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Ricky W. Griffin Texas A&M University Michael W. Pustay Texas A&M University INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS A Managerial Perspective Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 . M. ...

-- [ 22 ] --

: : XX . - , . , . (. . , ) , , , . . 1980- . 1990- . . 1994 . , , . , . , , , . 1990- . , . , , . . , , , . , , . , . , , , . , .

20. ...

, , . , , . 2003 ., , XXI . : , , , , . . . 11 : , . . . , . . , , . . . , . . . , , . , , - . , ( ) . . , . - Springboks (. ) , . , , ( , ). - , . , .

IV Carvel: ? Carvel Corpo ration ( Carvel) 1934 . . , -, , , . 1990- . Carvel 300 600 . , 4500 . 1994 . Carvel Asia Limited , . . Carvel Asia Limited . Beijing Carvel Food Company {Beijing Carvel) . , , , . , , , Carvel Asia Limited 1997 . , . . : . , , : , - , , . , , , . , . . , . , . , , , , ( ). , , . , , . . , IV , , . : , . 70% . , - , . , , 8- . , , . . : 1980 . , - , . , . , , , , . , . 1,5 5 12 . , Carvel. 10% , , . 1013 , , . . . , Beijing Carvel . , . , , Carvel , a Carvel, , . , . Beijing Carvel , , , . , . . , IV, . , , , . , , 5%. , , . , . , , -, Beijing Carvel, -, , , -, . , , . , Beijing Carvel, , Carvel 15-20 . : , . $2000 $15 000. , , . Little Love, ( , 600 ) , $7,99. , Little Love , . , . -, : Piece of Cake. . , , , , -. , Beijing Carvel , : , . , , . , , , Beijing Carvel . , , BaskinRobbins Haagen-Dazs. , IV 225 60%. , Beijing Carvel , : 25 , 25 , 40 60 . , . , . , , , . 30% Beijing Carvel. , . , Beijing Carvel, , , Carrefour (), Makro ( ) Park "n" Shop (). , , . 1015 , . , ( ) . , , . Beijing Carvel , , . : 15-30% , Beijing Carvel. , , : , , . , , - , . , , . : , , , IV. , 12- . : ( 8,5 11 ) , , . Beijing Carvel, . , . 5 2000 . 5000 . , . , , , . () , 175 , , . 10 000 , , $16 . , - . , . : , . . , $20 000. , . , , , . : , . Beijing Shoppers Guide , . 250 000 12 . $1250 . ;

, . 12% : , 88 . , IV , 12%. 1/2 ( 3 x 4 ) $500. , , , Beijing Carvel $300. , , . , , . , Bei jing Carvel . , - , . , , , 1017 . , , . 1. Carvel, , , . ? , , ? 2. , ? 3. Carvel ? ? ? . 4. Carvel . ? : Carvel Ice Cream Developing the Beijing Market ( 1999-07-17) .

Target Micronics : 1994 . , Target Micronics China, . , . - Target Micronics China . , , . IV. 1993 . Target Micronics , . Target Micronics 5 $20 . . 1992 . 1994 . Target Micronics 300%. , . , Target Micronics . . , , - , , , Target Micronics. . , : , . . , . . , . . ? Target Micronics Target Micronics . 1968 ., . Target Micronics , . 1994 . , $2,8 , 32% 40 . , 1978 ., Target Micronics , , , , . , , - . 1983 ., . 1988 . , Zhejiang-Micronics. 1991 . 20 000 , .

IV . 1993 . , Target Micronics, . . 1993 . . . , Target Micronics . -. , . ( , ) - , , , , . 1994 . , $10 , : $80 . , $41 $84 . , . .

1019 , , . , , . , . 1993 . 30%, 1994 . 40%. . . , South China Morning Post 30 1994 . 55 , 189 . . , 21 Target Micronics 1994 . - . . 8.30 21.00 22.00, , , . : 40 . , , . 1993 ., 16 . IV. . , , , . , Target Micronics . . Target Micronics, , (), . , , , , . , , . , - , . . , , . , , . , , : . : - , . . Target Micronics , . , , . Target Micronics, 1994 . 10%. , 15%. , , . Target Micronics. . , , , . Target Micronics , . Target Micronics , , . . . IV . , , , : $750 000. , , , , , . 1994 . - . . , - . , . . . , , , , . . , . . -, . . . Target Micronics , . . . -, . , : , . . . . . . , , , . . . , , , , . . , IV. . , , , . , . . ! , , .

1. , Target Micronics. ? 2. . , . ? , , ? 3. . , Target Micronics. ? 4. . ? : Target Micronics in China: Disarray in Finance ( 2000-07-27) .

1 1. NBC Proud As Peacock of Olympics Deal, High-Tech Focus, Houston Chronicle, June 7, 2003, p. 13B;

NBC Plans 24-Hour Coverage of Summer Olympics in 2004, Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2003, p. BIO;

Sydney Already Feeling the Heat, USA Today, February 15, 2000, pp. 1, 2C;

How the Olympics Were Bought, Time, January 25, 1999;

GM to Spend up to $1 Billion on Olympics Through 2008 in Pact with USOC, NBC, Wall Street Journal, July 29, 1997, p. B5;

Greek Leaders See Winning Olympic Bid as an Endorsement of Market Reforms, Wall Street Journal, September 8, 1997;

NBC Wraps Up the Olympics Through 2008, Wall Street Journal, December 13,1995, p. Bl;

Japan's Nagano, Site of 1998 Games, Faces Problems of Olympic Proportions, Wall Street Journal, March 15, 1994, p. A14;

Olympics Strategy Has Its Rewards, USA Today, February 21, 1994, pp. IB, 2B;

Going for the Gold, Merchandisers and Retailers Promote the Olympics Two Years in Advance, Wall Street Journal, December 7, 1993, pp. Bl, B16;

Let the Bidding Begin for the TV Rights to '96 Olympics, and Watch It Heat Up, Wall Street Journal, August 7,1992, p. Bl;

The Olympics: Brought to You by... USA Today, July 21, 1992, pp. IB, 2B;

NBC's Olympic Gamble, Newsweek, January 13, 1992, p. 44. 2. Survey of Current Business (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce), August 2002, p. 156, and December 2002, p. 112. 3. Family Garment Business in Hong Kong Uses Internet to Gain Access to Global Customer Pool, Wall Street Journal, November 24,1999, p. BUB. 4. Ship Those Boxes;

Check the Euro! Wall Street Journal, February 7, 2003, p. CI. 5. John H. Dunning, Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy (Workingham, England: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1993), p. 106ff. 6. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books, 2000), p. 9. 7. Ibid., p. 31. 8. Rights Group Says Nike Isn't Fulfilling Promises to Reform Sweatshops, Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2001, p. B9. 9. Time to Regroup, BusinessWeek, August 6, 2001, p. 26ff;

The Polite Face of Anti-Globalisation, Financial Times, April 6, 2001, p. 8;

William Finnegan, After Seattle, The New Yorker, April 17, 2000, p. 40ff.

10. U.S. Agencies Shift Work Overseas, Wall Streetjoumal, June 24, 2002, p. B5. 11. The Internet Economy: The World's Next Growth Engine, BusinessWeek, October 4, 1999, pp. 72-77. 12. E-purchasing Saves Businesses Billions, USA Today, February 7, 2000, pp. IB, 2B.

1. Entrepreneurs Find Belarus Is Tough Going, Wall Street Journal, June 1, 1998, p. A4;

Ad Agencies Are Stumbling in East Europe, Wall Street Journal, May 10, 1996, p. Bl;

Ukraine's Bureaucrats Stymie U.S. Firms, Wall Street Journal, November 4, 1996, p. A14. 2. This chapter reports population, GDP, and per capita GDP data for the world's countries. Most of the data are taken from the World Bank's World Development Report 2003 or from the World Bank's Web site. 3. Mexico, 3 Neighbors Sign Free Trade Pacts, Houston Chronicle, May 12, 2000, p. 2C. 4. Back from the Brink, Korea Inc. Wants a Little Respect, Wall Street Journal, June 13, 2002, p. Al;

The Glory of Hyundai Sits Firmly in Past, Financial Times, January 29, 2002, p. 22. 5. For Chinese Worker, Job Search Ends in a Boss's Murder, Wall Street Journal, June 21, 2002, p. Al.

1. Wild about Harry: Publisher Sets Big Release of Potter Book, Wall Street Journal, February 11, 2003;

Rowling Says She's Polishing Fifth "Potter" Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2002, p. Bl;

Harry Potter Rides Again in Bootleg Chinese Book, Bryan-College Station Eagle, July 6, 2002, p. Bl;

Harry Potter Film Charms Chinese, Financial Times, February 9/10, 2002, p. 3;

Harry Potter, Meet Ha-li Bo-te, Wall Street Journal, September 21, 2000, p. Bl. 2. Portugal's Overburdened Justice System in the Dock, Financial Times, February 12, 1999, p. 3;

India's Laws a Mixed Blessing for Investors, Wall Street Journal, July 11, 1997, p. A10. 3. Court Ruling on Islamic Banking Poses a Challenge for Pakistan Interests, Financial Times, January 4, 2000, p. 2;

Court Orders Islamabad to Ban Interest, Financial Times, December 24/25, 1999, p. 4;

Pakistani Court Rules That Interest Is Illegal, Houston Chronicle, December 24, 1999, p. 2C. 4. Mining Executives Woo Rebels with Billion-Dollar Mineral Deals, Houston Chronicle, April 17, 1997, p. A20;

As Zaire's War Wages, Foreign Businesses Scramble for Inroads, Wall Street Journal, April 14, 1997, p. Al. 5. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 70. 6. U.S. Appetite for Mexican Food Grows, Cooking Up Hotter Sales for Exporters, Wall Street Journal, February 5, 1992, p. A6.

1Q 7. U.S. Plans to Indict McDonnell Douglas for Alleged Violation of Export Laws, Wall Street Journal, October 11, 1999, p. A4. 8. George Graham, Pilkington Bows to U.S. Pressure on Process Licensing, Financial Times, May 27, 1994, p. 1;

George Graham, Washington's New AntiTrust Vigor, Financial Times, May 27, 1994, p. 6. 9. Thomas M. Burton, Baxter Agreed to Cut-Rate Shipments of Supplies to Syria, U.S. Probe Finds, Wall Street Journal, December 22, 1992, p. A3;

How Baxter Got Off the Arab Blacklist and How It Got Nailed, Wall Street Journal, March 23,1993, p. Al. 10. Keeping the Lid on Helms-Burton, Financial Times, July 31, 1997, p. 4;

Stet Avoids Helms-Burton Sanctions, Financial Times, July 24, 1997, p. 1;

Property Issue Harks Back to Old Cuba, Houston Chronicle, October 3, 1996, n 1 p. 1L,.

11. The Bold Struggle for China's Belly, New York Times, online, March 6, 2003. 12. With Boom Gone Bust, Spain's Social Agenda Still Haunts Economy, Wall Street Journal, June 13, 1994, p. Al. 13. Richard Schaffer, Beverley Earle, and Filiberto Agusti, International Business Law and Its Environment (St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing, 1990), p. 196. 14. Ibid., pp. 196-197. 15. Commercial Law Plan in Francophone Africa, Financial Times, May 13,1999, p. 9. 16. Schaffer, Earle, and Agusti, pp. 429-430. 17. Business Software Alliance, 2003 Global Software Piracy Report;

Video Pirates Rush Out "Phantom Menace", Wall Street Journal, May 28, 1999, p. Bl. 18. Masaaki Kotabe, A Comparative Study of U.S. and Japanese Patent Systems, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First Quarter 1992), p. 150. 19. The case was settled with the two firms agreeing to cross-license each other's technology. See Sankaran, Sri Krishna, Patent Flooding in the United States and Japan, IDEA: The Journal of Law and Technology, vol. 40 (2000) p. 393ff.;

Patent Suit Shows Small U.S. Firms' Fears, Wall Street Journal, June 5, 1996, p. A10. 20. Trademark Piracy at Home and Abroad, Wall Street Journal, May 7, 1991, p. A20. 21. Fujitsu Backed in Patent Dispute, Financial Times, September 11, 1997, p. 8. 22. Violence in Nigeria's Oil Delta Worsens, Wall Street Journal, April 1, 2003, p. A13;

Chevron Is Latest to Shut Nigerian Operations, Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2003, p. A15;

ChevronTexaco Evacuates from Violence-torn Nigeria, Houston Chronicle, March 24, 2003, p. 17A. 23. Overseas Private Investment Corporation, 2002 Annual Report, p. 7. 24. Schaffer, Earle, and Agusti, pp. 410-421.

1026 1. How Hollywood Makes the World Take Notice, Wall Street Journal, November 15, 2002, p. W7;

Studios Bank on Burgeoning Overseas Box Office, USA Today, December 13, 2000, p. 6D;

and The Casting Accent Is on Foreign Appeal, USA Today, December 13, 2000, p. 6D. 2. Edging Towards the Information Age, BusinessWeek, January 31, 2000, p. 90. 3. The Overseas Chinese: A Driving Force, The Economist, July 18, 1992, pp. 21-24. 4. Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, 1997), pp. 15-16. 5. Vern Terpstra and Kenneth David, The Cultural Environment of International Business (Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, 1985), p. 20. 6. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr., Language Effects in Cross-Cultural Management Research: An Empirical Study and a Word of Caution, Proceedings of the Academy of Management (1987), p. 103. 7. John C. Condon and Fathi Yousef, An Introduction to Intercultural Commu nication (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975), p. 174;

Jon P. Alston, The American Samurai: Blending American and Japanese Business Practices (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1986), p. 325. 8. Adler, p. 16. 9. Going Global, Wall Street Journal, October 16, 1992, p. R20. 10. Spanish Firms Discover Latin American Business As New World of Profit, Wall Street Journal, May 23, 1996, p. Al. 11. Trenholme J. Griffin and W. Russell Daggatt, The Global Negotiator (New York: Harper Business, 1990), p. 40;

Mother of all Tongues, Financial Times, April 4/ April 5, 1998, p. 25. 12. Some Firms Resume Manufacturing in U.S. After Foreign Fiascoes, Wail Street Journal, October 14, 1986, pp. 1, 27. 13. Terpstra and David, op. cit, p. 37. 14. Alston, op. cit., p. 331. 15. Henry W. Lane and Joseph J. Distefano, International Management Behavior (Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing, 1992), p. 214. 16. Ibid., p. 3. 17. Gary P. Ferraro, The Cultural Dimension of International Business (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990), p. 82. 18. Ferraro, op. cit., p. 76. 19. For Japanese, Silent Negotiation Is Golden, Houston Chronicle, December 14, 1992, p. 2B. 20. Alston, op. cit, pp. 305-306. 21. Gavin Kennedy, Doing Business Abroad (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), p. 92. 22. Hall and Hall, Hidden Differences, p. 109. 23. Marlene L Rossman, The International Businesswoman (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1986), p. 40.

1Q 24. Jon P. Alston, Wa, Guanxi, and Inhwa: Managerial Principles in Japan, China, and Korea, Business Horizons, March-April 1989, pp. 26-31. 25. The Reincarnation of Caste, The Economist, June 8, 1991, pp. 21-23. 26. Nike Tries to Quell Two of Its Disputes, Houston Chronicle, June 25, 1997, p. 5C. 27. Ferraro, op. cit., p. 99. 28. Kennedy, op. cit., pp. 97-98. 29. Miyazawa, Making Waves, Seeks To Cut the Clout of Tokyo University's Alumni, Wall Street Journal, March 5, 1992, p. A12. 30. The Reincarnation of Caste, The Economist. 31. Edward T. Hall, Beyond Culture (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1976). 32. Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences (Yarmouth, Me.: Intercultural Press, 1990), pp. 72-73. 33. Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed Hall, Hidden Differences (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1987), pp. 9-10. 34. Bruce Kogut and Harbir Singh, The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode, Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1988), pp. 4 1 1 432. 35. Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values (Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage, 1980). 36. We have taken the liberty of changing some of the labels Hofstede applied to each of the dimensions. The terms we have chosen are more descriptive, simpler, and more self-evident in their meaning. 37. Ferraro, op. cit., p. 157. 38. Adler, pp. 45-46;

Andre Laurent, The Cultural Diversity of Western Conceptions of Management, International Studies of Management and Organization, vol. XIII, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Summer 1983), pp. 75-96. 39. Ferraro, p. 162. 40. Crash Near London Points to Korean Air Poor Safety Record, Financial Times, December 24,1999, p. 2;

Pilot Error Is Cited in Korea Air Crash;

FAA Is Criticized on Foreign Oversight, Wall Street Journal, November 3, 1999, p. A6;

Korean Air Confronts Dismal Safety Record Rooted in Its Culture, Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1999, p. Al;

Korean Air to Hire More Foreign Pilots, Wall Street Journal, April 15, 1999, p. A14. 41. B. Bass and L. Eldridge, Accelerated Managers' Objectives in Twelve Countries, Industrial Relations, vol. 12 (1973), pp. 158-171. 42. Susan C. Schneider, National versus Corporate Culture: Implications for Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management, vol. 27, no. 2 (Summer 1988), pp. 231-246. 43. Kathleen K. Reardon, It's the Thought that Counts, Harvard Business Review, September-October 1984, pp. 136-141. 44. Stephen Kobrin, International Expertise in American Business (New York: Institute of International Education, 1984), p. 38.

45. Firms Grapple with Language, Wait Streetjoumai, November 7,1989, pp. Bl, BIO.

1. Pete Engardio, Aaron Bernstein, and Manjeet Kripalani, Is Your Job Next? BusinessWeek, February 3, 2003, pp. 50-60;

Roger Parloff, Can We Talk? Fortune, September 2, 2002, pp. 102-110;

Tradition Perpetuating Poverty, Houston Chronicle, June 23,2002, p. 28A;

U.S. Child-Labor Law Sparks a Trade Debate over Brazilian Oranges, Wall Street Journal, September 9,1998, pp. Al, A9. 2. Supermarket Giant Ahold Ousts CEO in Big Accounting Scandal, Wall Street Journal, February 25, 2003, pp. Al, AID. 3. See Norman Barry, Business Ethics (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, 1999). 4. Rebecca Mead, Dressing for Lula, The New Yorker, March 17, 2003, p. 82ff. 5. No Way Out, Fortune, January 20, 2003, p. 102ff. 6. For Steel-Wool Maker, Chinese Lessons, New York Times, May 28, 1996, p. C5. 7. AIDS Gaffes in Africa Come Back to Haunt Drug Industry at Home, Wall Streetjoumai, April 23, 2001, p. Al;

Drug Companies Face Assault on Prices, Wall Street Journal, May 11, 2000, pp. Bl, B4. 8. Jeremy Kahn, Presto Chango! Sales Are Huge, Fortune, March 20, 2000, pp. 90-96;

More Firms Falsify Revenue To Boost Stocks, USA Today, March 29, 2000, p. IB. 9. How U.S. Concerns Compete in Countries Where Bribes Flourish, Wall Streetjoumai, September 29, 1995, pp. Al, A14;

Patricia Digh, Shades of Gray in the Global Marketplace, HRMagazine, April 1997, pp. 90-98. 10. Corporate Canada Wary of Using Bribery, Financial Post, May 15, 2002, p. FP5. 11. Bribery Drives Up the Cost of Living in Kenya, Financial Times, January 19-20, 2002, p. 4. 12. Cancer of Corruption Spreads Throughout the Country, Financial Times, November 1, 2002, p. 6;

Chinese Corruption Has Sliced Up to 16% off GDP over Decade, Study Estimates, Wall Street Journal, March 8, 2001, p. A10. 13. Thomas Donaldson and Lee E. Preston, The Stakeholder Theory of the Corporation: Concepts, Evidence, and Implications, Academy of Management Review, vol. 20, no. 1 (1995), pp. 65-91. See also Jeffrey S. Harrison and R. Edward Freeman, Stakeholders, Social Responsibility, and Performance: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Perspectives, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 42, no. 5 (1999), pp. 479-495. 14. Aseem Prakash, Greening the Firm (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000);

Forest L. Reinhardt, Down to Earth (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000).

15. Oil Companies Strive To Turn a New Leaf To Save Rain Forest, Wall Street Journal, July 17, 1997, pp. Al, AS. 16. How Home Depot and Activists Joined to Cut Logging Abuse, Wall Street Journal, September 26, 2000, p. Al. 17. Petra Christmann and Glen Taylor, Globalization and the Environment: Strategies for International Voluntary Environmental Initiatives, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 16, no. 3 (2002), pp. 121-130. 18. Christine Y. Chen and Greg Lindsay, Will Amazon(.com) Save the Amazon? Fortune, March 20, 2000, pp. 224-226. 19. Human Rights in Focus as U.S. Interest in African Oil Surges, Financial Times, October 29, 2002, p. 8. 20. Global Poverty, BusinessWeek, October 14, 2002, pp. 108-118. 21. Milk Powder Makers Accused over Africa, Financial Times, January 18-19, 2003, p. 4. 22. Inside America's Most Reviled Company, BusinessWeek, November 29, 1999, pp. 176-192. 23. Gifts of Gab, BusinessWeek, February 5, 2001, p. F38. 24. Lynn Sharp Paine, Managing for Organizational Integrity, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1994, pp. 106-115. 25. Africa Recovery, allAfrica.com, April 22, 2003 (online);

www.merck.com, press release 090502 (online). 26. A New Way of Giving, Time, July 24, 2000, pp. 48-51. 27. David M. Messick and Max H. Bazerman, Ethical Leadership and the Psychology of Decision Making, Sloan Management Review (Winter 1996), pp. 9-22. 28. Unfuzzing Ethics for Managers, Fortune, November 23, 1987, pp. 229-234. 29. See Janet P. Near and Marcia P. Miceli, Whistle-Blowing: Myth and Reality, Journal of Management, vol. 22, no. 3 (1996), pp. 507-526 for a recent review of the literature on whistle-blowing. 30. Executive Challenges Xerox's Books, Is Fired, Watt Street Journal, February 6, 2001, p. CI. 31. A Louder Blast from Japan's Whistle-Blowers, BusinessWeek, September 2, 2002 (online). 32. Mark Magnier, Speaking Out Has High Cost, Los Angeles Times, at www.soeken.lawsonline.net (online). 33. Scandals Put Whistle-Blowers in Heroic Light, Nikkei Weekly, September 9, 2002 (online). 34. Swiss Launch Bribery Probe in Kazakh Case, Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2003, p. A22;

U.S. Bribery Probe Looks at Mobil, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 2003, p. A2;

Former Mobil Executive Pleads Not Guilty to Kazak Oil Kickback, Wall Street Journal, April 8, 2003, p. A12. 35. Making a Federal Case Out of Overseas Abuses, BusinessWeek, November 25, 2002, p. 78.

36. Corporate Canada Wary of Using Bribery, Financial Post, May 15, 2002, p. FP5. 37. Do-It-Yourself Labor Standards, BusinessWeek, November 19, 2001, pp. 74-76. 38. Ibid., p. 108. 6 1. Caterpillar Inc., 1990 Annual Report, p. 15. 2. Caterpillar Inc., 2002 Annual Report;

Caterpillar, UAW Face Renewed Hurdles, Wail Street Journal, February 24, 1998, p. A2;

Ronald Henkoff, This Cat Is Acting Like a Tiger Fortune, December 19, 1988, p. 69ff;

Cat vs. Labor: Hardhats, Anyone? BusinessWeek, August 26, 1991, p. 48;

Union and Company Waging "Holy War", Bryan-College Station Eagle, August 7, 1994, p..Cl;

Hoover's Handbook of American Business 2000 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2000), pp. 332-333. 3. Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution 1763-1776 (New York: Facsimile Library, 1939), pp. 16-20. 4. David Ricardo, The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (Homewood, III.: Irwin, 1963). (Ricardo's book was first published in 1817.) 5. Michael Moritz, The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer (New York: William Morrow, 1984). 6. Apple Computer 10-K filing, December 22, 1999. 7. P. Krugman, Intraindustry Specialization and the Gains from Trade, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 89 (October 1981), pp. 959-973. 8. K. Lancaster, IntraTndustry Trade under Perfect Monopolistic Competition, Journal of International Economics, vol. 10 (May 1980), pp. 151-175. 9. Andrew R. Dick, Learning by Doing and Dumping in the Semiconductor Industry, Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 34, no. 1 (April 1991), p. 134. 10. Fred Warshofsky, The Chip War (New York: Scribner's, 1989), pp. 131-132. 11. Survey of Current Business, July 2002, p. lOff. 12. A. Quijana, A Guide to BEA Statistics on Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, Survey of Current Business, February 1990, pp. 29-37. 13. Grant T. Hammond, Countertrade, Offsets and Barter in International Political Economy (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990), p. 3. 14. Siberian City Sees Its Future in Software, Financial Times, February 23, 2000, p. 2. 15. Asian Investment Floods into Mexican Border Region, Wall Street Journal, September 6, 1996, p. A10. 16. Rigoberto Tiglao, Growth Zones, Far Eastern Economic Review, February 10, 1994, p. 40ff. 17. Acer Is Still Searching for the Password to the U.S., BusinessWeek, May 18, 1992, p. 129. 18. Asian Investment Floods into Mexican Border Region, Wall Street Journal, September 6, 1996, p. A10.

1Q 19. Peter Mikelbank, I've Got the Cheval Right Here, Sports Illustrated, November 11,1991, pp. 9-1-0. 20. Samsung Attracts Six Korean Suppliers, Financial Times, April 24, 1996, p. 9. 21. Fuji, Challenging Kodak, to Make Film in U.S., Wall Street Journal, May 8, 1997, p. A3. 22. Alabama Wins Battle for US Hyundai Plant, Financial Times, April 3,2002, p. 19. 23. San Antonio Applauds Toyota Win, Houston Chronicle, February 6, 2003, p. IB;

Toyota: Texas Bid Was a Late Bloomer, Bryan-College Station Eagle, February 6, 2003, p. A7.

1. Foreign Exchange Gains Lift Astra, Financial Times, March 31, 2003, p. 19;

Toyota Set for Investment in Indonesia, Financial Times, February 21, 2003, p. 20;

Astra Gets Ready to Move to Higher Gear, Financial Times, November 25, 2002, p. 17;

Indonesia Sells Stake in Astra Car Maker, Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2000, p. A24;

Indonesia Removes Top Astra Officials, Wall Street Journal, February 9, 2000, p. A22;

Astra Abandons Opposition to Sell-off, Financial Times, February 8, 2000, p. 23;

The Woman Steering Indonesia's Astra Sets a Modernizing Course, Wall Street Journal, October 28, 1999, p. Al. 2. Del Mar, A History of Money in Ancient Countries (New York: Burt Franklin, 1968;

originally published in 1885), p. 71. 3. South Korea Reaches Accord with IMF over Terms of Bailout, Wall Street Journal, December 1,1997, p. A15;

Group Offers Indonesia Loans of Up to $40 Billion, Houston Chronicle, November 1, 1997, p. 1. 4. Freeserve Shares Drop to New Low, Financial Times, November 14, 2000, p. 18. 5. Survey of Current Business, April 2003, p. 40. 6. Basic Truths, The Economist, August 24, 1991, p. 68.

1. Euro Becomes Legal Tender for Millions, Bryan-College Station Eagle, January 1,2002, p. A6;

Western Europe Ready for the Euro, Washington Post, December 31, 2001, p. Al;

A Few Glitches as Euro Debut Nears, Washington Post, December 30, 2001, p. Al. 2. To simplify the exposition, we assumed the foreign-exchange supply curve is upward sloping like most supply curves. Unfortunately, foreign-exchange supply curves may bend backwards, a complication that can be left for graduate students in economics and finance to deal with. 3. Dominick Salvatore, International Economics, 7th ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2001), p. 494.

1. U.S. Steel Tariffs Ruled Illegal in WTO Report, Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2003, p. A2;

More Foreign Steel to Be Tariff-Exempt, Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2003, . ;

US Steel Users Seek to End Import Tariffs? Financial Times, February 5, 2003, p. 2;

Joseph Francois and Laura M. Baughman, The Unintended Consequences of U.S. Steel Import Tariffs: A Quantification of the Impact During 2002, February 4, 2003, Washington, D.C. (mimeo);

So Far, Steel Tariffs Do Little of What President Envisioned, Wall Streetjournal, Sep tember 13, 2002, p. Al;

Tariffs Said to Hurt Small Steel Users, Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 24, 2002, p. Cl;

U.S. Companies Cry Foul at Procedure for Gran ting Exemptions to Steel Tariffs, Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2002, p. A3;

Imposing Steel Tariffs, Bush Buys Some Time for Troubled Industry, Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2002, p. Al;

EU Warns of Swift Appeal to WTO, Financial Times, March 6, 2002, p. 6. U.S. International Trade Commission, Shipbuilding Trade Reform Act of 1992: Likely Economic Effects of Enactment, USITC Publication 2495 Qune 1992), Washington, D.C. The U.S. shipbuilding industry is so uncompetitive in world markets that from 1960 to 1994 the industry exported no commercial ocean going vessels. The Trough, The Economist, June 27, 1992, p. 22. Edward J. Lincoln, Japan's Unequal Trade (Washington, D.C: The Brookings Institution, 1990), p. 112. Paul R. Krugman and Maurice Obstfeld, International Economics: Theory and Policy (Harper Collins: New York, 1999). U.S. Picks Areas of Technology It Wants to Back, Wall Streetjournal, April 26, 1994, p. A4. Torpedo Shipping Protectionism, Wall Street Journal, November 26, 1991, p. A14. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 366. Ibid., p. 285. Ibid., p. 96. Ibid., p. 52. Ibid., p. 418. Ibid., p. 176. Ibid., p. 48. Ibid., p. 244f;

Japan Glass Market Proves Hard to Crack, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 1991, p. A4. Los Angeles Proposal Gives Preference to Local Bids, Wall Street Journal, February 7, 1992, p. A7. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers 2002, pp. 96 and 355. Ibid., p. 52. Ibid., p. 127. Ibid., pp. 96 and 355.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

1Q 21. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo reign Trade Barriers 1997, pp. 159, 237, 275, and 351. 22. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo reign Trade Barriers 2002, pp. 283 and 414. 23. International Monetary Fund, Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restric tions Annual Report 1997 (Washington, D.C.: IMF, 1997). 24. Exchange Controls Add to Venezuela's Gloom, Financial Times, February 7, 2003, p. 4. 25. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo reign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 349. 26. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo reign Trade Barriers 1997, pp. 17, 24, 161, and 230. 27. Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, National Trade Estimate Report on Fo reign Trade Barriers 2002, p. 285. 28. Committee on Ways and Means, Operation of the Foreign Trade Zones Program of the United States and Its Implications for the U.S. Economy and U.S. Inter national Trade, October 1989, Serial 101-56, pp. 281 and 326. 29. Export-Import Bank of the United States, 2001 Annual Report (Washington, D.C.: Eximbank, 2002);

1997 Annual Report (Washington, D.C.: Eximbank, 1998). 30. Hynix Faces 30-35% EU Import Duties, Financial Times, March 21, 2003, p. 19. 31. U.S., Japan Failing in Talks to Expand Construction Trade, Wall Street Jour nal, May 24, 1991, p. A8.

1. Toyota Plans to Build Truck Plant Near Tijuana, Houston Chronicle, January 6, 2002, p. 2D;

Mexican Truckers Not Rushing North, Houston Chronicle, De cember 29, 2001, p. 1;

The World's New Tiger on the Export Scene Isn't Asian;

It's Mexico, Wall Street Journal, May 9,2000, p. Al;

A New Market for Mexico's Work Force, Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2000, p. A15;

Mexico, EU Sign Free Trade Agreement, Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2000, p. A15;

How a Need for Speed Turned Guadalajara into a High-Tech Hub, Wall Street Journal, March 2, 2000, p. Al;

Mexico's Next Big Export: Your Teeth, Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2000, p. B6;

First Came Assembly;

Now, Services Soar, Wall Street Journal, February 28, 2000, p. Al;

European Carmakers Converge on Mexican Gateway to the US, Financial Times, January 5, 2000, p. 5. 2. Doha Talks in Crisis as Farm Reform Deadline Set to be Missed, Financial Times, March 31, 2003, p. 1;

Sides Line Up to Contest Farm Reform, Financial Times, February 14, 2003, p. 7;

WTO Tries to Break Deadlock on Medicines Access, Financial Times, January 28, 2003, p. 6. 3. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, The Outcome of the Uruguay Round: An Initial Assessment (Supporting Papers to the Trade and Development Report, 1994). New York: United Nations, 1994, p. 143.

4. WTO Rules in Favor of Brazil, Financial Times, February 18, 2003, p. 4;

WTO Allows Brazilian Sanctions on Canada, Wall Street Journal, December 24, 2002, p. A8. 5. Consumer Policy in the Single Market (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publi cations of the European Communities, 1991), pp. 7-8. 6. Daewoo, Samsung, and Goldstar: Made in Europe? Business Week, August 24, 1992, p. 43. 7. Latin Auto Sales Drive Investment, Houston Chronicle, May 15, 1997, p. 1. 8. Doubts Cloud South-East Asia's Free Trade Dreams, Financial Times, De cember 30, 2002, p. 3. 9. With Aggressive Trade Pacts, China Quietly Builds Clout in Region, Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2003, p. A12. 10. Africa's Trade Flows Clogged Up at Dockside, Financial Times, January 8, 2002, p. 6. 11. Whirlpool Corporation, 1993 Annual Report, p. 15.

1. Euro Disney Alters Royalty Payments Plan, Financial Times, March 31,2003, p. 23;

Euro Disney Shares Jump 8.5%, Financial Times, January 23, 2003, p. 1;

Disney Hopes New Theme Park in Hong Kong Opens Up China, Wall Street Journal, January 15, 2003, p. B4B;

Empire of the Mouse Expands in Europe, Financial Times, March 17, 2002, p. 9;

The Walt Disney Company 2002 Annual Report;

Mickey Stumbles at the Border, Forbes, June 12, 2000, p. 58;

Euro Disney's Sales Climb 17%, Wall Street Journal, January 22,1998, p. A15;

Fans Like Euro Disney but Its Parent's Goofs Weigh the Park Down, Wall Street Journal, March 10,1994, p. Al;

Euro Disney Rescue Package Wins Approval, Wall Street Journal, March 15, 1994, p. A3;

How Disney Snared a Princely Sum, BusinessWeek, June 20, 1994, pp. 61-62;

Euro Disney Oui ou Non? Travel & Leisure, August 1992, pp. 80-115;

Transformer of a Mickey Mouse Outfit, Financial Times, May 28, 2003, p. 10. 2. See Charles W. L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, Strategic Management: An Ana lytical Approach, 6th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2004), for an overview of strategy and strategic management. See also Bjorn Lovas and Sumantra Ghoshal, Strategy as Guided Evolution, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 9 (2000), pp. 875-896. 3. Howard Thomas, Timothy Pollock, and Philip Gorman, Global Strategic Ana lyses: Frameworks and Approaches, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13, no. 1(1999), p. 70 ff. 4. Kasra Ferdows, Making the Most of Foreign Factories, Harvard Business Re view, March-April 1997, pp. 73-88. 5. Mercedes Bends Rules, USA Today, July 16, 1997, pp. Bl, B2. 6. Nissan's Slow U-turn, BusinessWeek, May 12, 1997, pp. 54-55. 7. Russia Bans U.S. Chicken Shipments, Inspiring Fears of Tough Trade Battle, Wall Street Journal, February 23, 1996, p. A2.

1Q 8. Anil . Gupta and Vijay Govindarajan, Knowledge Flows within Multina tional Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 4 (2000), pp. 473-496. 9. Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal, Transnational Management, 2nd ed. (Chicago, III.: Richard D. Irwin, 1995), pp. 237-242. See also Tatiana Kostova, Transnational Transfer of Strategic Organizational Practices: A Contextual Perspective, Academy of Management Review, vol. 24, no. 2 (1999), pp. 308-324. 10. At Nokia, a Comeback And Then Some, BusinessWeek, December 2, 1996, p. 106. 11. Conglomerate Plays to Its Strength, Financial Times, November 23,1999, p. 11. 12. Bartlett and Ghoshal label this strategy the multinational strategy. We have altered their terminology to avoid confusion with other uses of the term mul tinational. 13. See Hill and Jones, Strategic Management. 14. See T. S. Frost, J. M. Birkinshaw, and P. Ensign, Centers of Excellence in Multinational Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23, no. 11 (November 2002), pp. 997-1018. 15. Bruce Kogut, Designing Global Strategies: Comparative and Competitive Value-Added Chains, Sloan Management Review (Summer 1985), pp. 15-28. 16. Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 494-495. 17. Think Small, BusinessWeek, November 4, 1991, p. 58. 18. Producer of Feature-Film Projectors Reels in Fat Profit as Cinemas Expand, Wall Street Journal, October 22,1996, p. B5;

Chile's Luksics: Battle-Tested and on the Prowl, Wall Street Journal, December 1, 1995, p. A10. 19. Stephen Kreider Yoder, Intel, Backing Its Bets with Big Chips, Wins, Wall Street Journal, September 24, 1992, p. Bl;

Michiyo Nakamoto, Looking for Smaller Worlds to Conquer, Financial Times, September 2, 1992. 20. Olav Sorenson, Letting the Market Work for You: An Evolutionary Perspective on Product Strategy, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21 (2000), pp. 577-592. 21. European Auto Makers Show Signs of Bouncing Back, Wall Street Journal, September 15, 1994, p. B4. 22. John A. Pearce II and Fred David, Corporate Mission Statements: The Bottom Line, The Academy of Management Executive (May 1987), pp. 109-115. 23. See Gupta and Govindarajan, Knowledge Flows within Multinational Corpo rations, pp. 473-496. 24. Grand Met, Guinness to Form Liquor Colossus, Wall Street Journal, May 13, 1997, pp. Bl, B8. 25. D. E. W. Marginson, Management Control Systems and Their Effects on Strategy Formation at Middle-Management Levels: Evidence from a U.K. Organization, Strategic Management Journal (November 2002), pp. 10191032.

26. Hill and Jones, Strategic Management. 27. Accor SA, Europe's Biggest Hotel Firm, Takes on a New Look under a New CEO, Wall Street Journal, January 30, 1998, p. B6A. 28. For example, see J. Michael Geringer, Stephen Tallman, and David M. Olsen, Product and International Diversification Among Japanese Multinational Firms, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 1 (2000), pp. 51-80. 29. The Walt Disney Company 1999, Annual Report. 30. Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 166-167. 31. DaimlerChrysler's Focus May Be Narrowing, Wall Street Journal, October 18, 1999, pp. A37, A39. 32. C. Campbell-Hunt, What Have We Learned about Generic Competitive Stra tegy? A Meta-Analysis, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 2 (2000), pp. 127-154.

1. The Java Joint That's Swallowing France, BusinessWeek, September 11,2002, pp. 96-98;

Despite the Jitters, Most Coffeehouses Survive Starbucks, Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2002, pp. Al, All;

Planet Starbucks, Busi nessWeek, September 9, 2002, pp. 100-110;

Now, Starbucks Uses Its Bean, BusinessWeek, February 14, 2000, pp. 92-93;

Vijay Vishwanath and David Harding, The Starbucks Effect, Harvard Business Review, March-April 2000, pp. 17-18. 2. Anoop Madhok, Cost, Value, and Foreign Market Entry Mode: The Transa ction and the Firm, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 18 (1997), p. 37. 3. See George S. Yip and George A. Coundouriotis, Diagnosing Global Strategy Potential: The World Chocolate Confectionery Industry, Planning Review, January-February 1991, pp. 4-14, for an example of how this can be done. 4. William H. Davidson, The Role of Global Scanning in Business Planning, Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1991), pp. 4-16. 5. Ford Plans $800m Brazil Plant, Financial Times, October 3, 1997, p. 6;

GM Plans to Develop Car in Brazil, Financial Times, June 3, 1997, p. 5. 6. M. Krishna Erramilli, The Experience Factor in Foreign Market Entry Behavior of Service Firms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1991), pp. 479-501. 7. A Beautiful Face Is Not Enough, Forbes, May 13, 1991, pp. 105-106. 8. Susan Schneider and Arnoud De Mayer, Interpreting and Responding to Strategic Issues: The Impact of National Culture, Strategic Management Jour nal, vol. 12 (1991), pp. 307-320. 9. John H. Dunning, Trade, Location of Economic Activity and the MNE: A Search for an Eclectic Approach, in Bertil Ohlin et al, eds., The International Allocation of Economic Activity (London: Macmillan, 1977);

Alan M. Rugman, A New Theory of the Multinational Enterprise: Internationalization versus 1Q 10.

11. 12. 13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

Internalization, Columbia Journal of World Business, vol. 12, no. 4 (1980), pp. 23-29. Jean J. Boddewyn, Political Aspects of MNE Theory, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19, no. 1 (1988), pp. 341-363;

Thomas L. Brewer, Effects of Government Policies on Foreign Direct Investment as a Strategic Choice of Firms: An Expansion of Internalization Theory, The International Trade Jour nal, vol. 7, no. 1 (Fall 1992), pp. 111-129. Egypt Suddenly Is a Magnet for Investors, Wall Street Journal, April 10,1997, p.A6. Istanbul's Location Again Makes It Crucial to the Entire Region, Wall Street Journal, March 27, 1997, p. Al. Westerners Profit as Japan Opens Its Drug Market, Wall Street Journal, De cember 2, 2002, pp. Al, A20;

Kenichi Ohmae, The Global Logic of Strategic Alliances, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1989, p. 151. John M. Stopford and Louis T. Wells, Managing the Multinational Enterprise: Organization of the Firm and Ownership of the Subsidiaries (New York: Basic Books, 1972). M. Krishna Erramilli, The Experience Factor in Foreign Market Entry Be havior of Service Firms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1991), pp. 479-502. Bruce Kogut, Designing Global Strategies: Profiting from Operational Flexibility, Sloan Management Review (Fall 1985), pp. 27-38;

Edward W. Desmond, Byting Japan, Time, October 5, 1992, pp. 68-69. W. Chan Kim and Peter Hwang, Global Strategy and Multinationals' Entry Mode Choice, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First Quarter 1992), pp. 29-54;

see also Sumantra Ghoshal, Global Strategy: An Organizing Framework, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 8 (1987), pp. 425440. Latin Links, Wall Street Journal, September 24, 1992, p. R6. Top Toilet Makers from U.S. and Japan Vie for Chinese Market, Wall Street Journal, December 19, 1996, p. Al. Geir Gripsud, The Determinants of Export Decisions and Attitudes to a Dis tant Market: Norwegian Fishery Exports to Japan, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 21, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1990), pp. 469-494. Baskin-Robbins to Open Plant in Moscow, Bryan-College Station Eagle, August 14, 1995, p. Al. Alex Taylor III, Do You Know Where Your Car Was Made? Fortune, June 17, 1991, pp. 52-56. Desmond, Byting Japan. Nintendo to Ease Restrictions on U.S. Game Designers, Wall Street Journal, October 22, 1991, pp. Bl, B4. Cantab Bounces Back with a Fierce Immune Response, Wall Street Journal, March 31, 1997, p. B4.

26. OLeg Cassini, Inc., Sues Firm over Licensing, Wall Streetjoumal, March 28, 1984, p. 5. 27. L. Ashley sues L'Oreal for J18m, Financial Times, October 15, 2002, p. 23. 28. Unsafe Conditions at Nike Factory in Vietnam Revealed in '96 Audit, Houston Chronicle, November 10,1997, p. 18A. 29. J. H. Dunning, American Investment in British Manufacturing Industry (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958). 30. Brace Kogut and Harbir Singh, The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19 (Fall 1988), pp. 411-432. 31. Disney's Rough Ride in France, Fortune, March 23, 1992, p. 14. 32. Carso Unit Provides Entry to Mexican Tissue Market, Wall Street Journal, July 22, 1997, p. A13. 33. American Eagle Works at Keeping Its Performance Aloft, Wall Streetjoumal, November 28, 2000, p. B2. 34. KPN Grows to Challenge Delivery Giants, Wall Street Journal, December 17, 1996, p. A14.

1. Breakfast Cereals: The International Market, Euromonitor International, June 9, 2000;

General Mills Reports Record Earnings of 78 Cents Per Share for Fiscal 1997 Third Quarter, PR Newswire, March 12, 1997;

Cereal Partners Venture Shakes Up Kellogg's, Eurofood, July 1995, p. 24;

Christopher Knowlton, Europe Cooks Up a Cereal Brawl, Fortune, June 3, 1992, pp. 175-179;

Cafe au Lait, a Croissant-and Trix, BusinessWeek, August 24, 1992, pp. 50-52. 2. For Kodak's Advantix, Double Exposure as Company Relaunches Camera System, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 1997, p. Bl;

Camera System Is Devel oped but Not Delivered, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 1996, p. Bl;

Kodak Joins Fuji, Others for Project, USA Today, March 26, 1992, p. Bl. 3. Peter J. Kilting, How to Make a Global Joint Venture Work, Harvard Busi ness Review May-June 1982, pp. 120-127. 4. Camera System Is Developed but Not Delivered. 5. See Balaji Koka and John Prescott, Strategic Alliances as Social Capital: A Multidimensional View, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22 (2002), pp. 795-816. 6. David Lei and John W. Slocum Jr., Global Strategic Alliances: Payoffs and Pitfalls, Organizational Dynamics (Winter 1991), pp. 44-62. 7. Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: Free Press, 1980), p. 275. 8. Time Warner to Attack Spain's Cinema Market, Financial Times, April 8, 1997, p. 19. 9. Cigna Enters Retail Alliance in Brazil, Financial Times, March 21,1997, p. 18. 10. Farok J. Contractor, Ownership Pattern of U.S. Joint Ventures Abroad and the Liberalization of Foreign Government Regulations in the 1980s: Evidence 1Q from the Benchmark Surveys, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 21, no. 1 (First Quarter 1990), pp. 55-73. 11. Chinese Government Struggles to Rejuvenate National Brands, Wall Street Journal, June 24, 1996, p. Bl. 12. Bruce Kogut, Joint Ventures: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, Stra tegic Management Journal, vol. 9 (1988), pp. 319-332;

Andrew C. Inkpen and Paul W. Beamish, Knowledge, Bargaining Power, and the Instability of Inter national Joint Ventures, A cademy of Management Review, vol. 22, no. 1 (1997), pp. 177-202. 13. Jeremy Main, Making a Global Alliance Work, Fortune, December 17, 1990, pp. 121-126. 14. See Duane Ireland, Michael Hitt, and Deepa Vaidyanath, Alliance Manage ment as a Source of Competitive Advantage, Journal of Management, vol. 28, no. 3 (2002), pp. 413-446. 15. PepsiCo Planning Tea-Drink Venture with Unilever Unit, Wall Street Jour nal, December 4, 1991, p. B8. 16. Siemens, Motorola Plan U.S. Chip Plant, Wall Street Journal, October 26, 1995, p. A18. 17. Chrysler and BMW Team Up to Build Small-Engine Plant in South America, Wall Street Journal, October 2, 1996, p. A4. 18. BMW, PSA in Engine Link, Financial Times, July 24, 2002, p. 21. 19. Mattel Forms an Alliance with Bandai of Japan, Wall Street Journal, July 22, 1999, p. A20. 20. Big Chip Makers Join to Develop New DRAM Technology, Wall Street Jour nal, January 18, 2000, p. A21. 21. Bayer Forms Research Partnership for Antibodies with Morphosys, Wall Street Journal, December 23, 1999, p. A14. 22. Mariko Sakakibara, Formation of R&D Consortia: Industry and Company Effects, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23 (2002), pp. 1033-1050. 23. See Yadong Luo, Contract, Cooperation, and Performance in International Joint Ventures, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23 (2002), pp. 903-919;

see also Jeffrey Dyer, Prashant Kale, and Harbir Singh, How to Make Strategic Alliances Work, MIT Sloan Management Review (Summer 2001), pp. 37-46. 24. J. Michael Geringer, Strategic Determinants of Partner Selection Criteria in International Joint Ventures, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 1 (First Quarter 1991), pp. 41-62;

Kathryn R. Harrigan, Strategies for Joint Venture Success (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington, 1985);

Keith D. Brouthers, Lance Eliot Brouthers, and Timothy J. Wilkinson, Strategic Alliances: Choose Your Partners, Long Range Planning, vol. 28, no. 3 (1995), pp. 18-25. 25. Main, Making a Global Alliance Work. 26. Ibid.;

Joseph E. Pattison, Global Joint Ventures, Overseas Business (Winter 1990), pp. 24-29. ;

27. Stephen J. Kohn, The Benefits and Pitfalls of Joint Ventures, The Bankers Magazine (May/June 1990), pp. 12-18. 28. See Eric Tsang, Acquiring Knowledge by Foreign Partners from International Joint Ventures in a Transition Economy, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23 (2002), pp. 835-854. 29. Pattison, Global Joint Ventures, pp. 24-29. 30. Ivory Coast Oil Exploration Pact Signed, Houston Chronicle, December 28, 1997, p. 4E. 31. Daimler-Benz May Pull Out of Venture to Build Cars with Chinese Com pany, Wall Street Journal, May 23, 1997, p. A8;

Going It Alone, The Eco nomist, April 19, 1997, pp. 54-55;

Ford Hopes Small Investment in China Will Pay Off Big, Wall Street Journal, November 9, 1995, p. B3. 32. A Sneaker Maker Says China Partner Became Its Rival, Wall Street Journal, December 19, 2002, pp. Al, A8. 33. See Ireland, Hitt, and Vaidyanath, Alliance Management as a Source of Com petitive Advantage, pp. 413-446. 34. Coke in Venture with France's Danone to Distribute Orange Juice Overseas, Wall Street Journal, September 25, 1996, p. B8. 35. Nicholas Denton, GM Puts Further DMIOOm into Its Hungary Venture, Financial Times, November 6, 1991, p. 7. 36. Karen J. Hladik and Lawrence H. Linden, Is an International Joint Venture in R&D for You? Research Technology Management (July-August 1989), pp. 11-13. 37. Rubbermaid Ends Venture in Europe, Signalling Desire to Call Its Own Shots, Wall Street Journal, June 1, 1994, p. A4. 38. Main, Making a Global Alliance Work. 39. Murdoch Firm Sues Disney, Alleges Violation of Part for Pay TV in Britain, Wall Street Journal, May 17, 1989, p. 86. 40. Bruised in Brazil: Ford Slips as Market Booms, Wall Street Journal, December 13, 1996, p. A10. 41. Thomas L Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books, 2000), p. 178. 42. Dian Gomes, Introduction, A Place in the Sun (Pannala, Sri Lanka [privately printed], 2001), p. xiii. 14 1. Unilever Refashions Itself into Two Units, Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2000, p. All;

Unilever to Sell Specialty-Chemical Unit to ICI of the U.K. for about $8 Billion, Wall Street Journal, May 7, 1997, pp. A3, A12;

Unilever Sells Off Four Chemical Units, USA Today, May 8, 1997, p. 3B;

Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 622-623. 2. J. M. Stopford and L. T. Wells, Managing the Multinational Enterprise (New York: Basic Books, 1972).

1Q 3. Alfred Chandler, Jr., Strategy and Structure (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1962). 4. Gareth Jones, Organizational Theory, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001). See also Monique Forte, James J. Hoffman, Bruce T. Lamont, and Erich N. Brockmann, Organizational Form and Environment: An Analysis of Between-Form and Within-Form Responses to Environmental Change, Stra tegic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 7 (2000), pp. 753-773. 5. John P. Kotter and Leonard A. Schlesinger, Choosing Strategies for Change, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1979, pp. 106-119. 6. Chandler, Strategy and Structure. 7. Anant K. Sundaram and J. Stewart Black, The Environment and Internal Orga nization of Multinational Enterprises, Academy of Management Review, vol. 17, no. 4 (1992), pp. 729-757. 8. Aetna to Merge Global, U.S. Divisions, Wall Street Journal, January 10,1999, pp. A3, A20. 9. Anil K. Gupta and Vijay Govindarajan, Knowledge Flows within Multina tional Corporations, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 4 (2000), pp. 473-496. 10. Kendall Roth, David M. Schweiger, and Allen J. Morrison, Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Admi nistrative Mechanisms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 3 (1991), pp. 369-402. 11. Dinosaur Rescue, BusinessWeek, October 20, 1997, pp. 52-53. See also J. Michael Geringer, Stephen Tallman, and David M. Olsen, Product and International Diversification among Japanese Multinational Firms, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 1 (2000), pp. 51-80. 12. See Tarun Khana and Krishna Palepu, The Right Way to Restructure Cong lomerates in Emerging Markets, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1999, pp. 125-134. 13. Christopher A. Bartlett, Organizing for Worldwide Effectiveness: The Transnational Solution, California Management Review (Fall 1988), pp. 54-74. 14. Eastman Kodak Company Web site (details posted October 23, 2000). 15. Christopher A. Bartlett and Sumantra Ghospal, Matrix Management: Not a Structure, a Frame of Mind, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1990, pp. 138-145. 16. Lawton R. Burns and Douglas R. Wholey, Adoption and Abandonment of Matrix Management Programs: Effects of Organizational Characteristics and Interorganizational Networks, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 1 (1993), pp. 105-138. 17. . . Prahalad and Jan P. Oosterveld, Transforming Internal Governance: The Challenge for Multinationals, Sloan Management Review (Spring 1999), pp. 31-41.

18. See Steen Thomsen and Torben Pedersen, Ownership Structure and Economic Performance in the Largest European Companies, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 6 (2000), pp. 689-705, for a recent discussion of these issues. 19. S. Watson O'Donnell, Managing Foreign Subsidiaries: Agents of Headquar ters, or an Interdependent Network? Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, no. 5 (2000), pp. 525-548. 20. Jon I. Martinez and J. Carlos Jarillo, The Evolution of Research on Coor dination Mechanisms in Multinational Corporations, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 20 (1989), pp. 489-514. 21. Sumantra Ghoshal and Christopher A. Bartlett, The Multinational Corpo ration as an Interorganizational Network, Academy of Management Review, vol. 15, no. 4 (1990), pp. 603-625. 22. David Asch, Strategic Control: A Problem Looking for a Solution, Long Ran ge Planning (February 1992), pp. 120-132. 23. John K. Shank and Joseph Fisher, Target Costing as a Strategic Tool, Sloan Management Review (Fall 1999), pp. 73-82. 24. Lane Daley, James Jiambalvo, Gary Sundem, and Yasumasa Kondon, Attitudes Toward Financial Control Systems in the United States and Japan, Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1985), pp. 91-110. 25. Hans Mjoen and Stephen Tallman, Control and Performance in International Joint Ventures, Organization Science (May-June 1997), pp. 257-268. 26. Michael Goold, Strategic Control in the Decentralized Firm, Sloan Mana gement Review (Winter 1991), pp. 69-81. 27. Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, The Balanced ScoreboardMeasures That Drive Performance, Harvard Business Review (January-February 1992), pp. 71-79. 28. See Mark Gimein, CEOs Who Manage too Much, Fortune, September 4, 2000, pp. 234-242. 29. Why to Kill New Product Ideas, Fortune, December 14,1992, pp. 91-94;

Mark Keil and Ramiro Montealegre, Cutting Your Losses: Extricating Your Orga nization When a Big Project Goes Awry, Sloan Management Review (Spring 2000), pp. 55-68. . 1. Alex Taylor III, Porsche's Risky Recipe, Fortune, February 17, 2003, pp. 9094;

Hoover's Handbook of world Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 434-435;

Porsche Acts to Cut Costs as Sales Fall and Euro Rises, Financial Times, June 19, 2003, p. 20. 2. For a review of behavioral processes in organizations, see Gregory Moorhead and Ricky W. Griffin, Organizational Behavior, 7th ed. (Boston: Houghton Miff lin, 2004). 3. Ibid.

1Q 4. Lawrence Pervin, Personality, in Mark Rosenzweig and Lyman Porter, eds., Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 36 (Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, 1985), pp. 83-114. 5. Jennifer George, The Role of Personality in Organizational Life: Issues and Evidence, Journal of Management, vol. 18 (1992), pp. 185-213. 6. L. R. Goldberg, An Alternative "Description of Personality": The Big Five Factor Structure, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 59 (1990), pp. 12161229;

M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance, Personnel Psychology, vol. 44 (1991), pp. 1-26. 7. Jesus F. Salgado, The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, no. 1 (1997), pp. 30-43. 8. J. B. Rotter, Generalized Expectancies for Internal vs. External Control of Reinforcement, Psychological Monographs, vol. 80 (1966), pp. 1-28;

Bert De Brabander and Christopher Boone, Sex Differences in Perceived Locus of Control, Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 130 (1990), pp. 271-276. 9. Colleen Ward and Antony Kennedy, Locus of Control, Mood Disturbance, and Social Difficulties During Cross-Cultural Transitions, International Jour nal of Intercultural Relations, vol. 16 (1992), pp. 175-194. 10. Marilyn E. Gist and Terence R. Mitchell, Self-Efficacy: A Theoretical Analysis of Its Determinants and Malleability, Academy of Management Review (April 1992), pp. 183-211. 11. J. Michael Geringer and Colette A. Frayne, Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expe ctancy and Performance of International Joint Venture General Managers, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, vol. 10, no. 4 (1993), pp. 322-333. 12. T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswick, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950). 13. Michael Harris Bond and Peter B. Smith, Cross-Cultural Social and Orga nizational Psychology, in Janet Spence, ed., Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 47 (Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews, 1996), pp. 205-235. 14. Patricia Smith, L. M. Kendall, and Charles Hulin, The Measurement of Satis faction in Work and Behavior (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1969). 15. Meg G. Birdseye and John S. Hill, Individual, Organizational/Work and Enviro nmental Influences on Expatriate Turnover Tendencies: An Empirical Study, Journal of International Business Studies (Fourth Quarter 1995), pp. 787-813. 16. James R. Lincoln, Employee Work Attitudes and Management Practice in the U.S. and Japan: Evidence from a Large Comparative Study, California Mana gement Review (Fall 1989), pp. 89-106. 17. Daniel J. McCarthy and Sheila M. Puffer, Perestroika at the Plant Level Manager's Job Attitudes and Views of Decision-Making in the Former USSR, The Columbia Journal of World Business (Spring 1992), pp. 86-99. 18. Thang Van Nguyen and Nancy Napier, Work Attitudes in Vietnam, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 14, no. 4 (2000), pp. 142-143.

19. Abdul Rahim A. Al-Meer, Organizational Commitment: A Comparison of Wes terners, Asians, and Saudis, International Studies of Management and Organi zation, vol. 19, no. 2 (1989), pp. 74-84. 20. Janet Near, Organizational Commitment among Japanese and U.S. Workers, Organization Studies, vol. 10, no. 3 (1989), pp. 281-300. 21. Hal B. Gregersen and J. Stewart Black, Antecedents to Commitment to a Pa rent Company and a Foreign Operation, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 35, no. 1 (1992), pp. 65-90. 22. See also Joyce S. Osland and Allan Bird, Beyond Sophisticated Stereo typing: Cultural Sensemaking in Context, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 14, no. 1 (2000), pp. 65-74. 23. Kent D. Miller, Industry and Country Effects on Managers' Perceptions of Environmental Uncertainties, Journal of International Business Studies (Fourth Quarter 1993), pp. 693-714. 24. Satoko Watanabe and Ryozo Yamaguchi, Intercultural Perceptions at the Workplace: The Case of the British Subsidiaries of Japanese Firms, Human Relations, vol. 48, no. 5 (1995), pp. 581-607. 25. Bodo B. Schlegelmilch and Diana Robertson, The Influence of Country and Industry on Ethical Perceptions of Senior Executives in the U.S. and Europe, Journal of International Business Studies (Fourth Quarter 1995), pp. 859-881. 26. For a recent overview of the stress literature, see Frank Landy, James Campbell Quick, and Stanislav Kasl, Work, Stress, and Weil-Being, International Jour nal of Stress Management, vol. 1, no. 1 (1994), pp. 33-73. 27. Executive Stress: A Ten-Country Comparison, Chicago Tribune, March 31,1988. 28. Bruce D. Kirkcaldy and Cary L. Cooper, Stress Differences Among German and U.K. Managers, Human Relations, vol. 46, no. 5 (1993), pp. 669-680. 29. Geert Hofstede, Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad? Organizational Dynamics (Summer 1980), pp. 42-63. 30. Joseph J. Fucini and Suzy Fucini, Working for the Japanese: Inside Mazda's Ame rican Auto Plant (New York: Free Press, 1990). 31. Charles Weaver and Michael Landeck, Cross-National Differences in Job Values: A Segmented Comparative Analysis of United States and West German Workers (Laredo State University, 1991), mimeo. 32. Abraham Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review Ouly 1943), pp. 370-396. 33. Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (Cin cinnati: South-Western, 1997), pp. 130-138. 34. P. Howell, J. Strauss, and P. F. Sorenson, Research Note: Cultural and Situa tional Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Management in Liberia, Journal of Management Studies (May 1975), pp. 225-227. 35. David McClelland, The Achieving Society (Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1961). 36. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior.

1Q 37. Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Snyderman, The Motivation to Work (New York: Wiley, 1959). 38. G. H. Mines, Achievement, Motivation, Occupations and Labor Turnover in New Zealand, JoMma/ of Applied Psychology, vol. 58, no. 3 (1973), pp. 313-317. 39. Victor Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: Wiley, 1964). 40. Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 2nd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Pren tice Hall, 1989). 41. David A. Ralston, David J. Gustafson, Fanny M. Cheung, and Robert H. Terpstra, Differences in Managerial Values: A Study of U.S., Hong Kong, and PRC Managers, Journal of International Business Studies (Second Quarter 1993), pp. 249-275. 42. See Joseph A. Petrick, Robert F. Scherer, James D. Brodzinski, John F. Quinn, and M. Fall Ainina, Global Leadership Skills and Reputational Capital: Intan gible Resources for Sustainable Competitive Advantage, Academy of Mana gement Executive, vol. 13, no. 1 (1999), pp. 58-69. 43. Robert H. Doktor, Asian and American CEOs: A Comparative Study, Orga nizational Dynamics, vol. 18, no. 3 (1990), pp. 46-56. 44. Jon P. Alston, The American Samurai (New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1986), pp. 103-113. 45. The Spanish-American Business Wars, Worldwide P & I Planning (MayJune 1971), pp. 30-40. 46. Arvin Parkhe, Interfirm Diversity, Organizational Learning, and Longevity in Global Strategic Alliances, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1991), pp. 592-593;

Edward T. Hall and Mildred Reed Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences (Yarmouth, Me.: Intercultural Press, 1990), pp. 55-62. 47. For example, see Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries, Leadership Style and Orga nizational Practices in Russia, Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), pp. 67-81. 48. Tom Morris and Cynthia M. Pavett, Management Style and Productivity in Two Cultures, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First Quarter 1992), pp. 169-179. 49. Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1976). 50. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. 51. Alston, The American Samurai, pp. 181-186. 52. Hall and Hall, Understanding Cultural Differences, pp. 33-84. 53. Lawrence Wolken, Doing Business in China, Texas A&MBusiness Forum (Fall 1987), pp. 39-42. 54. J. Stewart Black and Lyman W. Porter, Managerial Behaviors and Job Perfor mance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 1 (First Quarter 1991), pp. 99-113.

55. Parkhe, Inter firm Diversity, pp. 579-601. 56. See Chantell E. Nicholls, Henry W. Lane, and Maurido Brehm Brechu, Taking Self-Managed Teams to Mexico, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13, no. 3 (2000), pp. 15-25. 16 1. Wal-Mart's Foray Into Japan Spurs a Retail Upheaval, Wall Street Journal, September, 19, 2003, pp. Al, A6;

Mixed Fortunes in Britain and Germany, Financial Times, January 8, 2003, p. 11;

As Annual Sales Near $270bn, Can Wal-Mart Conquer Markets Outside the US? Financial Times, January 8, 2003, p. 11;

Retailers Set Sights on Japan, Financial Times, December 13, 2002, p. 22;

Wal-Mart Plans Major Expansion in Germany, Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2000, p. A21;

Wal-Mart Takes Slow Road in Germany, USA Today, May 9, 2000, p. 3B;

Britain's Ailing Sainsbury Faces Stark Choice, Wall Street Journal, October 25, 1999, p. A44;

As Wal-Mart Invades Europe, Rivals Rush to Match Its Formula, Wall Street Journal, October 6, 1999, p. Al;

Wal-Mart Net Rises 16% on Results Outside U.S., Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2003, p.A2. 2. From AMA Board Approves New Marketing Definition, Marketing News, March 31, 1985, p. 1. 3. France Retreats from "Knocking" Adverts, Financial Times, August 14,1995, p. 3. 4. New Zealand Bans Reebok, Other Ads It Deems Politically Incorrect for TV, Wall Street Journal, July 25, 1995, p. A12. 5. David Lei, Strategies for Global Competition, Long Range Planning, vol. 22, no. 1 (1989), pp. 102-109. See also Yoram Wind and Susan Douglas, International Portfolio Analysis and Strategy: The Challenge of the 1980s, Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1981), pp. 69-82. 6. Nicholas Papadopoulos and Louise A. Heslop (Eds.), Product-Country Images Impact and Role in International Marketing (New York: International Business Press, 1993). 7. For an overview see David McCutcheon, Amitabh Raturi, and Jack Meredith, The Customization-Responsiveness Squeeze, Sloan Management Review (Winter 1994), pp. 89-100. 8. U.S. Catalog Firms Go After Europeans, Wall Street Journal, January 6, 1998, p.A15. 9. Kenichi Ohmae, The Triad World View, Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 7, no. 4 (Spring 1987), pp. 8-19. 10. Theodore Levitt, The Globalization of Markets, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1983, pp. 92-102. 11. Aysegul Ozsomer, Muzzafer Bodur, and S. Tamer Cavusgil, Marketing Standardisation by Multinationals in an Emerging Market, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 25, no. 12 (1991), pp. 50-63. 12. John A. Quelch and Edward J. Hoff, Customizing Global Marketing, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1986, pp. 59-68.

13. The Right Way to Go Global: An Interview with Whirlpool CEO David Whitwam, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1994, pp. 134-145;

A Little Washing Machine That Won't Shred a Sari, BusinessWeek, June 3,1991, p. 100. 14. Quelch and Hoff, Customizing Global Marketing. 15. Judie Lannon, Developing Brand Strategies Across Borders, Marketing and Research Today (August 1991), pp. 160-167. 16. Guy de Jonquires, Just One Cornetto, Financial Times, October 28, 1991. 17. U.S. Superstores Find Japanese Are a Hard Sell, Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2000, p. Bl. 18. Big Boy's Adventures in Thailand, Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2000, p. Bl. 19. Mexico's Corona Brew Wins Back Cachet Lost During the Late '80s, Wall Street Journal, January 19, 1993, p. B6. 20. U.S. Firms Are Letting Saudi Market Slip, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 1994, p. AID. 21. Eastern Europe Poses Obstacles for Ads, Wall Street Journal, July 30, 1992, p. B6. 22. It's Goo, Goo, Goo, Goo Vibrations at the Gerber Lab, Wall Street Journal, December 4, 1996, p. Al. 23. Pepsi Mounts Effort to Make Potato Chips International Snack, Wall Street Journal, November 30, 1995, p. BIO. 24. Adapting a U.S. Car to Japanese Tastes, Wall Street Journal, June 26, 1995, p. Bl. 25. Asia Proves Unexpectedly Tough Terrain for HBO, Cinemax Channels, Wall Street Journal, August 23, 2000, p. Bl. 26. U.S. Companies in China Find Patience, Persistence and Salesmanship Pay Off, Wall Street Journal, April 3, 1992, p. Bl. 27. In Pursuit of the Elusive Euroconsumer, Wall Street Journal, April 23, 1992, p. Bl. 28. Mexico's Corona Brew Wins Back Cachet. 29. Clive Sims, Adam Phillips, and Trevor Richards, Developing a Global Pricing Strategy, Marketing and Research Today (March 1992), pp. 3-14. 30. William Pride and . Ferrell, Marketing, 9th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995). 31. Coca-Cola Faces a Price War, Wall Street Journal, July 7, 1994, p. Al;

Cola Price War Breaks Out in Japan, Financial Times, July 14, 1994, p. 1. 32. Merck Cuts Price of AIDS Drug, Financial Times, March 20, 1997, p. 8. 33. Copyrights Can't Stop Gray Markets, Houston Chronicle, March 10, 1998, p. 1. 34. Luxury Prices for U.S. Goods No Longer Pass Muster in Japan, Wall Street Journal, Februarys, 1996, p. Bl. 35. World Marketing: Going Global or Acting Local? Five Expert Viewpoints, Journal of Consumer Marketing (Spring 1986), pp. 5-26.

36. Martin S. Roth and Jean B. Romeo, Matching Product Category and Country Image Perceptions: A Framework for Managing Country-of-Origin Effects, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1992), pp. 477-498;

John R. Darling and Van R. Wood, A Longitudinal Study Comparing Perceptions of U.S. and Japanese Consumer Products in a Third/ Neutral Country: Finland 1975 to 1985, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 21, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1990), pp. 427-450. 37. In Rural India, Video Vans Sell Toothpaste and Shampoo, Wall Street Journal, January 10, 1996, p. Bl. 38. U.S. Cigarette Firms Are Battling Taiwan's Bid to Stiffen Ad Curbs Like Other Asian Nations, Wall Street Journal, May 5, 1992, p. C25. 39. General Accounting Office, Advertising and Promoting U.S. Cigarettes in Sele cted Asian Countries, Report GAO/ GGD-93-38 (December 1992), p. 38f. 40. Barbara Mueller, Multinational Advertising: Factors Influencing the Stan dardised vs. Specialised Approach, International Marketing Review, vol. 8, no. 1 (1991), pp. 7-18. 41. Coke Global Image Ads, Wall Street Journal, April 29, 1997, p. B15. 42. Global Ad Campaigns, After Many Missteps, Finally Pay Dividends, Wall Street Journal, August 27, 1992, p. Al. 43. IBM Strives for a Single Image in Its European Ad Campaign, Wall Street Journal, April 16, 1991, p. B12. 44. A Universal Message, Financial Times, May 27, 1993. 45. Barbara Mueller, An Analysis of Information Content in Standardized vs. Specialized Multinational Advertisements, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 22, no. 1 (First Quarter 1991), pp. 23-40. 46. For a review of the issues involved, see Sudhir H. Kale and John W. Barnes, Understanding the Domain of Cross-National Buyer-Seller Interactions, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, no. 1 (First Quarter 1992), pp. 101-132. 47. Colgate-Palmolive Is Really Cleaning Up in Poland, BusinessWeek, March 15, 1993, pp. 54-56. 48. AIG Reshapes China's Insurance Industry, Wall Street Journal, February 9, 1996, p. A8. 49. Amway Grows Abroad, Sending "Ambassadors" to Spread the Word, Wall Street Journal, May 14, 1997, p. Al. 50. General Accounting Office, Advertising and Promoting U.S. Cigarettes in Selected Asian Countries, op. cit, p. 37ff. 51. Ashley Blaker, For Global Assistance, Dyal a Marketer, San Antonio Business Journal, August 7, 1989, p. 8. 52. SMH Leads a Revival of Swiss Watchmaking Industry, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 1992, p. B4. 53. Bicycle Brigade Takes Unilever to the People, Financial Times, August 17, 2000, p. 8.

1Q 54. Jean Downey, Touchdown! Business Tokyo (March 1992), p. 34. 55. Doublemint in China: Distribution Isn't Double the Fun, Wall Street Journal, December 5, 1995, p. Bl. 56. Cosmetic Makers Offer World's Women an -American Look with Local Twists, Wall Street Journal, May 8, 1995, p. Bl. 57. Coca-Cola to Open Plant in Moscow, Wall Street Journal, January 17, 1992, p. A3. 58. Cracking the Chinese Market, Wall Street Journal, January 9, 2003, p. Bl.

1. Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 126-127;

Cross-Belt Sortation Maximizes Distribution Cen ter Efficiency, Modern Materials Handling (January 1998), pp. 59-60;

Be netton Ad Models Are Dressed to Kill Sales, Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2000, p. A34;

The Families That Own Europe, Time, March 24, 2003, p. 46. 2. See Anil Lhurana, Managing Complex Production Processes, Sloan Mana gement Review (Winter 1999), pp. 85-98. 3. Robert H. Hayes and Gary P. Pisano, Beyond World-Class: The New Manu facturing Strategy, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1994, pp. 7787. 4. Michael McGrath and Richard Hoole, Manufacturing's New Economies of Scale, Harvard Business Review, May-June 1992, pp. 94-103. 5. Roly's Products Deck the Halls in U.S., Asia, Wall Street Journal, December 27, 1996, p. A3B. 6. Masaaki Kotabe and Janet Y. Murray, Linking Product and Process Innova tions and Modes of International Sourcing in Global Competition: A Case of Foreign Manufacturing Firms, Journal of International Business Studies (Third Quarter, 1990), pp. 383-408. 7. James Brian Quinn and Frederick G. Hilmer, Strategic Outsourcing, Sloan Management Review (Summer 1994), pp. 43-55;

James Brian Quinn, Outso urcing Innovation: The New Engine of Growth, Sloan Management Review (Summer 2000), pp. 13-28. 8. Stephen J. Kobrin, An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Global Integ ration, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 12 (1991), pp. 17-431. 9. Peter Siddall, Keith Willey, and Jorge Tavares, Building a Transnational Organization for British Petroleum, Long Range Planning, vol. 25, no. 1 (1992), pp. 18-26. 10. James Welch and P. Ranganath Nayak, Strategic Sourcing: A Progressive App roach to Make-or Buy Decision, Academy of Management Executive, February 1992, pp. 23-31. 11. See Paul S. Adler, Barbara Goldoftas, and David I. Levine, Flexibility versus Efficiency, Organization Science, vol. 10, no. 1 (1999), pp. 43-52.

12. Jeffrey . Liker and Yen-Chun Wu, Japanese Automakers, U.S. Suppliers and Supply Chain Superiority, Sloan Management Review (Fall 2000), pp. 81-93. 13. An Efficiency Guru Refits Honda to Fight Auto Giants, Wall Street Journal, September 15, 1999, pp. Bl, B4. 14. U.S. Companies Move to Limit Currency Risk, Wall Street Journal, August 3, 1993, p. A10. 15. Lorraine Eden, Kaye G. Husbands, and Maureen Appel Molot, Shocks and Responses: Canadian Auto Parts Suppliers Adjust to Free Trade and Lean Pro duction, mimeo, 1997. 16. Andrew D. Bartmess, The Plant Location Puzzle, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1994, pp. 20-22. 17. Dwight Silverman, Compaq Plans to Build $15 Million Brazil Plant, Houston Chronicle, March 23, 1994, p. IB. 18. Nissan to Say "We're Back' with New Mississippi Plant, Houston Chronicle, November 9, 2000, p. 3C. 19. Patriya Tansuhaj and George Jackson, Foreign Trade Zones: A Comparative Analysis of Users and Non-Users, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 10, no. 1, 1989, pp. 15-30. 20. The Supplier Moves Next Door, Financial Times, July 24, 1997, p. IV. 21. David Arnold, Seven Rules of International Distribution, Harvard Business Review, November-December 2000, pp. 131-137. 22. Stanley E. Fawcett, Linda L. Stanley, and Sheldon R. Smith, Developing a Logistics Capability to Improve the Performance of International Operations, Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 18, no. 2 (1997), p. 102. 23. Walter Zinn and Robert E. Grosse, Barriers to Globalization: Is Global Distri bution Possible? The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 1 (1990), pp. 13-18. 24. Adam J. Fein and Sandy D. Jap, Manage Consolidation in the Distribution Channel, Sloan Management Review, March 29, 1999, pp. Al, A8. 25. Clyde E. Witt, Packaging: From the Plant Floor to the Global Customer, Material Handling Engineer (October 1992), pp. 3-31. 26. Richard B. Chase and Warren J. Erikson, The Service Factory, Academy of Management Executive (August 1988), pp. 191-196. 27. John W. Kendrick, Understanding Productivity: An Introduction to the Dynamics of Productivity (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977). 28. Gene Bylinsky, Look Who's Doing R&D, Fortune, November 27, 2000, pp. 232[B]-232[F]. 29. See Rob Cross and Lloyd Baird, Technology Is Not Enough: Improving Performance by Building Organizational Memory, Sloan Management Review (Spring 2000), pp. 69-78. 30. Brian Dumaine, Who Needs a Boss? Fortune, May 7, 1990, pp. 52-60;

Brian Dumaine, The Trouble with Teams, Fortune, September 5, 1994, pp. 86-92. 31. Ross Johnson and William O. Winchell, Management and Quality (Milwaukee: American Society for Quality Control, 1989).

1Q 32. See Sandra Vandermerwe, How Increasing Value to Customers Improves Business Results, Sloan Management Review (Fall 2000), pp. 27-38. 33. Marshall Sashkin and Kenneth J. Kiser, Putting Total Quality Management to Work (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 1993). 34. Donald A. Marchand, William J. Kettinger, and John D. Rollins, Information Orientation: People, Technology, and the Bottom Line, Sloan Management Review (Summer 2000), pp. 69-80. 35. Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An excerpt from The Plant Location Puzzle by Andrew D. Bartmess, March/April 1994. Copyright (c) 1994 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College;

all rights reserved. 18 1. KLM Annual Reports for 1999/2000, 1996/97, and 1993/94;

U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Calendar Year 1995;

Fortune, August 22, 1994, p. 190. 2. EADS Urges Boeing to Adopt Euro as the Industry's Currency, Financial Times, March 25, 2003, p. 17. 3. Small Firms Hit Foreign Obstacles in Billing Overseas, Wall Street Journal, December 8, 1992, p. B2. 4. Survey of Current Business, February 1997, p. 24. 5. Richard Schaffer, Beverly Earle, and Filiberto Agusti, International Business Law and Its Environment (St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing, 1990), pp. 154-155. 6. Chase Manhattan Bank, Dynamics of Trade Finance (New York: Chase Man hattan, 1984), pp. 41-58;

Steve Murphy, Complete Export Guide Manual (Man hattan Beach, Calif.: Tran Publishing House, 1980). 7. Pompiliu Verzariu, Countertrade Practices in East Europe, the Soviet Union and China: An Introductory Guide to Business (Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, November 1984), pp. 98, 101. 8. Rolf Mirus and Bernard Yeung, Economic Incentives for Countertrade, Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1986), pp. 27-39. 9. U.S. Woos Allies with Unique Deal on New Fighter Jet, Wall Street Journal, July 22, 2002, p. Al;

BAE Opens Office for Fighter Crews, Fort Worth Star Telegram, July 10, 2002 (online);

Fiat Unit Is in Deal on Fighter Jets, Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2002, p. B2. 10. Grant T. Hammond, Countertrade, Offsets and Barter in International Political Economy (New York: St. Martin's, 1990), p. 75. 11. Max Elijapan Inc. (Chicago: Probus Publishing, 1999), pp. 101-104. 12. Marc Rich & Co. Does Big Deals at Big Risk in Former U.S.S.R., Wall Street Journal, May 15,1993, p. Al. 13. Hammond, Countertrade, p. 11. 14. Daimler Allows Argentines to Pay with Grain, Wall Streetjoumal, November 22, 2002, p. All. 15. Export-Import Bank of the United States, 2002 Annual Report.

16. Foreign Currency Trades Slow at Merc as Firms Back Away, Wall Street Jour nal, October 20, 1992, p. Cl. 17. What Made the Indonesian Currency Plummet, Wall Street Journal, Decem ber 30, 1997, p. A4. 18. AFLAC Incorporated, 2002 Annual Report, p. 49. 19. The Procter & Gamble Company, 1996 Annual Report, p. 37;

Owens Corning, 1996 Annual Report, p. 42. 20. General Motors, 1996 Annual Report, p. 70. 21. Sony Annual Report Year Ended March 31, 1996, p. 31. 22. How U.S. Firm Copes with Asia Crisis, Wall Street Journal, December 26, 1997, p. A2. 23. Centralisation Lessens the Risk, Financial Times, April 18, 1997, p. III. 24. Marjorie Stanley and Stanley Block, An Empirical Study of Management and Financial Variables Influencing Capital Budgeting Decisions for Multinational Corporations in the 1980s, Management International Review, vol. 23, no. 3 (1983), pp. 61-71. 25. U. Rao Cherukuri, Capital Budgeting in India, in S. Kerry Cooper, ed., South west Review of International Business Research (1992), pp. 194-204. 26. David K. Eiteman, Arthur I. Stonehill, and Michael Moffett, Multinational Busi ness Finance, 7th edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company;

Reading, Massachusetts, 1995, p. 416. 27. Survey of Current Business, June 2003, p. D-53. 28. Ibid, p. D-57. 29. When It's Smart to Use Foreign Banks, International Business (January 1992), pp. 17-18. 30. Gunter Dufey and Ian H. Giddy, Innovation in the International Financial Market, The Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1981), pp. 33-51. 31. A Eurobond Issue Tied to Film Results, Wall Street Journal, October 12,1992, p. C17. 32. Walt Disney to Sell Notes Tied to Films' Results, with Initial Yield Linked to U.S. 7-Year Issue, Wall Street Journal, February 17, 1994, p. C20. 33. Vital Tool in Minimizing Costs, Financial Times, November 11, 1992, p. III.

1. The Year of Nasty Surprises, BusinessWeek, March 10, 2003, p. 48ff;

Deloitte's Work for Ahold Raises Audit Questions, Wall Street Journal, February 25, 2003, p. A10;

Supermarket Giant Ahold Ousts CEO in Big Accounting Scandal, Wall Street Journal, February 25, 2003, p. Al;

The Accountants' War, The New Yorker, April 22 & 29, 2002, p. 64ff;

Andersen Talks with KPMG about Future of Overseas Divisions, Houston Chronicle, March 19, 2002, p. 4B;

Andersen's Global Partners Study Options in Light of U.S. Firm's Possible Breakup, Wall Street Journal, March 18, 2002, p. A3;

1Q 2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9. 10. 11.

12. 13.

Andersen Poses Big Risks for a Potential Buyer, Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2002, p. Cl;

Business Vanished "in Puff of Smoke", Financial Times, January 30, 2002, p. 16. American Accounting Association, A Statement of Basic Accounting Theory (Evanston, III.: AAA, 1966), p. 1. Much of the discussion in this section is taken from Frederick D. S. Choi, Carol Ann Frost, and Gary K. Meek, International Accounting, 4th ed. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002), Chapters 2, 3, and 4;

and from reports of the Working Group on Accounting Standards, Organisation for Economic Coope ration and Development, published in 1987: Accounting Standards Harmoni zation, No. 2: Consolidation Policies in OECD Nations and Accounting Stan dards Harmonization, No. 3: The Relationship Between Taxation and Financial Reporting, Frederick D. S. Choi (ed.), International Accounting and Finance Handbook (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997). Stephen B. Salter and Timothy D. Doupnik, The Relationship Between Legal Systems and Accounting Practices, in Kenneth S. Most, ed., Advances in Inter national Accounting, vol. 5 (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1992). Hanns-Martin W. Schoenfeld, International Accounting: Development, Issues, and Future Directions. Journal of International Business Studies (Fall 1981), pp. 83-100. Chinese Practitioners Ready for Their Great Leap Forward, Financial Times, August 13, 1993, p. 20. Timothy S. Doupnik, Recent Innovations in German Accounting Practice, in Kenneth S. Most, ed., Advances in International Accounting, vol. 5 (Green wich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1992). Robert Bloom, Jayne Fuglister, and Jeffrey Kantor, Toward Internationalization of Upper-Level Financial Accounting Courses, in Kenneth S. Most, ed., Advances in International Accounting, vol. 5 (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1992), pp. 239-253;

Frederick D. S. Choi and Richard Levich, The Capital Market Effects of International Accounting Diversity (Homewood, III.: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1990), pp. 115-117. Deutsche Bank Says Net Jumped 24% in 1995, Discloses Big Hidden Reser ves, Wall Street Journal, March 29,1996, p. A8. Big Board Chief Renews His Pitch on Foreign Stocks, Wall Street Journal, January 7, 1992, p. A2. S. J. Gray, J. Shaw, and L. B. McSweeney, Accounting Standards and Multi national Corporations, Journal of International Business Studies (Spring/ Summer 1981), pp. 121-136. Daimler-Benz Gears Up for a Drive on the Freeway, Financial Times, April 30, 1993. VW Plans to Switch Accounting Standards, Financial Times, February 21, 2000, p. 17;

Volkswagen Reluctantly Changes Lanes, Financial Times, Feb ruary 21, 2000, p. 21.

14. Andrew L. Nodar, Coca-Cola Writes an Accounting Procedures Manual, Management Accounting, vol. 68 (October 1986), pp. 52-53. 15. Istemi S. Demirag, Assessing Foreign Subsidiary Performance: The Currency Choice of U.K. MNCs, Journal ofInternational Business Studies, vol. 19, no. 2 (Summer 1988), pp. 257-275. 16. Choi, Frost, and Meek, International Accounting p. 298ff. 17. Stephen B. Salter, Classification of Financial Reporting Systems and a Test of Their Environmental Determinants, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Univer sity of South Carolina (1991), p. 5. 18. Language Lessons for Accountants, Financial Times, July 11, 1995, p. 4. 19. German Conglomerate Adopts U.S. System of Filing Accounts, Financial Times, March 28, 1996, p. 11;

Bonn Signals Softer Line on Accounting, Financial Times, May 22, 1995, p. 2;

German Firms Shift to More Open Accounting, Wall Street Journal, March 15, 1995, p. CI. 20. Financial Accounting Standards Board, Statement of Financial Accounting Stan dards No. 52: Foreign Currency Translation (Stamford, Conn.: FASB, December 1981). 21. Dell Computer at War with Analyst Critical of Its Currency Trades, WallStreet Journal, November 30, 1992, p. Al;

Dell Computer Shares Drop by 9,8% on Analyst's Currency-Trading Report, Wail Street Journal, November 11, 1992, p.A5. 22. Robert G. Ruland and Timothy S. Doupnik, Foreign Currency Translation and the Behavior of Exchange Rates, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19, no. 3 (Fall 1988), p. 462. 23. J. Stewart, Transfer Pricing: Some Empirical Evidence from Ireland, Jour nal of Economic Studies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 40-56. 24. David Harris, Randall Morck, Joel Slemrod, and Bernard Yeung, Income Shif ting in U.S. Multinational Corporations, University of Michigan, mimeo, 1991;

James R. Hines and Eric Rice, Fiscal Paradise: Foreign Tax Havens and American Business, N.B.E.R. Working Paper #3477 (Cambridge, Mass., 1990);

James Wheeler, An Academic Look at Transfer Pricing in a Global Economy, Tax Notes, July 4, 1988. 25. IBM Probed Over Payments of U.K. Taxes, Wall Street Journal, August 6, 1999, p. A3. 26. Generation of Huge Changes, Financial Times, February 2, 2000, p. III. 27. Bruce W. Reynolds and Alan R. Levenson, Setting Up a Foreign Sales Corporation Can Cut Your Tax Bill, Journal of European Business (July/Au gust 1992), pp. 59-64;

Mark A. Goldstein and Arthur I. Aronoff, Foreign Sales Corporations: Tax Incentives for U.S. Exporters, Business Credit (April 1991), pp. 20-23. 28. Choi and Mueller, p. 554. 29. Japan's Tax Man Leans on Foreign Firms, Wall Street Journal, November 25, 1996, p. A13.

1Q 1. San Antonio Aims to Build Toyota-Caliber Workforce, Bryan-College Station Eagle, March 9, 2003, p. A7;

Hoover's Handbook of World Business 2003 (Austin, Tex.: Hoover's Business Press, 2003), pp. 628-629;

Justin Martin, Mercedes: Made in Alabama, Fortune, July 7, 1997, pp. 150-158;

Toyota Devises Grueling Workout for Job Seekers, USA Today, August 11, 1997, p. 3B. 2. Angelo S. DeNisi and Ricky W. Griffin, Human Resource Management, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifftin, 2005), Chapter 4, pp. 102-134. 3. To Get Shipped Abroad, Women Must Overcome Prejudice at Home, Wall Street Journal, June 29, 1999, p. Bl. 4. Nakiye Boyacigiller, The Role of Expatriates in the Management of Interde pendence, Complexity, and Risk in Multinational Corporations,Journal of Inter national Business Studies, vol. 21, no. 3 (Third Quarter 1990), pp. 357-382. 5. Gretchen M. Spreitzer, Morgan W. McCall, Jr., and Joan D. Mahoney, Early Identification of International Executive Potential, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, no. 1 (1997), pp. 6-29. 6. See DeNisi and Griffin, Human Resource Management. 7. Companies Send Intrepid Retirees to Work Abroad, Wall Street Journal, March 2,1998, p. Bl. 8. Pharmacia to Move Headquarters to U.S. East Coast, Wall Street Journal, October 14, 1997, p. B14. 9. See J. Stewart Black and Hal B. Gregersen, The Right Way to Manage Expats, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1999, pp. 52-62. 10. See Paula M. Caligiuri, The Big Five Personality Characteristics as Predictors of Expatriate's Desire to Terminate the Assignment, Personnel Psychology, vol. 53, no. 1 (2000), pp. 67-78. 11. To Smooth a Transfer Abroad, a New Focus on Kids, Watt Street Journal, January 26, 1999, pp. Bl, B14. 12. Andrea . , Destination Everywhere, HRMagaxine, October 2000, pp. 67-77. 13. Ann Marie Ryan, Lynn McFarland, Helen Baron, and Ron Page, An Interna tional Look at Selection Practices: Nation and Culture as Explanations for Varia bility in Practice, Personnel Psychology, vol. 52, no. 2 (1999), pp. 58-70. 14. Joel D. Nicholson, Lee P. Stepina, and Wayne Hochwarter, Psychological As pects of Expatriate Effectiveness, in Ben B. Shaw and John E. Beck (guest editors);

Gerald R. Ferris and Kendrith M. Rowland, eds., Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Supplement 2: International Human Reso urces Management) (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 127-145. 15. Gary P. Ferraro, The Cultural Dimension of International Business (Upper Sad dle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1990), pp. 143-144. 16. Before Going Overseas Smart Managers Plan Their Homecoming, Wall Street Journal, September 28, 1999, p. Bl;

Expatriates Find Long Stints Abroad Can Close Doors to Credit at Home, Wall Street Journal, May 17, 1993, pp. Bl, B6.

17. Juan I. Sanchez, Paul E. Spector, and Cary L. Cooper, Adapting to a Boundaryless World: A Developmental Expatriate Model, Academy of Management Executive (May 2000), pp. 96-105. 18. New Plant Gets Jaguar in Gear, USA Today, November 27, 2000, p. 4B. 19. Distractions Make Global Manager a Difficult Role, Wall Street Journal, No vember 21, 1999, p. Bl, 18. 20. Michael J. Marquardt and Dean W. Engel, HRD Competencies for a Shrinking World, Training & Development (May 1993), pp. 59-60. 21. Shirley Fung, How Should We Pay Them? Across the Board (June 1999), pp. 37-41. 22. Lawrence A. West, Jr., and Walter A. Bogumil, Jr., Foreign Knowledge Workers as a Strategic Staffing Option, Academy of Management Executive (November 2000), pp. 71-84. 23. Some U.S. Companies Find Mexican Workers Not So Cheap After All, Wall Street Journal, September 15, 1993, pp. Al, A16. 24. How Merrill Lost Its Way in Japan, BusinessWeek, November 12, 2001, p. 104. 25. Christopher Lorenz, Learning to Live with a Cultural Mix, Financial Times, April 23,1993, p. 18. 26. Anthony M. Townsend, K. Dow Scott, and Steven E. Markham, An Exami nation of Country and Culture-Based Differences in Compensation Practices, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 21, no. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1990), pp. 667-678. 27. Sick Swedes a High-Cost Headache to Employers, Houston Chronicle, Sep tember 8, 2002, p. 3D. 28. Bitter Swedish Dispute Set to End, Financial Times, May 30, 1995, p. 3.

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