
a) the rank of a colonel, the head of State, the organ of legislative power, president of the USA, the House of Commons, the majority of seats, the government of Great Britain, the members of Parliament, the city of Washington, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State, the District of Columbia, the Department of Defense, the highest organ of executive power, the branch of executive power. b) член парламента, палата лордов, глава государства, политическая система США, правительство Великобритании, город Нью-Йорк, орган исполнительной власти, большинство членов партии, государственный секретарь, северная часть Великобритании. Задание 4. а) Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова “can, may, must”: The monarch is the only non-party member of the House of Lords, who actually is a member of the Cabinet and the only one who can read all government papers. Both Houses have little political power because they cannot control the activities of the Cabinet except on some financial matters. If the Supreme Court declares a law unconstitutional it cannot be put into action. The Senate can legislate, it can approve or disapprove presidential appointments to Federal officers. By law a person elected to the House of Commons may be any British resident who has reached the age of 21. There may be special and joint committees composed of Congress men from both Houses. Lobbyists serve only those who can pay. Every Bill must pass the House of Commons, the House of Lords and be signed by the Queen before it becomes a law.
b) Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции глагола “to be”. Britain is a monarchy. The government is headed by a prime minister. The Queen is the official head of state. The meeting is to begin at 5 p.m. The members of the Cabinet are elected by the prime minister. The component parts of Parliament are constructed on different principles. He is to be appointed a minister. Parliament is the highest organ of legislative power. There are three great political parties in Great Britain. c) Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции глагола “to have”. The monarch has a rank of a colonel. He has been to London on business. He has to study English, he is going to Great Britain. The House of Commons has 630 members. England has changed during the last few years. London has two major airports: Heathrow and Gatwick. Since the 18th century the highest organ of executive power in Britain has been the Cabinet of Ministers. Each part of Great Britain has its own traditions. He has reached the age of 21. A lot of people have some knowledge about Pentagon, but few people have had an opportunity to visit Pentagon. Задание 5. Прочитайте данные слова и словосочетания, пользуясь транскрипцией: queen [kwi:n] – королева century [‘sentri] – столетие majority [m‘d riti] – большинство legislate [‘led isleit] – осуществлять законодательство legislative [‘led is’leitiv] – законодательный legislation [‘led is’lein] – законодательство execute [‘eksiku:t] – исполнять executive [ik’zekjutiv] – исполнительный execution [,eksi’kjun] – выполнение government [‘g vnmnt] – правительство monarchy [m nki] – монархия parliamentary [,pa:l‘mentri] – парламентский the House of Commons [hausv’k mhz] – палата общин Commander-in-Chief [k‘ma:ndinti:f] – главнокомандующий Задание 6. Запомните следующие слова и словосочетания:
\ (to) declare war – объявлять войну (to) conclude peace – заключать мир (to) appoint ministers – назначать министров (to) have the right – иметь право (to) legislate – осуществлять законодательство legislative power – законодательная власть (to) execute – исполнять executive power – исполнительная власть (to) elect members of Parliament – избирать членов парламента (to) take an active part in... – принимать активное участие в... (to) carry out policy – осуществлять политику (to) occupy an important post – занимать важный пост Text A Political system of the united kingdom of great britain and northern ireland The U.K. is a parliamentary monarchy. The king (or queen) is in law the head of the country. The monarch is the official Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and has the rank of a colonel. The monarch has the right to sign Bills, to declare war. to conclude peace, to appoint the Prime Minister, other ministers, diplomats, officers of the Army, Navy and Air Force. But in fact the monarch is only the nominal head of state and the political power is in the hands of the Cabinet of Ministers. The highest organ of legislative power is the Parliament which consists of the king (queen), the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords has over 1000 members who are elected and have the right to sit in it for life. Actually only 200 of them take an active part in its work. The House of Lords has the right to legislate, that is to introduce and to consider any Bill except Bills of finance. The House of Commons consists of 635 members elected for a five year term. Its only function is legislation. By law a person elected to the House of Commons may be any British resident who has reached the age of 21. There are three great political parties in Great Britain – Conservative, Labour and Liberal. That party which has the majority of seats in the House of Commons is called the Government and the others are the Opposition. The government of Britain consists of 80 to 100 persons. It includes departmental ministers, who head certain departments, non-departmental ministers and ministers without portfolio. The majority of ministers are members of the House of Commons. In fact since the 18th century the highest organ of executive power in Britain has been the Cabinet of Ministers. It concentrates in its hands all important powers and carries out domestic and foreign policy. The members of the Cabinet are appointed by the Prime Minister, and it consists of only those ministers who occupy the most important posts in the government (about 20). Задание 7. Разделите текст на несколько смысловых частей. Озаглавьте каждую часть. Задание 8. Выпишите ключевые слова и словосочетания каждой из выделенных смысловых частей текста. Задание 9. Прочитайте предложения и вставьте в пропуски подходящие по смыслу слова, данные под чертой:... is in the law the ruling head of the U.K. and... of the Armed Forces. The Monarch has the following political rights: to choose..., to sign..., to dissolve... The... comprises the House of Lords and the House of.... The House of Lords has the right.... The constitution of the USA formally separate legislative,..., and... power. A senator...... for six years. The House of Representatives is composed of 435.... All Senators and Congressmen take posts in different.... _ Congressmen, the Monarch, executive, Bills, the Commander-in-Chief, the Prime Minister, the Parliament, Representatives, Commons, to legislate, judicial, is elected, Committees, members. Задание 10. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту: Who is in law the head of the U.K.? What rights has the monarch? Does the monarch or the Cabinet of Ministers rule the country? What is the highest organ of legislative power in the U.K.? What houses does it consist of? Are members of the houses elected? Do all members of the House of Lords take an active part in the work of the Parliament? What rights has the House of Lords? What is the term of service of the House of Commons? Who may be elected a member of the House of Commons? What is the Government? Who does the Government include? What are the functions of the Cabinet? Who appoints ministers of the Cabinet? Задание 11. Прочтите текст и найдите ответы на следующие вопросы. What are the months when Parliament does not sit? Why does the ceremony of opening Parliamentary sessions take place in the House of Lords? Who writes the Speech from the Throne? Some Facts about Parliament The life of Parliament is divided into annual sessions. A session is that period when the Houses of Parliament are sitting. The periods when Parliament is not sitting are known as recesses. A session normally starts in about November and ends July. Each Parliamentary session is officially opened by the Queen in person. The opening ceremony takes place in the House of Lords (by tradition, a king or queen may not enter the House of Commons). She tells the assembled “Lords” and “Commons” why Parliament has been summoned and what it is going to do in the coming session. In fact the Queen does not write this speech herself. It is written for her by her Ministers and it outlines the Government’s plans for the main work of the session. It talks about the Government policy and mentions the main Bills which the Government intends to introduce during the session. When the speech has been read, both Houses discuss and debate it separately. After this each House starts on its work for the Session.
Text B Прочитайте текст и скажите, в чем различие и сходство политических систем Великобритании и США.
The political system of the USA The U.S. Government includes three departments: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative power belongs to the US Congress composed of two Houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 100 senators – two from each state. It must serve the interests of each state and ensure the rights of each state within the union. A senator is elected for six years. The Senate can legislate, it can approve or disapprove presidential appointments to Federal offices as well as treaties with foreign countries, elect the vice-President of the USA, remove from office any Federal officer including the president. The House of Representatives has 435 Congressmen. They are elected in proportion to the population of each state. One representative is elected by 380.000 people. The whole membership of the House is elected every other year. The House of Representatives has a special power to introduce a finance bill, which, however, must pass both Houses and be signed by the President before it becomes a law. Both Houses have some rights in common to legislate, to declare a war, to decide over financial matters, to regulate trade with other countries, to put up posts, tribunals, to make rules for the Army, Navy and police and some other rights. The work of the Congress goes on committees: sixteen in the Senate and twenty in the House of Representatives. All Senators and Congressmen have posts in different committees. There may be special committees and joint committees composed of Congressmen from both Houses. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration. The President of the USA is the official Head of State and the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Vocabulary list legislative – законодательный executive – исполнительный judicial – юридический compose v. – зд. состоять из power – власть belong – принадлежать the Senate – Сенат the House of Representatives – палата представителей ensure v. – обеспечивать approve – одобрять treaty – договор remove – зд. снимать с должности include – включать whole membership – все члены introduce – зд. вносить на рассмотрение sigh v. – подписывать decide (over) – решать Text C London London, the capital city of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the centre of the Commonwealth of Nation, is situated in England on both sides of the Thames River about 40 mi. inland from the North Sea. The port of London is one of the largest in the world, it covers about 4000 acres. The largest manufacturing city of Great Britain, London is the centre of the clothing, food and drink industries, and of printing, motion-picture production and shipbuilding. In and around London are many research establishments, engineering plants, chemical and electronic industries, and plants producing aircraft and motor vehicles. Districts of London differ greatly. The City is one of the oldest parts of London. It is a business and financial centre of the capital. The City, the other 32 municiple divisions from Greater London, the world’s fifth largest city. It has an area of 616 sq. mi. There are a lot of places of interest in the City. St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London are among them. It is actually a collection of structures the oldest of which is the White Tower, built in the 11th century. St. Paul’s Cathedral with its dome rising 365 ft. to the tip of the cross is a masterpiece of baroque architecture. One of the most celebrated areas of London is Piccadilly Circus famous for its theatres, cinemas and hotels. Nearby are Bond and Regent streets, noted for their shops. Soho is the international and bohemian quarter, Chelsea is a resort of artists and writers. The most important official residence in the city are the Buckingham Palace, the residence of the English queen and No.10 Downing Street, the residence of the prime minister. One of the most perfect examples of Gothic architecture is Westminster Abby, the church, where English kings and queens are crowned and buried. Nearly are the Houses of Parliament built between 1840 and 1850. The chief external features of the late Gothic style are the Clock Tower, containing the bell known as Big Ben, the Middle Tower and the Victoria Tower. The museums of London are among the finest in the world. The British Museum has a library of more than 7 000 000 volumes and extensive galleries of art. The National Gallery, located on the north side of Trafalgar Square contains one of the largest collections of the world representing all the main schools of European painting. Vocabulary list the Commonwealth of Nations – содружество наций manufacture – производить, производство print – печатать research – исследовать, исследование establishment – учреждение place of interest – достопримечательность century – век masterpiece –шедевр crown – короновать bury – хоронить contain – содержать Задание 1. Прочитайте 4 абзаца текста “London” и найдите 5 определений Лондона. Задание 2. По приведенным ниже характеристикам определите достопримечательность Лондона: the seat of Parliament;
the residence of the Queen;
the residence of the Prime Minister;
the church, where English kings and queens are buried;
the oldest part of London, a business and financial centre;
the streets noted for their shops;
a resort of artists and writers;
the area of London famous for its theatres and cinemas. Задание 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту: Where is London situated? How can you define London? What is the City? What industries are developed in London? What places of interest are there in the City? What is Piccadilly Circus famous for? Where are English kings and queens crowned? When were the Houses of Parliament built? What are the most important museums of London?
Text D Прочитайте текст и найдите ответы на следующие вопросы: What does the Capitol contain? Where is the White House situated? What do transit facilities of Washington include? Is Washington an industrial city? How is a man’s power measured in Washington?
Washington Washington, capital of the United States of America is situated on the eastern bank of the Potomac river. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia (D.C.), the federal district of the U.S. The centre of Washington is the Capitol Building, which stands on Capitol Hill, Home of both the Senate and the House of Representatives, the structure itself which contains some 430 rooms, is 751 feet long, 350 feet wide with its dome rising to 285 feet. Topping the dome is the 19-foot bronze statue of Freedom. The Capitol is the highest building in Washington, an American city without skyscrapers. Four geographical sections radiate out from the Capitol dividing the District of Columbia (Washington) into North-East, North-West, South-East, South-West. A series of circles and squares occur at various intervals and diagonal avenues radiate from these. From the Capitol to the White House (home and office of the President) runs broad Pennsylvania Avenue, about a mile and a half in length and flanked with trees. This is the avenue used for processions and parades. All the diagonal avenues are named after States of the Union, and the longest and the straightest of them is Massachusettes Avenue, which cuts the city in half. By virtue of its picturesque site, systematic plan, lovely parks, public buildings and memorials, Washington ranks among the most beautiful cities in the world. The city park system covers 6.000 acres. Washington is the seat of the Federal Government and the chief activity of it is the execution of the work of governmental departments and agencies. A large tourist and conventional trade is carried on the District, which is also the site of several scientific development firms that manufacture technical equipment. Transit facilities of Washington include an extensive bus system and a network of highways. The city is served by a number of railway most of domestic airlines operate at National Airport near the centre of the city;
overseas air service is provided at neighbouring Dulles International Airport in Virginia and Friendship International Airport in Baltimore. Power is what Washington is all about. Power is what attracts able men into government and politics, and keeps them working ten hours or more a day. Washington has many yardsticks with which to measure a man’s power. Two of these yardsticks are men and mofey. The more a man ‘owns’ – the more money he spends – the more powerful he is thought to be. Vocabulary list coextensive – одинакового протяжения в пространстве dome – купол divide v. – разделять circle – круг occur v. – встречаться, показаться flank – располагать сбоку by virtue – зд. благодаря picturesque – [,pict‘resk] – живописный rank (among) v. – занимать место (среди) execution – выполнение conventional – обычный site – местонахождение, участок equipment – оборудование facilities – зд. средства network – сеть measure v. – измерять powerful – влиятельный, могущественный skyscraper – небоскреб Unit Задание 1. Распределите следующие слова по группам: 1) глаголы 2) существительные 3) прилагательные. Extraction, develop, realize, satisfy, productive, atomic, importance, reorganize, satisfaction, installation, install, telecommunication, electronic, electronics, transmission, transmit, apply, application, personal, nation, national, modernize, development. Задание 2. Переведите следующие слова без помощи словаря: Export, industry, energetic, bases, energy, metallurgy, material, automobile, pioneer, computer, telecommunication, nation, system, services, firm, control, robotics, technologies, optoelectronics, personal, exporter, importer, products, electronic. Задание 3. Переведите следующие словосочетания: Coal mining, a mining instrument;
imported goods, importing country;
ship building, a building firm, a built plant;
a processing industry, oil processing;
a factory producing food, produced food. Задание 4. Поставьте глаголы, стоящие в скобках, в требуемой по смыслу форме. Electronics (connect) with war branches of industry. Great Britain (wash) by the Atlantic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean (wash) the USA in the west. The bridge (connect) two industrial districts. Rivers (connect) by canals. The country (satisfy) its needs in food. The chief (satisfy) with my work. Our needs in food (satisfy) only partly. British automobiles (export) to numerous countries. UK (export) automobiles. Задание 5. Прочитайте следующие слова о словосочетания, пользуясь транскрипцией. economy [‘k nmi] industry [‘ind stri] metallurgy [mt material [m‘tiril] automobile hydropower machine-building sources of energy chemical [‘kemikl] branch [bra:nt] ferrous extraction progressing coal mining Text A Economy of Great Britain Great Britain is one of the greatest capitalist countries. Coal mining is a very old exporting industry of Great Britain. Energetics is developed on the basis of coal mining industry. The other sources of energy are oil, atomic and hydropower and natural gas.Processing industry is also highly developed. Nonferrous metallurgy works almost entirely on imported raw materials. Machine building is a leading branch of the heavy industry. The most important industries are automobile and aircraft building. About two-thirds of all automobiles are exported. Ship-building is also well developed. Electronics is mainly connected with war branches of industry. Machine-tools are exported. Chemical industry develops on the bases of oil extraction and processing. Textile industry has lost its former importance and it reorganized. Great Britain is a pioneer in both computing and telecommunication. It is now among the world’s leading nations in the production and use of micro and minicomputers as well as in the computing services and system. Computerized controls are widely used in coal mines, factories, chemical and engineering plants. Greater use of robotics and of other new technologies such as optics and optoelectronics is encouraged by various Department of Trade and Industry. The use of personal computers became common. Modern data transmission systems are developed. British firms are also advanced in the aerospace industry, especially in the application of electronics. Vocabulary list mining – добыча полезных ископаемых develop – развивать source – источник hydropower – гидроэнергия processing – переработка ferrous metallurgy – черная металлургия non-ferrous metallurgy – цветная металлургия raw material – спрос branch – отрасль heavy industry – тяжелая промышленность machine tool – станок oil extraction – нефтедобыча device – устройство engineering plant – машиностроительный завод encourage – поощрять advanced – передовой application – применениe Задание 6. Заполните пропуски, используя подходящие по смыслу слова и словосочетания. Coal mining is an important... of Great Britain. Ferrous metallurgy works on... coal. Machine building is... of the British heavy industry. Electronics is connected with.... Textile industry is.... Chemical industry develops on the basis of.... The most important industries are.... Processing industry is.... Great Britain is a pioneer in.... British firms are advanced in.... computing;
a leading branch;
automobile and aircraft building;
oil extraction and processing;
the war branches;
reorganized and modernized;
aerospace industry. Задание 7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту А. What industries are highly developed in Great Britain? What are the main sources of energy? What is the leading branch of the Great Britain heavy industry? What does the Great Britain import? export? How is computing developed in the country? Задание 8. Прочитайте текст найдите ответы на следующие вопросы: What branches of industry are mentioned in the text? What does the Rolls-Royce produce? What organizations take care of environment? What British cars are most popular now? Britain is a major exporter of farmer products and a good part of world research takes place there. Britain is now a world leader in computer services in software and it is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. There is strong commitment to the conservation of the environment held up by organizations such as the Country-side Commission, English Heritage and the Nation Trust with one and a half mln members. Birthplace of the industrial revolution, home of 18 Nobel’s Prize winners, Britain today is taking stock of her industrial future. A group of Japanese researchers recently discovered that half of the world’s most successful postwar products were based on British ideas. Now the spotlight is on the new growth areas;
new markets and revolutionary production. Polls-Royce is one of the top 3 leading aerial manufacturers. 10.000 of the world aircraft are powered by them. Britain’s air industry is one of the largest in the western world. British Aerospace exports to 40 countries. British Airways is the world’s largest international airline carrying 12 mln passengers a year. Jaguar Cars is now one of Britain’s most successful companies with profits of over a hundred million pounds a year, and it exports to 30 countries. It’s the British performance car – the Rolls-Royce, the Jaguar, the Lotus, and Aston Martin that win international prizes. Vocabulary list software – программное обеспечение the conservation of environment – сохранение окружающей среды spotlight – центр внимания aerial engine manufacture – производитель воздушных двигателей to win prizes – выигрывать призы to take stock – зд. приглядываться Text C Задание 1. Прочитайте текст, выделите в нем несколько смысловых частей и озаглавьте каждую часть.
Great Britain (General Outline) Britain is a nation of some 60 mln people. It has a total area of nearly a hundred thousand square miles, about the same size as New Zealand. It has an ethnic mix of European, Asian, Chinese, Afro-Caribbean and other races. Today’s Britain is a multinational, multicultural, multireligious society. It is a country with medieval churches and a heritage of historic architecture on city scope hardly preserved for posterity. It’s also the place with the most adventurous inner city development in Europe in the heart of the City of London. It’s a country with a varied climate where are plenty of white Christmases and sunny springs and summers. It is a country where new technology, with based industries are mushroomed alongside craft that are flourished for generations. The way of life of the people of Britain has been changing rapidly in the second half of the 20th century. A low birthrate, longer expectation of life, widening education opportunities, technical progress and the increasingly high prosperity have all contributed. London, the capital is the largest city with over 6 mln residents. In recent years it’s become much more of an out-door city, with places like the Convent Garden piazza becoming a meeting in somewhat of a pavement cafe society. Britain has three hundred theaters and London’s West End, known as theater land has fifty. The Albert Hall is probably best known for prominent concerts every summer. The Tate, one of London’s major art galleries where attendances have doubled since the New Clare Gallery was opened, houses the nation’s collection of the British artist Turner paintings. The City of London a square mile within a greater London area, has been a financial harbor of Great Britain for 2000 years since the Roman settlement. Every morning 3000000 commuters arrive there to earn their daily bread. With ancient landmarks like St. Paul’s Cathedral, the smallest and richest city in the world, the City of London is now one of the world’s leading financial centers rivalling even New York and Tokyo. It is an area of time honoured traditions and ways of working. Here you can find the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and Lloyd’s, the most famous insurance company in the world. Founded in 1688 Lloyd’s today insures such money undertakings as satellites and jumbo jets. London is an international banking center with about 70 countries having branches there. To live on an island is to know and respect the sea. No one in Britain lives more than 75 miles from the coast. Traditionally a sea faring nation, they rely on it for much of their living.
With 2000 miles of coast line, oil and gas reserves offshore Britain is the world’s sixth biggest crude oil producer. With several major ports, ship-building and fishing industry it is a country where generations have followed their fathers footsteps and answered the call of the sea in their blood. Education these days, whether you are going to become a fisherman or a surgeon, must be geared to the needs of the real world and avery nation knows that its children are its future. Attitudes towards work begin in the classroom. Many state schools have links with a commercial company and most children have access to a computer. Not only industrialists come in and counsel children but many students are able to go out into industry for work experience and new city technology colleges are aimed at further encouragement of computer-based education. Cambridge, a century as old university, a home of country scientific innovations like the world’s first programmable computer is a fruitful marriage of business and science. Traditionally known as Ivory Towers because of their lofty attitudes towards learning, Britain’s universities have moved with the technological revolution. There are now more than 20 parks linked to universities where ideas can be developed to the marketable products. Vocabulary list an ethnic mix of races – этническая смесь рас medieval churches – средневековые церкви a heritage of historic architecture – наследие исторической архитектуры crafts – ремесла flourish – процветать ancient landmarks – старинные места insurance – страхование institution – учреждение (институт) money undertakings – денежные сделки harbor – гавань the way of life – образ жизни respect v. – уважать rely – полагаться (на) access – доступ to be aimed (at) – быть целенаправленным (на) scientific – научный attitude (toward) – отношение Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту. What is the size of the population of the UK? What nationalities live in Great Britain? Which part of London is called a theater land? Why? What landmarks of London are described in the text? What establishments make London one of the largest financial centers of the world? What branches does Britain maritime economy include? How is education connected with industry? Задание 3. Напишите краткое изложение содержания текста. Раздел Тексты для самостоятельного чтения Прочтите и переведите текст.
Oxford Town and gown There has been a town where Oxford now stands for many centuries – even before 912, the first written record of its existence. The University began to establish itself in the middle of the 12th century, and by 1300 there were already 1,500 students. At this time, Oxford was a wealthy town, but by the middle of the 14th century, it was poorer, because of a decline in trade and because of the terrible plague, which killed many people in England. Relations between the students and the townspeople were very unfriendly, and there was often fighting in the streets. On 10th February 1355, the festival of St Scholastica, a battle began which lasted two days. Sixtytwo students were killed. The townspeople were punished for this in two ways: they had to walk through the town to attend a special service on every St Scholastica’s day until 1825. Worse than this, the University was given control of the town for nearly 600 years. Nowadays, there are about 12,000 students in Oxford, and the University and the town live happily side by side! City of dreaming spires The best-known description of Oxford is by Matthew Arnold, the 19th century poet, who wrote about ‘that sweet city with her dreaming spires’. However, Oxford is not only famous for its architecture. In the 20th century, it has developed quickly as an industrial and commercial centre. The Rover Group factory at Cowely, for example, is an important part of Britain’s motor industry. It is also an important centre in the world of medicine;
it is the home of Oxfam, the charity which raises millions of pounds to help people all over the world;
and its airport contains Europe’s leading air-training school. Oxford words The Oxford English dictionary is well-known to students of English everywhere. The new edition, published in 1989, defines more than half a million words, and there are twenty volumes. Some of the words are special Oxford words. For example. ‘bulldog’ in Oxford is the name given to University policemen who wear bowler hats and sometimes patrol the streets at night. They are very fast runners. ‘Punt’ is a word often used in both Oxford and Cambridge. It refers to a flat-bottomed boat with sloping ends which is moved by pushing a long pole in the water. Ответьте на вопросы: When was Oxford University established? What were relations between the students and the townspeople? What does it mean ‘the city of dreaming spires’? What special Oxford words have you learned from the text?
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A tale of Canterbury Canterbury is a town in Kent with a population of about 120,000. It is the religious capital of England because its cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury who is head of the Church of England. From the 12th to the 15th centuries, it was a place of piligrimage. Thousands of people came to pray at the shrine of a former Archbishop of Canterbury who was murdered in the Cathedral in 1170. His name was Thomas Becket. Murder in the Cathedral During the 12th century, King Henry II decided that the Church had to much power. In 1662, he made Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury, thinking that his friend would help him to weaken the position of the Church. Although the King himself liked Thomas, he was not popular with other powerful men in England. They were jealous of his friendship with the King, and they also disliked him because he was not a nobleman. As Thomas was not even a priest, many people were very angry that he had been made Archbishop. The King was amazed when Thomas began to defend the position of the Church against the King. After a while, Thomas had to leave England because relations between him and the King had become very bad, and Thomas was afraid that he might be killed. He lived in exile for five years until the King asked him to come back. The people, the bishops and the Pope were causing the King problems because they all waned Thomas to continue as Archbishop of Canterbury. When Thomas returned, in 1170, he brought authorization from the Pope to excommunicate the priests and noblemen who had acted against him. The King was furious when he learned this — soon afterwards, four of Henry’s knights entered Canterbury Cathedral and murdered the Archbishop on the steps of the altar. Three years later in 1173, Becket was made a saint, and his tomb became the destination of thousands of piligrims for three centuries. It was said that miracles happened there, and many sick people went there in the hope of finding a cure. In the 16th century King Henry VIII separated from the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England, he said that Becket was no longer a saint, and his tomb was destroyed. The story of Thomas Becket is the subject of two modern plays, Murder in the Cathedral by T.S.Eliot and Becket by Jean Anouilh. Chauser’s piligrims The best-known Canterbury piligrims are probably those who appear in the book by Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales. It was written in the 14th century, when the piligrimage had become a rather pleasant holiday for the groups of people who travelled together for protection and companionship. Ответьте на вопросы: What is Canterbury famous for? Who was Thomas Becket? When and why did he have to leave England? When was Thomas Becket murdered? Why?
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Magic circles The county of Wiltshire is most famous for the great stone monuments of Stonehenge and Averbury, and the huge earth pyramid of Silbury. No written records exist of the origins of these features and they have always been surrounded by mystery. Stonehenge is the best known and probably the most remarkable of prehistoric remains in the UK. It has stood on Salisbury Plain for about 4,000 years. There have been many different theories about its original and although modern methods of investigation have extended our knowledge, no one is certain why it was built. One theory is that was a place from where stars and planets could be observed. It was discovered that the positions of some of the stones related to the movements of the sun and moon, so that the stones could be used as a calendar to predict such things as eclipses. At one time, people thought that Stonehenge was a Druid temple. The Druids were a Celtic religious group who were suppressed in Great Britain soon after the Roman Conquest. Some people believe that they were a group of priests, while others regard them as medicine-men who practised human sacrifice and cannibalism. Because Stonehenge had existed 1,000 years before the arrival of the Druids, this theory has been rejected, but it is possible that the Druids used it as a temple. The theory is kept alive today by members of a group called the ‘Most Ancient Order of Druids’ who perform mystic rites at dawn on the summer solstice. Every year, they meet at Stonehenge to greet the first midsummer sunlight as it falls on the stones and they lay out symbolic elements of fire, water, bread, salt and a rose. Another interesting theory is that the great stone circle was used to store terrestrial energy, which was then generated across the country, possibly through ‘ley lines’. ‘Ley lines’ is the name given to invisible lines which link up ancient sites throughout Britain. They were thought to be tracks by which prehistoric man travelled about the country, but now many people believe that they are mysterious channels for a special kind of power. Ley lines are international. In Ireland, they known as lungmei and are believed to extend all over the Earth, and in Australia, the Aborigines make ceremonial journeys for hundreds of miles along these secret tracks. Alongside the theories of the scholars are local legends. Here is one. Stonehenge was built by the devil in a single night. He flew backwards and forwards between Ireland and Sailsbury Plain carrying the stones one by one and setting them in place. As he worked, he laughed to himself. ‘That will make people think. They’ll never know how the stones came here!’ But a friar was hiding in a ditch nearby. He surprised the devil, who threw a stone which hit the friar on the heel. Is the story true? Well, the stone which the devil threw, known as the ‘heel stone’, can still be seen by the side of the road. However, geologists have shown that the stones came from South Wales and north Wiltshire, not Ireland! Ответьте на вопросы: What is Stonehenge? What theories and stories do you know about Stonehenge? Which of these stories do you prefer and why?
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Diana, Princess of Wales It was easy to get caught in the cult of Diana, which became as strong for the Princess of Wales as it was for her mythological Roman namesake. When she was married in 1981 The Economist itself gushed, “God save the next queen”. Now the cult is immeasurably greater than it was 16 years ago. Books await to be written, perhaps are already being written, about how a 19-year-old kindergarten helper became the most famous woman in the world, and was seen at her death to be an icon of her age. But whatever puzzles the writer may encounter, there will be no shortage of material to ponder over. One of the oddities of many of the articles written about Diana during the past week is that they dwell on her search for privacy. True, she had no privacy, but she appeared content to be constantly on public view. After Lenin died the Soviet government employed researches to make a records of every day of his life. The reporters and photographers who made Diana their career did the same, and more efficiently. She mostly smiled on their dog-like attention and occasionally threw them a bone which would turn up in a tabloid next day as a “world exclusive”. Her friends were privy to her more intimate thoughts and these too would become public property. The princess went on television to give answers to the most searching questions about her life in a BBC programme that was sold around the world. As a product, Diana never palled. There was always some event to keep her public keen, a new lover, a new cause, some painful disclosure about her physical and mental health. Privacy is a luxury still available to the rich, albeit with difficulty. Princess Diana preferred to display her infinite variety. Enter the bride Despite her humble job looking after tinies, Diana Frances Spencer was born a lady. Her father was an earl, her mother the daughter of a baron. For centuries the Spencer family had been close to the monarchy, holding whimsically named posts: a grandmother was a woman of the bedchamber. When Prince Charles was looking for a bride fit to be a queen, Diana was high in his list. Like the Roman goddess, she was apparently a virgin, a rare qualification among the prince’s girlfriends. She was pretty and, as shown in many of the pictures subsequently taken of her, she could look beautiful in a sympathetic setting. She had received little formal education, but that did not seem to matter. Her youth suggested that she could be eased without difficulty into the royal mould. The Queen Mother, who had never given the monarchy a moment’s anxiety since she married into the royal family in 1923 (and is now a hale 97), was the model, and for a while she chaperoned Diana. The princess did her duty, proving two splendid sons, one of whom is in line to be king if he and the monarchy survive. She went along with the formalities expected of a prince’s wife, becoming, for example, colonel-in-chief of the Royal Hampshire Regiment and a patron of numerous charities long cherished by the royals. But her fancy was for more offbeat causes;
AIDS sufferers, lepers and, most recently, land-mine victims. She gave them valuable, if brief, publicity, and her support made all the more impact by being unusual coming from a royal. She was up to date. The National Marriage Guidance Council changed its name to the snazzier Relate, with the princess as its patron. The prince also had his favoured causes, concern for the environment, the preservation of architectural standards, but a picture of Diana cuddling a handicapped child was what caught the eye. According to Diana’s accounts, she found the prince’s family boring and offhand. Although the prince was a mere 13 years old than she, Diana saw him as an old fogey, approaching middle age. Worse, Charles kept up his friendship for Camilla Parker Bowels, an old flame. “There was three of us in the marriage”, she said famously on the BBC. The British public was slowly eased into the knowledge that what had been seen as a fairytale marriage had been deeply miserable. A separation was announced in 1992. On that television programme in 1995 Diana hinted that the prince might never become king. As for herself, she would like to be “a queen of people’s hearts”. The put-upon real queen had had enough. She told the couple to get divorced as soon as possible. Diana fought her corner and, after long and bitter negotiations partly over money, the couple were divorced in 1996. Diana remained a princess but was no longer the future queen, no longer even “her royal highness”. One of her first actions was to drop the patronage of some 100 charities. Still, in the public eye, Diana could do nothing mean. Indeed, her seeming lapses, her adulteries, her conspicuous extravagance, seemed only to support the view that she was a real person. The manner of her death, in a speeding car crashed by a drunken driver, with her latest lover by her side, could merely have been shocking. For millions it confirmed that Diana the goddess was a victim of “fate”, whatever that may mean. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русских слов и выражений: непрестижная работа, должности с замысловатыми названиями, быть первым в списке, благоприятная обстановка, компаньонка, нетрадиционные начинания, старая привязанность, пренебрежительный (чопорный), с легкостью войти в королевскую семью, намек, в глазах общественности, прекратить поддерживать (покровительство-вать), крайне неприятные переговоры. 2. Найдите русские эквиваленты слов и выражений из текста: to gush, mythologycal Roman namesake, to be an icon of her age, shortage of material, oddity, dwell on, privacy, invasion of smb’s privacy, dog-like attention, privy to, public property, subsequently, to go on with the formalities, formal education, to be up to date, to fight her corner, to keep public keen. Прочтите и переведите текст:
The tragedy of Diana It has been an extraordinary week. Extraordinary, in part of course, because what happened in the early hours of Sunday morning in a road tunnel in Paris was a far from ordinary event, both given the people involved and the circumstances surrounding the crash. But above all the week has been extraordinary - and extraordinary moving - because millions of people, especially in Britain but also all around the world, have been affected by this event and transfixed by it in a way few of them would have expected. Here in our tower above St.James’s, just up the street from Buckingham Palace and the Chapel Royal, in front of which crowds of people have queued and milled in order to sign the books of condolence, to leave flowers or simply to look and to think, we too have been surprised. Surprised at the popular response, and surprise at our own. That is why the biggest of the many questions raised by the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, have to do with the magnitude and nature of the reaction. Why has it been so prolonged, so emotional and so widely shared? Why is it that people are so moved by her death, regardless, it seems, of whether in life they liked or loathed the princess or of whether indeed they had thought themselves indifferent to all her doings? Some of the answers are so straightforward as to require little description and even less analysis: her youth, her glamour, the sheer ghastliness of the manner of her death, the way in which the well-published death of someone as famous as she can focus people’s attention on death itself. Others, however, enter more complicated territory. That territory begins with the nature of celebrity in a world of instant, or at least easy, communication. From the moment of her engagement to Prince Charles, Diana was famous. But she became more so as the years went on, despite the fact that her image soon saturated the world’s screens and newsstands. You might expect that people would quickly tire of such an image, but they did not. In part, this was because fame breeds more fame;
in part because she sought to put her celebrity to work in support of various good causes and indeed of her own self-esteem, and therefore nurtured it. But it was also because such a virtuous circle of celebrity can easily become a vicious one, since both the transmitters and the receivers of the images are as addicted to the bad as they are to the good (see pages 2123). Diana’s ubiquity thus meant that she was an almost inescapable part of the lives of millions of people, whatever they thought of her of the monarchy. But also the celebrity of her life was enhanced by the fact that it seemed to many to be a tragedy of the classical sort: ill-starred despite all its privileges, sliding into a martial collapse beset by depression and other mental illness, a struggle against the restraints and pomposities of the royal family, a vain battle for private romance amid the public gaze. The frailty she exposed contrasted poignantly with the perfection of her glamour;
the popularity of her causes served to balance her well-known shortcomings. And then the affront or even quilt that many people felt about knowing more than they ever thought they wanted to about somebody else’s troubles was wiped away by the tragedy’s final act. The monarchy and the media One immediate, and surprisingly wide-spread conclusion, at least in the press, has been that the princess’s death and the popular reaction to it both bode ill for the British monarchy. Few think it doomed but many think it weakened, especially because of the contrast between the princess and the royal family from which she was estranged. Again, however, this territory is complicated. For this week’s emotions actually illustrate one of the monarchy’s greatest strengths. This is that it focuses attention on human beings rather than on the more
world of political institution or documents. Loyalty, unity, patriotic feeling: these things do not require royalty to engender them, as scores of countries show, but it is nevertheless true that monarchy can be particularly powerful at doing so. A moment such as the death of the Princess of Wales can move, preoccupy and unite a nation in a way that an election or a parliamentary dispute cannot. On the other side of this coin is also one of monarchy’s greatest drawbacks, the fact that these human beings are protected and selected by a privilege and a hereditary principle that can engender disloyalty. Nevertheless, that drawback does not alter the fact of monarchy’s human strength, Nor does the princess’s estrangement from Prince Charles and his family alter the fact that he and his heir, Prince William, will continue in future to have that strength on their side. For all that, the royal family will always have an awkward relationship with the media. A monarchy needs popularity, and thus some popular exposure, if it is to preserve this human strength, especially in a democracy that, like Britain’s, suffers none of the instability or military threat that can offer monarchy a political role. Yet at the same time, the greater the security, the greater the danger that those humans will be found wanting, and that, unlike Diana’s, their frailty has most often been guilty of looking remote, or stuffy, or rigid rather than frail;
and, important though they may now seem, these are sins that are likely in the end to be forgiven or disregarded. 1. Ответьте на вопросы: What is Diana’s tragedy in your opinion? Why was that week a far from ordinary? What questions did people try to answer that week? Why was it so important to have the answers? What are relations between the monarchy and the media? What new information have you learned about the monarchy from the text? 2. Изложите содержание текста в 10–15 предложениях.
Раздел Тесты Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова или словосочетания. 1 The Poorest Part of London The East End grew with the spread of industries _ of the City, and the growth of the port of London. It covers a wide area. A part _ Bethnal Green which was _ a country village, is quite different from the areas _ the river;
where there are many wharves and warehouses. It is also one of those areas of London, where people _ have come to find work. For centuries _ have made London their home. Some have _ their country for religious or political reasons. Others have wanted to find _ life. Some brought new skills and _ new industries. These days, many Jews and Bengalis live in the East End, and _ you can see a mosque, a church and a synagogue. The East End is _ famous as the center of clothing industry. The East End markets _ throughout the world. Street-salesman promise that the goods are _ quality and _ than those you can buy is the West End. _ especially;
within a small area;
of the highest;
had to leave;
to the east;
all over the world;
2 London Traffic Traffic in London differs from that of the Continent. In England they keep _ but not to the right. In England people say: “If you go left, you go _. If you go right, you go _.” They say that once _ people kept to any side _ they liked. But then they decided _ a rule to keep to the left. As Napoleon _ the British very much, he decided _ that in France the people _ keep to the different side. And later on in all the countries which he _ he made the traffic keep to the right. In London one can see many buses, _ in the street. The English omnibuses are often _ double-deckers, because they are very high and _ on the upper and _ desks. The London buses _ came into the streets in 1829. At first they were _ omnibuses, with three horses. They say they were imported from Paris. The double-deckers of today are _ and comfortable, but they seem very _ moving slowly through the endless line of taxis and cars of all sizes. _ horse-drawn;
to make it;
upon a time;
cars and taxes;
to the left;
of the road.
3 Sawston Hall A few miles from Cambridge stands one of the most romantic houses in England, Sawston Hall. Built between 1557 and 1587, it remains _ since the day it was completed. It is the home of the 15th century, and they still live today. The history of the house is _ with the history of England and its last Catholic queen, Mary I. Mary’s young brother, King Edward VI, died when he was only sixteen and Mary was _ of succession to the throne. She had been living _ in Suffolk while England was governed by a group of Protestant nobles _ regents for the boy king. These nobles naturally wanted _ Mary’s accession because she was a Catholic and when she _ for London to claim her rights they sent a force of soldiers _ her. Mary was warned in time and _ for the night in Sawston Hall, whose owner, Sir John Huddleston, _ to the old faith. Before _ word came that the Protestant forces were already approaching the house. Huddleston and the queen took horses and fled _ Gog Magog hills, which look down on Cambridge. Looking back from the hills they saw Huddleston’s house _ in flames. “Let it burn _ I will build you a better one”, said the queen. Eventually Mary _ queen and then her promise was fulfilled. Sir John Huddleston was permitted to rebuild his hall with stones _ Cambridge Castle. _ bound up;
into the neighbouring;
next in line;
to present Прочитайте тексты и допишите слова 1 Piccadilly Circus.
It is difficult to say what is the real centre of London, but many people wo_ choose Piccadilly Circus. This i_ because it is not only central but also where we fi_ most of London best-kn_ theatres and cinemas, the m_ famous restaurants. The buildings ar_ the Circus a_ decorated with bri_ signs advertising go_ and enter_. It is es_ in the evening that Piccadilly Circus is cro_ with people going t the th_ or the ci_, or perhaps to a re_. Many oth_ have come for an ev_ walk;
they w_ probably have a cu of coffee or a glass of be_ before they g_ home. There a_ people of m_ nationalities in the crowd. Many for_ visitors are am_ them too. One he_ around various lang_. It has b_ said that if you listen car_, you may e_ hear English.
2 English Habits.
In a nation of many million of people, there are many different kinds: good and bad, honest and dish_, happy and unhappy. The British p_, who live in other countries are not fully ty_ of their nation. As usual, they li_ a completely different life from the life in Britain. However, we can ta_ about some general things. The best-known qu_ of the English, for example, is reserve. A reserved pe_ is one who does not talk very m_ to strangers, does not sh_ much emotion. He never tells you an_ about himself. If English people are m_ a journey by train, they will try to fi_ an empty compartment. If they ha_ to share the compartment with a stranger, they may tr_ without starting a conversation. If a con_ does start, personal que_ like ‘How old are you?’ or even ‘What is your name?’ are not easi_ asked. Questions like ‘Where did you buy your watch?’ or ‘What is yo_ salary’ are impossible. But the people of the N_ and West of Britain, especially the Welsh, are less re_ than those of the South and East.
3 The Houses of Parliament.
The Houses of Parliament constitute perhaps the most popular and widely spread image of London, known and rec_ thoughout the whole world. In this famous place are also m_ meeting halls and va_ parliamentary offices. The Palace of Westminster, to_ with Victoria Tower and the Clock Tower-whict houses the most fa_ clock in the world, Big Ben – form an unmistakable arch_ complex. But the Tower of Houses of Parliament are not on_ associated architecturally, but also in the dem_ spirit that rules the political li_ developed in the Houses of Commons, for, if Parliament is sitting the flag flies on t_ of Victoria Tower during the whole day. If the de_ go on during the night a light burns ab_ Big Ben in the Clock Tower. This light at night and the flag during the day. Time si_ for the people of London that the members of P_ each from his ow_ political point of vi_, are watching over nations interests.
4 Five Different Washingtons.
There are at least five different Washingtons and ea_ has its supporters who earnestly be_ that theirs is the only tr_ Washington. The first is Washington-the-Capital, an of_ city of great monuments and me_, of vast bureaucracies ho_ in buildings of neoclassical or mo_ Congressional Grotesque design. Over 43 pe_ of the land of the District is occupied by the Federal Government. This is the Washington of Fe_ reservation. The second is Old Washington, the sle_ Southern town sleeping porches, devoted Negro se_ and old families who w_ actually born here. Old Washington is dy_ off now. The third is Washington-the Town-of-Terror, ‘The Crime C_ of the World’, a horror of rac_ mixing producing violence too terrible to sp_ of. The fourth Washington is University-Washington, the north-west sec_ of pleasant homes or tree-lined st_, where almost everyone is white. The fifth Washington is Negro Washington, largely lowincome and low-educated, though the city has a re_ large number of professional and middle-to-upper-income Negro fa_. But the majority of the Negro po_ lives in badly overcrowded houses.
Did you know that Windsor is one of the most popular towns in England for foreigners? Why? Be_ the Queen often stays here at her ca_ and because Windsor itself is o_ of the oldest towns in England. The pe_ of Windsor always know wh_ the Queen is at the castle because a sp_ flag is put up to tell everybody. The river at Windsor is not as wi_ nor as busy as it is in London. There are no big car_ ships sailing away to other co_ and there are no big br_ with thousands of cars and buses cr_ them every day. Instead, there a _ rowing boats on the r_, canoes, and sai_ yachts. Windsor, in fact, is a v_ good place to go if you are in_ in boats. The river Thames is the lo_ river in England: there are at le_ ten important kinds of fish you can ca_ if you are lucky. A mile up the river f_ Windsor is the little town of Eton. The most important bu_ here is Eton College – one of England’s best kn_ public schools. It was fo_ by King Henry IV in 1440. Because Eton is s_ popular it is very difficult for pa_ to get a place for their sons.
6 The Administration The presidency of the United States is the highest governmental office. President of the USA is the h_ of the State and Government, he is also the Commander-in-Chief of the US Armed Forces. “Administration” is a popular te_ to identify the executive br_ of the federal government, resp_ for administering and executing the laws. President is ass_ by Vice-President and the Cabinet. The President and VicePresident are el_ for a term of four years and c_ be re-elected for another term, but not longer than th_ that since the Twenty-Second Amendment to the Constitution (1951) li_ the President’s term in office. President must b_ a natural born citizen of the USA, at le_ 35 years old, and for at least 14 years a re_ of the USA. The term of of_ of the President begins at n_ on January 20. Presidential el_ are held in two stages. The first st_ is in November when Americans vo_ for electors, and the se_ is on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, when electors elect Pr_ and Vice-President.
7 Inauguration Day.
Inauguration always takes place at noon on January 20. It is an of_ act of installing the President of the United States in office. It is also the occ_ for extensive ceremonies. Inauguration is con_ with some traditions. Thus, incumbent President is expected to gi_ a dinner on the eve in ho_ of the President-Elected and in the morning of the sa_ day to conduct him through the White House. By 12 o’clock on January 20, the part_ of the ceremony and guests take their places on rostrum esp_ erected in front of the Capitol. The central po_ of the ceremony is the taking of an oath be the President and the del_ of this inauguration speech. The wording of the President’s oath is laid down in the Cons_. The cer_ ends in a military parade. The scope of the ceremony dep greatly on the tastes and the wishes of the new President. It is kn_ that John Kennedy invited large groups of intel_ and prominent actors and singers. At the time of Nixon’s inauguration balls, con_, receptions for sev_ days.
8 Bristol The countries of Devon, Cornwell, and Somerset are often ca_ the West Country. Urban dev_ of this region is very lim_ and Bristol is the great exe_ among the towns of the area, other settle_ in this part of the co_ being small. Bristol is si_ at the junction of the Avon and the Frome. It is a m_ port and industrial center. It is an anc_ city and it has always been a strictly com_ place and has rem_ such to this day. Little is known of its ea_ history but its mediaeval tra was extended to Gascony, Spain and Portugal. In 1400 it was cons_ to be second greatest port of England. Now it is eight in the U_ Kingdom. It is a regional ca_ and five times a_ large as the next town in the area. Bristol has a l_ variety of industries, of which aircraft dev_ and construction at Filton is the most important. Other signi_ industries are paper-making, prin_ and flour-milling. Bristol is a Univ_ town. Its university was founded in 1876 first as university college. Now there are flourishing col_ of science and technology, art and com_.
Список использованной литературы.
1. Vander Zander. Sociology. N.Y. 1989. 2. D.Light. Sociology. N.Y. 1990 3. This is America. Washington DC. 1988. 4. World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago. 1993. 5. An Outline of American Government. Washington DC. 1985. 6. City Walk on London. London. 1982. 7. Spotlight of Britain. Oxford. 1997. 8. The Economist. September 6th 1997.
1. Грамматическое приложение Упражнения I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:
A 1. He didn’t know anything about the matter. He had to consult a lawyer. 2. I am going to ask you for a few details. I hope you don’t mind. 3. He has met the man. He can easily recognize him. 4. ‘Shall we go and pay him a call?’ he suggested carelessly. 5. Lucy began to study English last year. She is studying it now. 6. He was working at the restaurant when he found another job. 7. I have known him for a long time. He has lived in our town. 8. They have been trying to get tickets for the theatre since the play has been on. 9. With his splendid eyes his fine figure he was still a very handsome man. 10. He had seen two Graig’s movies and was polite about them. B 1. These notes will be copied before tomorrow. I’ll be able to make use of them. 2. We are taken to the theatre every week. It’s a great delight to us. 3. He had been sent to school in Munich because his mother wanted him to go into business. 4. They were never seen otherwise than together. 5. Dick was led into a chair. 6. While Soames was shaving, a message was brought to him. 7. It was only, however, when he was shown the roof through the trees that he could felt satisfied that he hadn’t been directed entirely wrong.
II. Переведите с русского языка на английский.
А 1. Я купил эти часы месяц назад. Они отставали на три минуты и мне пришлось их починить. 2. Во время прогулки мы попали под дождь. Чтобы высушить одежду, мы развели костер. 3. Каникулы всегда кажутся мне слишком короткими. 4. Его волосы были влажными от дождя. 5. Вы знаете об автомобилях гораздо больше, чем я. 6. Когда он пришел к ней домой, она переводила статью из английского журнала. Она сказала, что переводит уже два часа, но пока перевела только половину. 7. Он секунду поколебался, а затем решил ничего не отвечать и вышел. 8. Он всегда приходит, когда я уже собираюсь уходить. 9. Не говорите так громко. Я уже полчаса читаю одну страницу и ничего не могу понять. 10. Он несколько лет прожил в этом городе, а затем внезапно уехал. В 1. Ей объяснили новое правило. 2. Мне часто повторяли, что я должен больше заниматься спортом. 3. Спросите, и вам объяснят, как пройти на вокзал. 4. Он увидел, что все уже сделано. 5. Она утверждает, что эта книга была прочитана ею еще в детстве. 6. Нам часто повторяют эти слова. 7. Ее мнение никто не спрашивал. 8. Примерно около часа назад меня за ним послали и я обнаружил его без сознания. 9. Мне только что передали записку. 10. Когда она вернулась домой, ее ожидали плохие новости. 11. Куда вам велели прийти? ИНФИНИТИВ (THE INFINITIVE) Инфинитив представляет собой неличную форму глагола, которая только называет действие в процессе его совершения, не указывая ни лица, ни числа, ни наклонения. В русском языке инфинитив соответствует неопределенной форме глагола. Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to, но в некоторых случаях она опускается. Инфинитив имеет свойства существительного и глагола. Как существительное, инфинитив в предложении может выступать в роли: 1. Подлежащего To walk in the garden was pleasant.
Гулять в саду было приятно.
2. Именной части сказуемого В функции именной части составного сказуемого инфинитив употребляется с глаголом-связкой to be, который переводится на русский язык словами “заключается в том, чтобы;
состоять в том, чтобы” Your duty was to inform me of it immediately. Вашей обязанностью было сообщить об этом немедленно. 3. Дополнения He teaches her to sing. Он учит ее петь. He asked me to wait a little. Он попросил меня немного подождать. 4. Определения В функции определения инфинитив всегда стоит после определяемого существительного. He has no desire to be appointed to this post. Он не хочет (у него нет желания), чтобы его назначили на эту должность. Инфинитив в функции определения часто встречается после слов: the first, the second, the last. Last year he was always the first to come to the Institute. В прошлом году он всегда приходил в институт первым. В функции определения инфинитив может указывать на назначение предмета. She gave him some water to drink. Она дала ему попить воды. Дайте мне что-нибудь поесть. Give me something to eat. 5. Обстоятельства Для выражения цели: I stayed there to see what would happen. Я остался там, чтобы посмотреть, что произойдет. Для выражения следствия: I don’t know him well enough to ask him for help. Я знаю его недостаточно хорошо, чтобы просить о помощи. Глагольные свойства инфинитива выражаются в следующем: 1. Инфинитив может иметь прямое дополнение I asked him to close the door. Я попросил его закрыть дверь. 2. Инфинитив может определяться наречием He told them to speak slowly. Он сказал им говорить медленно. 3. Инфинитив имеет формы залога и времени Active Passive Simple to ask to be asked Continuous to be asking — Perfect to have asked to have been asked Perfect Continuous to have been asking — В некоторых случаях инфинитив употребляется без частицы to. 1. После модальных глаголов: They must keep silence. Они должны молчать. He needn’t come here.
Ему нет необходимости сюда приходить.
2. После глаголов to make (заставлять), to let (позволять, разрешать) They make me write this letter. Они заставили меня написать это письмо. I let him go there. Я разрешил ему туда пойти. 3. В обороте “объектный падеж с инфинитивом” после глаголов восприятия (to see, to feel, to hear) I heard her sing. Я слышал, как она поет. He saw her left the room. Он видел, как она вышла из комнаты. 4. После сочетаний had better (лучше бы), would rather, would sooner (предпочел бы) You had better go there at once. Вам бы лучше пойти туда сразу же. Оборот “объектный падеж с инфинитивом” представляет собой сочетание местоимения в объектном падеже или существительного в общем падеже с инфинитивом. На русский язык оборот переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением. Случаи употребления оборота “объектный падеж с инфинитивом” 1. После глаголов, выра- He wanted me to come on Он хотел, чтобы я прижающих желание, а также Sunday шел в воскресенье. после глаголов to like и to hate 2. После глаголов, выра- I saw him enter the room. Я видел, как он вошел в жающих восприятие покомнату. средством органов чувств (инфинитив без частицы to) 3. После глаголов, выра- I consider him to be right. Я считаю, что он прав. жающих предположение, а We expected them to arrive Мы ожидали, что они также после глаголов to soon. скоро приедут. know, to declare и др. 4. После глаголов, выра- The captain ordered the Капитан приказал пожающих приказание, goods to be loaded at once. грузить товары немедпросьбу, разрешение (инленно. финитив в форме страдательного залога) 5. После глаголов, I rely on you to do it in time. Я рассчитываю на то, требующих предложного что вы сделаете это водополнения — to wait (for), время. to rely (on), to count (on) и др. Помимо оборота “объектный падеж с инфинитивом”, в английском языке существует оборот “именительный падеж с инфинитивом”.
“Именительный падеж с инфинитивом” 1. При сказуемом в страдательном залоге, выраженном глаголами to say, to state, to report, to announce, to believe, to expect, to know и др. 2. При сказуемом в действительном залоге, выраженном глаголами to seem, to appear, to prove, to happen, to chance и др. 3. При сказуемом, выраженном прилагательными likely, unlikely, certain, sure с глаголом-связкой He is said to live in Kiev. Говорят, что он живет в Киеве.
He seems to know English Он, кажется хорошо знаwell. ет английский язык.
They are likely to come soon.
Они, вероятно, приедут.
скоро ПРИЧАСТИЕ Причастие - неличная форма глагола, которая соответствует в русском языке причастию и деепричастию. В английском языке существуют два вида причастий: Present Participle (причастие настоящего времени) и Past Participle (причастие прошедшего времени). Present Participle образуется путем прибавления к основе глагола -ing окончания. Past Participle у правильных глаголов образуется путем прибавления к основе глагола окончания -ed, у неправильных существует своя табличная форма. Английское причастие, как и русское, обладает свойствами прилагательного (выполняя в предложении функцию определения к существительному) и наречия (выполняет в предложении функцию обстоятельства). Случаи употребления Present Participle 1. Present Participle выражает одновременное действие а) в функции определения, соответствуя в русском языке причастиям на -щий и вший: Look at the woman sitting at the window. Посмотрите на женщину, сидящую у окна. I looked at the woman sitting at the window. Я посмотрел на женщину, сидевшую у окна. б) в функции обстоятельства (времени, причины, образа действия и т.д.), соответствуя в русском языке деепричастию на -я и -а. Having plenty of time we decided to walk to the station. Имея много времени, мы решили пойти на вокзал пешком. 2. Present Participle выражает предшествующее действие только в функции обстоятельства времени, соответствуя в русском языке деепричастию на -в и -я. Arriving at the station we called a porter. Приехав на вокзал, мы позвали носильщика.
Случаи употребления Past Participle 1. В функции определения, соответствуя в русском языке причастиям на -мый, щийся, и на -нный, -тый, -вшийся: This firm is interested in the purchase of automobiles produced by our plant. Эта фирма интересуется покупкой автомобилей, выпускаемых наших заводом. 2. В функции обстоятельства: а) причины, соответствуя в русском языке причастиям на -мый, -щийся, и на -нный, -тый, -вшийся или придаточным предложением причины: Squeezed by the ice the steamer could not continue her way. Сжатый льдом, пароход не мог продолжать свой путь. (Так как пароход был сжат льдом, он не мог продолжать свой путь.) б) времени, соответствуя в русском языке придаточным предложениям времени: Asked whether he would return soon, he answered that he didn’t know. Когда его спросили, скоро ли он вернется, он ответил, что не знает. 3. В функции именной части сказуемого, соответствуя в русском языке краткому страдательному причастию: Мой карандаш сломан. My pencil is broken. Глагольные свойства выражаются в следующем: а) причастие может иметь прямое дополнение He sat at the table reading a book. Он сидел за столом, читая книгу. б) причастие может определяться наречием He ran up to me breathing heavily. Он подбежал ко мне, тяжело дыша. в) причастие имеет форму времени и залога Active asking — having asked Passive being asked asked having been asked Present Past Perfect Кроме того, причастия английского языка участвуют в образовании времен групп Continuous, Perfect действительного залога и временных форм страдательного залога (см Таблицу 1, 2). Способы перевода английских причастий на русский язык обсуждающий discussing обсуждавший обсуждая обсудив having discussed being discussed будучи обсужден, так как (когда) был обсужден обсуждаемый discussed обсужденный 38 обсудив обсуждаемый Способы перевода русских причастий и деепричастий на английский язык Причастие Действительный залог бросающий throwing одновременность throwing бросавший предшествование who threw бросивший who threw Страдательный залог в настоящий момент (пери- being thrown бросаемый од) обычно, вообще thrown брошенный thrown Причастие на -ся со страдательным значением в настоящий момент (пери- being built строящийся од) обычно, вообще built built строившийся в определенный which was being built момент времени Деепричастие throwing бросая by throwing (образ действия: каким путем?) Бросив having thrown, after thrown throwing on throwing, by throwing Отрицание “не” при причастии и деепричастии переводится на английский язык частицей not. Не понимая этого правила, она не смогла перевести предложение. Not understanding the rule she couldn’t translate this sentence. После глаголов, выражающих восприятие посредством органов чувств (to see, to watch, to observe, to notice, to hear, to feel и др.) употребляется оборот “объектный падеж с причастием настоящего времени”, который представляет собой сочетание местоимения в объектном падеже или существительного в общем падеже и причастия настоящего времени. Они слышали, как она ходила по комнате. They heard her walking round the room.
Так как причастие выражает длительный характер действия, то оборот переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением с глаголом несовершенного вида. We watched him slowly approaching the gate. Мы наблюдали, как он медленно подходил к воротам. He saw them running. Он видел, как они бежали. She observed children playing in the garden Она наблюдала, как дети играют в саду. ГЕРУНДИЙ Герундий представляет собой неличную форму глагола, выражающую название действия и обладающую как свойствами глагола, так и свойствами существительного. В русском языке нет формы, соответствующей герундию. Обладая свойствами существительного, герундий может служить в предложении: 1. Подлежащим Running is her favourite occupation. Бег — ее любимое занятие. Skating is pleasant. Кататься на коньках приятно. 2. Именной частью составного сказуемого Her greatest pleasure was travelling. Самым большим удовольствием для нее было путешествовать. 3. Дополнением I don’t mind walking. Я не возражаю пойти пешком. He suggested discussing this question. Он предложил обсудить этот вопрос. Герундий может сочетаться с предлогами и определяться притяжательными местоимениями и существительными в притяжательном падеже. I think of going to the south in the autumn. Я думаю поехать на юг осенью. We insist on their taking part in this expedition. Мы настаиваем на том, чтобы они приняли участие в экспедиции. Глагольные свойства герундия. 1. Герундий может иметь прямое дополнение I remember reading this book. Я помню, что читал эту книгу. 2. Герундий может определяться наречием. He likes reading aloud. Он любит читать вслух. 3. Герундий имеет формы времени и залога Active reading having read Passive being read having been read Simple Perfect Формы герундия совпадают с формами причастий, и их образование происходит по тем же правилам, по которым образуются формы причастия.
Герундий переводится на русский язык различными способами: существительным, инфинитивом, деепричастием, глаголом в личной форме. 1. I like reading. Я люблю чтение. (существительное) 2. I have no hope of seeing him. У меня нет надежды увидеть его. (инфинитив) 3. He went away without leaving his address. Он уехал, не оставив своего адреса. (деепричастие) 4. I remember seeing him somewhere. Я помню, что видел его где-то (глагол в личной форме) Герундий следует отличать от отглагольного существительного, которое оканчивается на -ing. В отличие от герундия, отглагольное существительное обладает только свойствами существительного и употребляется с артиклем, может иметь формы множественного числа и может определяться прилагательным. He took part in the sitting of the committee. Он принял участие в заседании комитета. I was awakened by their loud talking. Я был разбужен их громким разговором.
Упражнения I. Раскройте скобки, используя формы инфинитива, герундия и причастий настоящего и прошедшего времени. Переведите на русский язык. 1. Wilson looked at her without (smile) and now she smiled at him. 2. (Bring) the coffee to-night was an example that he was considerate and thoughtful. 3. Andrew couldn’t help (think) that it must afford Watkins deep amusement (observe) these strangers. 4. “When I came to New Orleans,” Christine said, “I tried (concentrate) on not (think). 5. As he turned into his driveway, Brody saw the familiar bluegrey light (shine) from the living-room windows. 6. He glanced up and down the beach (see) if he had left anything. 7. Then slowly and with great sympathy, (support) her by the armpits, Andrew helped the convulsed Miss Le Roy upright into the chair. 8. He sat back in the armchair, (smoke) a cigarette. 9. He looked at her for a moment although (amaze) by her friendliness. 10. He insisted on (see) Pat home, though she said he must (be tired) and the weather was bad. Without (argue) he put on a overcoat, and out they went. II. Переведите на английский язык. 1. Она вышла из комнаты, закрыв за собой дверь. 2. Она открыла дверь и сказала: “Я давно вас жду”. 3. Глядя на него, ты никогда не подумал бы, что он собирается это сделать. 4. Удивительно, что прожив так долго среди нас, он ни с кем не подружился. 5. Я достаточно хорошо его знаю, чтобы прийти к нему, не предупредив. 6. Он поздравил меня открыткой, так как был в это время очень болен и не мог поздравить меня лично. 7. Она показала рукой на стул, приглашая меня сесть. 8. Написав ему такое письмо, вы его очень обидели. 9. Я советую вам подумать, прежде чем вы примете окончательное решение. 10. Я сделал сегодня все для того, чтобы завтра быть свободным. 11. Вы когда-нибудь видели, чтобы он это делал? 12. Они видели, как он спешил в аэропорт. 13. Мы обнаружили письмо лежащим на столе. 14. Он наблюдал, как она удалялась от них. 15. Долли наконец ушла, убедившись, что у него есть все, что нужно. III. Переведите на русский язык, используя а) инфинитив 1. Он, казалось, все понимал. Он, казалось, решил не принимать участия в разговоре. Он, казалось, слушал меня с большим вниманием. 2. Оказалось, что я знаю, как его зовут. Я случайно стоял совсем близко, когда он говорил об этом. 3. Она подумала о своем обещании Лестеру. Он, возможно, уже давно ждет ее. Может быть, он хочет знать, чем все это кончилось. b) герундий 1. Я не против того, чтобы называть тебя по имени. Я не против того, чтобы меня называли по имени. Мне было неприятно, что меня называли по имени. 2. После того, как актер прошел пробу (to test), его пригласили участвовать в новом фильме. После того, как доктор проверил мое зрение, он сказал, что оно несколько ухудшилось. Только после того, как были проведены многочисленные испытания новой машины, удалось выявить ее недостатки. с) причастие настоящего времени После того, как она пригласила своих друзей в гости, она вдруг узнала, что ей нужно срочно уехать. После того, как ее пригласили и она приняла приглашение, она уже не могла не пойти туда. Приглашая их в гости, она еще не знала, что ей придется скоро уехать. d) причастие прошедшего времени 1. Оставшись один, он стал думать над тем, что произошло. 2. Когда его спрсили об этом, он не знал, что ответить. 3. Нужно выбросить увядшие цветы. 4. Выросший в других условиях, он никак не мог привыкнуть к тому, что его теперь окружало. 1. Verb + -ing form За некоторыми глаголами* следует -ing-форма, если следующее слово – глагол: * enjoy finish imagine (don’t) mind can’t stand (=hate) feel like (=want/desire infml) give up avoid admit deny I stayed in last night but I feel like going out this evening. At the police station, he admitted stealing the woman’s money but denied hitting her. Cigarettes are very expensive, so he decided to give up smoking. Some people can’t stand working at the weekend but I don’t mind. 2. Verb + infinitive За некоторыми глаголами** следует инфинитив, если следующее слово – глагол ** offer want seem decide hope forget mean (intend, plan) expect (=think or believe something will happen) manage (=be able to do something, even when it is difficult) refuse (=say ‘no’ when someone asks you for something) promise We were very busy but we managed to finish before 6 p.m. He hit one of the boys but he didn’t mean to do it. I asked her to carry the suitcases but she refused to help. I don’ expect to see them before last week. 3. Verb+infinitive without ‘to’ Существуют два широко употребительных глагола, за которыми следует сочетание “объектный падеж + инфинитив без частицы ‘to’”: make someone do something let someone do something My parents make me do my homework every night. My parents let me go out after I’ve done my homework. 4. Verb+-ing form or infinitive За некоторыми глаголами может следовать как -ing-форма, так и инфинитив. Значения предложений, как правило, очень близки (с такими глаголами, как love, like, hate, and prefer). Но значения предложений с некоторыми другими глаголами существенно меняются в зависимости от того, следует за глаголом -ing-форма или инфинитив: I remembered to buy a present for my brother. (=I didn’t forget to buy a present). I remember buying her a present. (=it’s in my memory;
it’s happened and I remember).
Упражнения I. Выберите правильные ответы: 1. We decided to work / working during our holiday. 2. She promised to help / helping us. 3. I don’t feel like to go / going for a walk at the moment. 4. She forgot to take / taking the cake out of the oven. 5. Do you really hate to drive / driving when it’s wet? 6. I can’t imagine to eat / eating pasta every day of the week. 7. Most of the time she prefers to work / working on her own. 8. I don’t remember to go / going to the zoo when we stayed in Madrid. 9. He hopes to finish / finishing his thesis by the end of the month. 10. I don’t mind to help / helping you if I’m not busy. II. Допишите каждое предложение (с) наиболее подходящим образом. 1. Most people want: a) to be rich b) to get married c) 2. A lot of people can’t stand: a) getting wet b) getting up early c) 3. Most people enjoy: a) going to the parties b) lying on a beach c) _ 4. On hot days most people don’t feel like: a) working b) eating big meal c) 5. Most people expect a) to be happy b) to find a job they will like c) _ 6. A lot of people don’t mind: a) washing-up b) ironing c) _ 7. Some parents make their children: a) wear certain clothes b) do housework c) 8. Other parents let their children: a) wear what they like b) stay out all night c) Обдумайте каждое из этих утверждений. Справедливы ли они вообще и для вас в частности? Обсудите свои ответы друг с другом. III. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы, приведенные ниже. When Julie was 17, her father said she could go on holiday with two school friends. He also said that he would lend her the money for a hotel, but she must pay for the air fare and her entertainment. Julie was delighted and said she would bring him back a wonderful present and pay him back in six months. But first they had to decide where to go. They looked at lots of brochures and finally agreed on a two-week holiday in the south of France. They had a great time, but unfortunately Julie spent all her money and forgot to buy a present for her father. 1. What did Julie’s father let her do when she was 17? He let................. 2. And what did he offer to do? He offered......... 3. But what did he refuse to do? He refused......... 4. In return what did Julie promise? She promised..... 5. What did the three girls decide? They decided..... УСЛОВНЫЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ (CONDITIONAL SENTENCES) В английском языке существует три типа условных предложений. 1. Первый тип выражает вполне реальные, осуществимые предположения и соответствует в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в изъяснительном наклонении. Такие условные предложения чаще всего выражают предположения, относящиеся к будущему. If I see him tomorrow, I shall ask him about it. Если я увижу его завтра, я спрошу его об этом. 2. Второй тип условных предложений выражает невероятные или маловероятные предположения. Они относятся к настоящему и будущему и соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (т.е. глагол в форме прошедшего времени с частицей “бы”). If they had time now, they would help us. Если бы у них сейчас было время, они бы помогли нам. 3. Третий тип условных предложений выражает предположения, относящиеся к прошедшему и являющиеся поэтому невыполнимыми. Они соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (т.е. глагол в форме прошедшего времени с частицей “бы”). If I had seen him yesterday, I would have advised him not to do that. Если бы я видел его вчера, я бы посоветовал ему не делать этого. В русском языке существует только одна форма сослагательного наклонения, то при переводе необходимо определить, к какому времени относится высказываемое предположение. Как правило, это можно заключить из контекста, либо в самом предложении есть указания на время. Иногда условие может относиться к прошедшему времени, а следствие — к настоящему или будущему или наоборот. Тогда мы имеем “смешанный” тип условного предложения. If he knew Grammar well, he would have translated this article without difficulty. Если бы он хорошо знал грамматику, он перевел бы вчера эту статью без затруднения. If they had listened to us yesterday, they would be at home now. Если бы они вчера нас послушали, сейчас они были бы дома. Упражнения I. 1. 2. 3. 4. Переведите с английского на русский.
If I found them, I would take them both in. If they knew he would accept the offer, they have acted differently. If I went up there in the car, you would not catch up with me. If he’s not happy there, is there any chance that he would be happier in some other place? 5. If we had gone away and left him, he would have followed us. 6. If you supply me with a list of names, I will inform everybody. 7. Even if you inform him in advance, he won’t alter his plan. 8. If I were you, I would come to her and apologize. 9. If he were informed in time, they would come, of course. 10. If it weren’t for his pride, he would have made a clear breast of it long ago. II. Переведите с русского на английский. 1. Если команда выиграет этот матч, она займет первое место. 2. Если бы Джордж был здесь! Мы бы так хорошо повеселились. 3. Если бы ему не нужно было так спешить, с ним бы тогда ничего не случилось. 4. Я бы обязательно вам все рассказал, если бы что-нибудь знал сам. 5. Если бы с ним вчера что-нибудь произошло, сегодня в газетах было бы сообщение об этом. 6. Если я поеду в Санкт-Петербург, я обязательно пойду в Эрмитаж. 7. Если бы он нам звонил, он бы оставил сообщение на автоответчике. 8. Мы бы пошли навестить его, если бы сейчас не было так поздно. 9. Почему же ты не взял такси? Если бы ты поехал на такси, ты бы не опоздал на поезд. Теперь тебе придется ждать следующего. 10. Если он позвонит, передайте ему, что я буду приблизительно в восемь часов вечера.
Тесты Выберите правильную форму глагола Тест 1 1. I... bridge tonight with Tom and Ann. a. am playing b. play c. played 2. It... since early morning. a. rained b. had rained c. has been raining 3. What... you... at 4.30 tomorrow afternoon? a. would... do b. were... do c. will... be doing 4. Dinosaurs... millions of years ago. a. died out b. had died out c. were died out 5. The main ideas were set forth in the statement which... in the press the day before. a. appeared b. had appeared c. has appeared 6. His parents were sick, they didn’t have much money, so they... pretty desperate. a. were getting b. are getting c. have gotten 7. In three month he... here a year. a. has been b. will have been c. was Тест 2 1. American schools for many years... federal aid for special purposes. a. have received b. received c. receive 2. Probably, I... my friends at this time. a. shall have visited b. shall be visited c. have visited 3. My brother... music lessons for three years now. a. have taken b. have been taking c. took 4. When Jim came out of the army he... what to do. a. is wondering b. has wondering c. was wondering 5. In three month he... here a year. a. has been b. will have been c. was 6.... you... the ancient stone carvings at the museum last week? a. Have seen b. Did see c. Had seen Тест 3 1. My shoes... by somebody. a. is cleaned b. had been cleaned c. cleaned 2. He... two weeks to pay. a. be given b. was given c. gave 3. Mr. S. was sure that prisoners of conscience... in at least 70 countries. a. are being held b. were being held c. being held 4. The bridge... by tomorrow morning. a. will have been reconstructed b. is being reconstructed c. will be reconstructed 5. In more than 200 years the USA Constitution... 26 times. a. is amended b. is being amended c. has been amended 6. The story of the first Thanksgiving feast... among the Americans. a. is well-known b. has been well-known c. would have been well-known 7. America’s first college, Harvard,... in Massachusetts in 1636. a. is being founded b. had been founded c. was founded Тест 4 1. Troops... by the government. a. have been called out b. called out c. call out 2. Things... from supermarkets by people every day. a. are stolen b. were stolen c. stole 3. The passage... three times. a. will be read b. will read c. reads 4. He... out in the street. a. thrown b. was thrown c. be thrown 5. My house.... a. watched b. is watching c. is being watching 6. This purse... in a classroom. a. had been left b. was left c. left Заполните пропуски. Тест 1 1. They are looking forward... to Spain. a. to going b. for going c. to having gone 2. William the Conqueror is famous for... England. a. having been conquered b. conquering c. having conquered 3. Did he deserve... ? a. praising b. having been praised c. being praised 4. She remember... the door. a. having locked b. locked c. locking 5. The inspector suspected him... the cop. a. of having killed b. for killing c. in being killed 6. I am against... any complaints. a. having made b. to make c. making 7. You can’t make an omelette without... eggs. a. breaking b. to break c. broke Тест 2 1. I don’t enjoy... to the dentist. a. going b. to go c. go 2. Would you mind... your name and address on the back of the cheque. a. to write b. writing c. wrote 3. He was accused of... classified information to the press. a. having leaked b. leaking c. leaked 4. I hate... money a. borrowing b. borrowed c. borrow 5. He was furious of... mistaken for an escaped convict. a. be b. being c. was 6. You are expected... the safety regulations of the college. a. knowing b. to know c. knew 7. He was fined for... the speed limit. a. to exceed b. exceeding c. exceeded Тест 3 1. Before... evidence you must swear.... a. giving a. speaking b. to give b. to speak c. give c. speak 2. I couldn’t help... what you said. a. to overhear b. overhearing c. having overhear 3. At dinner she annoyed me by... between the courses. a. smoke b. smoking c. to smoke 4. My mother told me... to anyone about it. a. not to speak b. not speaking c. don’t speak 5. I wish... see the manager. a. to see b. see c. seeing 6. He warned he... the wire. a. not to touch b. not touching c. don’t touch 7. It’s no use.... a. to wait b. waiting c. wait Тест 4 1. By the end of this century there will be 600 million people around the world... in absolute poverty. a. living b. having lived c. lived 2. The problem... is of great significance. a. discussing b. being discussed c. discussed 3. They heard her... the story. a. told b. having told c. telling 4. While... the documentary film I came across a lot of interesting facts. a. watching b. watch c. having watched 5.... her address he wasn’t able to come and see her. a. not knowing b. without knowing c. not to know 6. The holiday... Thanksgiving Day is now observed on the fourth Thursday of November. a. calling b. called c. to be called 7. I’m not used to... on the left. a. driving b. drive c. drove Тест 5 1. It is easy... animals on the road in daylight but sometimes at night it’s very difficult... hitting them. a. seeing a. avoiding b. to see b. to avoid c. see c. avoid 2. We watched the man... the tree. a. to saw b. sawing c. saw 3. It’s no good... to him;
he never answers letters. a. to write b. writing c. write 4. This book tells you how... at games without.... a. to win a. cheat b. winning b. to cheat c. win c. cheating 5. I didn’t like... any advice on a difficult matter. a. giving b. to give c. give 6. It’s pleasant... by the fire at rainy night. a. sitting b. to sit c. sit Тесты на общее понимание текста All the housewives who went to the new supermarket had one great ambition: to be the lucky customer who did not have to pay for her shopping. For this was the notice inside the entrance promised. It said: ‘Remember, once a week, one of our customers gets free goods. This may be your lucky day!’ For several weeks Mrs Edwards hoped, like many of her friends, to be the lucky customer. Unlike her friends, she never gave up hope. The cupboards in her kitchen were full of things which she did not need. In vain her husband tried to dissuade her. She dreamed of the day when the manager of the supermarket would approach her and say: ‘Madam, this is your lucky day. Everything in your basket is free.’ One Friday morning, after she had finished her shopping and had taken it to her car, she found that she had forgotten to buy any tea. She dashed back to the supermarket, got the tea and went towards the cash-desk. As she did so, she saw the manager of the supermarket approach her. ‘Madam,’ he said, holding out her hand, ‘I want to congratulate you! You are our lucky customer and everything you have in your basket is free!’ A Choose the best answer. 1. The housewives who went to the supermarket were A poor B hopeful C fortunate D envious 2. The housewives learnt about the offer of free goods A on the radio B from the manager C at the supermarket D from their friends 3. Mrs Edwards A had a lot of friends B had stopped seeing her friends C was a lucky woman D hoped to get free shopping 4. Mrs Edwards’s husband tried to A make her unhappy B cheer her up C stop her buying things D make her buy more things 5. Mrs Edwards very much wanted to A get a free basket of goods B meet the manager C get a free basket D fill all her cupboards 6. Mrs Edwards went shopping A on foot B by bus C in a friend’s car D by car 7. Mrs Edwards went back to the supermarket A angrily B eagerly C quickly D willingly 8. Mrs Edwards had to A meet the manager B buy one more thing C find her shopping D pay for her shopping 9. The manager held out his hand because he wanted to A shake hands with Mrs Edwards B carry her basket C give her some money D take away her shopping 10. Mrs Edwards must have been A embarrassed B delighted C disappointed D proud B Expand the following statements. 1. Housewives had a special reason for going to the supermarket. 2. There was a notice in the supermarket. 3. Mrs Edwards still bought lots of things. 4. Mrs Edwards took no notice of her husband. 5. One morning Mrs Edwards went to the supermarket twice. 6. The manager came up to Mrs Edwards. C Explain the point of the following. 1. ‘This may be your lucky day!’ 2. ‘I want to congratulate you!’ We have rather a small house, with only one spare bedroom. You can imagine our alarm, then, when Aunt Clara wrote to say that she was coming to stay with her family for the weekend. Her family, I should explain, consists of four boys, all under the age of twelve. I sent off a telegram at once, protesting that our house was too small. Aunt Clara called us up the next morning. ‘I forgot to explain,’ she said in her sweetest voice, ‘the boys will be bringing a couple of tents.’ Even so, my wife was far from reassured. It was true we had a large garden, but there was still the problem of feeding four growing boys. ‘And what if it rains?’ she demanded. But Saturday morning turned out to be bright and clear when I went to the station to meet Aunt Clara. I managed to squeeze three of the boys, together with the luggage, into the back of the car. The youngest sat in front, with Aunt Clara and me. ‘I didn’t see the tents among your luggage,’ I remarked over my shoulder, to David, the eldest boy. ‘The tents!’ exclaimed Aunt Clara. ‘Heavens! We left them in the luggage van.’ A Choose the best answer. 1. The main problem was A food B time C space D noise 2. Aunt Clara had A been invited alone B not been invited C to be invited D been invited for a different weekend 3. The man replied A hopefully B reluctantly C rudely D forcefully 4. After that Aunt Clara A wrote another letter B phoned C sent a telegram D came round 5. The boys were going to sleep A outside B with friends C downstairs D on the floor 6. The man’s wife A was looking forward to the visit B started cooking C moved into the garden D was still worried 7. On Saturday morning the weather was A rainy B changing C good D hot 8. Aunt Clara arrived by A car B plane C train D boat 9. The youngest boy sat A by the driver B behind his mother C with his brothers D on the luggage 10. The boys had forgotten something A interesting B useful C essential D personal B Expand the following statements. 1. A man got a letter. 2. The man was worried. 3. The man replied. 4. The man’s aunt spoke to him. 5. The man’s aunt gave an explanation. 6. The man’s wife was still worried. 7. The man went to the station. 8. The man found room for everyone in his car. 9. The man spoke to one of the boys. 10. They had forgotten something. C Who said the following and why? 1. ‘I forgot to explain.’ 2. ‘And what if it rains?’ 3. ‘We left them in the luggage van.’ Lane waited on the bench nearest the bridge, as he had been instructed. The wind blew straight across the river, sharp and a razor, and he had to pull his overcoat closer about him.
He went over his instructions in his mind. The agent would appear at four o’clock. He would chat to Lane for a while, after which he would get up, leaving his newspaper behind. The plans would be fastened inside. A distant clock began to strike the hour. As if from nowhere, a man appeared and sat down beside Lane, placing his newspaper on the seat between them. He was thin and middle-aged, and seemed in need of a good meal. He bore no resemblance to Lane’s idea of a successful spy. His conversation, confined to trivial observations about the weather, was painfully uninteresting. A few minutes later he got up and continued on his way. Lane picked up the paper which lay on the bench, as if he wanted to look the news, He was excited to see the plans, pinned to the centre page. At that moment, however, there was a strong gust of wind which lifted the newspaper into the air, like a kite, and blew it into the river. A Choose the best answer. 1. Lane was A standing B leaning C sitting D lying 2. It was A cold B wet C fine D invigorating 3. Lane A memorised his orders B recited his orders C tried to remember his orders D repeated his orders to himself 4. The agent was going to give Lane some important A papers B information C news D advice 5. The agent was A late B early C punctual D in a hurry 6. The agent A asked for food B looked hungry C started to eat D talked about food 7. Lane found the agent very A impressive B peculiar C ordinary D unpleasant 8. The agent left the newspaper A by arrangement B at Lane’s request C by mistake D out of kindness 9. Lane A read the newspaper B read the plans C made a kite of the newspaper D turned over the pages of the newspaper 10. Lane A got rid of the plans quickly B lost the plans C threw the plans away D managed to save the plans C Say which of the following sentences are essential to the story. 1. Lane felt cold. 2. Lent had been sent to meet an agent. 3. The agent was thin and middle-aged. 4. The agent talked about the weather, 5. The agent left the plans inside the newspaper. 6. Lane was excited. 7. The wind blew the newspaper into the river. John had bought a packet of cigarettes just before we caught the train and he offered me one as we settled ourselves in our compartment. We were on our way back from a camping holiday;
we had lived rough for over a fortnight and even a cigarette was a luxury at the moment. I felt in my pocket for a bow of matches, but could not find any. ‘I haven’t got any either,’ said John. Sitting opposite to us was a man whose face was hidden by a newspaper. ‘Excuse me, sir,’ said John, leaning across. ‘Could you give me a light, please?’ The newspaper was lowered to reveal a rather elderly man with a stern face. ‘This is a no smoking compartment,’ the man said. He indicated the notice near the window. We apologised and put away our unlit cigarettes. The man went on, in a rather more kindly fashion, to warn us against the danger of smoking. ‘I speak as a doctor,’ he concluded, and after that he went back to reading his newspaper. When he got out a few stations later, he left his newspaper behind him. We picked it up, eager to find out what had happened while we were on holiday. ‘Just look at this,’ remarked John, pointing to a photograph. ‘It’s the man who was sitting opposite us.’ Underneath the photograph was an account of a lunatic who had recently escaped. It appeared that he liked to pretend to be a doctor. A Choose the best answer. 1. John gave his friend a cigarette A before they got on the train B while they were getting on the train C after they had got on the train D just as the train started 2. The friends had spent their holiday A on a boat B in a tent C on a farm D with an aunt 3. Their holiday had lasted A more than two weeks B just two weeks C less than two weeks D a week or two 4. John A did not want to give his friends his matches B tried to find his matches C had no matches D had lost his matches 5. The man opposite them A was hiding B was sleeping C was reading D did not want to see them 6. The man looked old and A sad B bad-tempered C cruel D severe 7. Smoking was not A permitted B encouraged C pleasant D safe 8. The man said that smoking was A unpleasant B unhealthy C unsociable D unbearable 9. The man got out A immediately B a few minutes later C not long after D at the next station 10. The man A threw his paper away B offered them his newspaper C dropped his newspaper D did not take his newspaper with him 11. The two friends read the newspaper A in a hurry B with great interest C to pass the time D to look at the pictures 12. The man’s photograph was in the newspaper because he was A a doctor B a spaceman C a madman D an actor B Say what happened after each of the following. 1. John offered his friend a cigarette. 2. John asked the other man in the compartment for a light. 3. The man pointed to the notice near the window. 4. The man got out and left his newspaper behind. C Who said the following and why? 1. ‘I haven’t got any either.’ 2. ‘This is a no smoking compartment.’ 3. ‘Just look at this.’ It took George quite a while to find a parking place for his car and in the end he had to leave it in a narrow street, some way from the dentist’s. As he got out, he glanced at his watch: his appointment was at five and he still had twenty minutes to spare. He crossed into the square and sat down on a bench, partly to enjoy the last of the afternoon sun, but also to calm his nerves. He hated these visits to the dentist. As he sat there, watching the children at play and listening to the old women gossiping, he was taken aback to see a red sports car like his own come out of the street where he had parked. The car gathered speed and was soon lost to sight. George felt in his pockets for his keys: they were not there. ‘My car!’ he exclaimed in a loud voice, which made several people stare at him. He got up and ran across the square, then down the narrow street. His car was not to be seen – but then he discovered it concealed behind a larger one. He was relieved too to find his keys, still in the car. By the time he reached the dentist’s, it was already after five. ‘I had rather an odd experience,’ he said to the dentist to explain his lateness. ‘I thought my car had been stolen.’ ‘It’s quite all right, sir,’ said the dentist. ‘As a matter of fact I have only just got here myself.’ A Choose the best answer. 1. George left his car A at the end of the street B quite a long way from the dentist’s C in the dentist’s way D in a car park 2. When George glanced at his watch he saw he was A late B on time C just in time D in good time 3. George was feeling A relaxed B excited C nervous D hot 4. In the square George A took an interest in people around him B talked to some old women C played with the children D had a good rest 5. When George saw the red car he was A annoyed B interested C envious D astonished 6. George A dropped his keys B put his hand in his pocket C touched his pockets D emptied his pockets 7. When George spoke, some people A were afraid B listened to him C looked at him D laughed at him 8. George’s car A was hidden from view B had been borrowed C was damaged D had been moved 9. George told the dentist A the whole story B a lie C the truth D a joke 10. The dentist A was not in a hurry B listened with interest C was very patient D had not been waiting long B Give as much information as you can about the following. 1. George’s car;
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