«Московский международный институт эконометрики, информатики, финансов и права A Course of Business English Learning Курс обучения деловому английскому языку Турук Ирина Федоровна Морозенко Валентина ...»
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yours faithfully faithfully yours yours truely yours sincerely sincerely yours cordially yours (USA) Note: It is always quite sufficient to use “Yours faithfully” in business letters, “Yours truely” in personal letters to a stranger, and “Yours sincerely”to a friend or acquaintance. The Americans, on the whole, prefer “Yours truely”in business and “Cordially yours”, when writing to a friend.
IX. Read text B and memorize the right commercial phrases used in business letters.
Text B. English on Commerce The language of commerce is not a different language.It is standard English adopted to the needs of commerce and business in general. It is characterized by highly specialized terminology, by commercial phrases used in business letters, by a different style and other minor difference. The commercial phrases used in business letters must be adjusted to the needs of the individual letter and joined into a smoothly flowing whole. Business letter writers often make a mistake expressing themselves in a “business-like”way by copying doubtful phrases found in letters received, or using cliches or worn-out expressions (клише или устаревшие выражения) such as some given below:
WRONG RIGHT ------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------- to above order the above-mentioned order enclosed please we are enclosing we beg to offer you we are pleased to offer you (to send you, (to send you, to inform you) to inform you) reffering to with reference to replying to in reply to complying with in compliance with thanking you thank you In business letters nowadays it is not recommended to use “to advise” in the sense “to inform”.
/to advise - советовать;
advice - совет/ X. Choose the English phrase corresponding to the following 1. В ответ на Ваше письмо от 13 января мы хотим Вас ознакомить (информировать)...
1) We thank you for your letter of 10th May...
2) Many thanks for your offer of yesterday...
3) In reply to your letter of January 13th, we wish to inform you...
2. В соответствии с Вашим предложением...
1) Complying with your offer...
2) Referring to your offer...
3) In compliance with your offer...
XI.Memorize the phrases announcing:
a) a neutral fact b) a pleasant fact We wish to say (to tell, to inform Сообщаем Вам We are pleased to let you know you, to let you know) We are glad (happy) to inform you We should like to inform you Рады сообщить Вам We have to inform you Сообщаем Вам c) polite request Please send us your latest Пришлите нам, пожалуйста, ваш catalogue. новый каталог.
We should appriciate your Будем очень рады, если Вы sending us samples. пришлете нам образцы.
d) closing phrases We are looking forward Ожидаем от вас в ближайшее to an early reply ( to время (положительный) ответ.
receiving a favourable reply) We hope to hear from you Надеемся, что Вы ответите нам soon. в ближайшее время.
We await your early reply. Ждем Ваш ответ в ближайшее время.
XII.Read the following letter and translate it into Russian.
Thank you very much for your order N3556/9, which we were happy to receive. All the items you need are in stock, so that we can guarantee immediate dispatch. In the meantime, we are enclosing our most up-to-date illustrated catalogue of new items of our goods and trust you will be interested.
We sincerely like to serve you and will enjoy having your order as often as in the past.
Yours truely C. TEST XIII.Define the type of the following sentences /a-the simple;
c-the complex setnence/ _ A businessman needs to communicate with other businessman.
_ He can do this by using the telephone.
_ He can do it by writing, but the modern businessman does not write his letter by hand.
_ He dictates them to a shorthand typist (стенографистка) who types the letter on her machine or use a personal computer and later takes them to be signed.
XIV. Define the type of the following sentences /a-the simple;
c-the complex setnence/ _ International telephone calls are very expensive.
_Therefore before booking a call it should be found out whether a telex, fax or cable message would not be cheaper.
_If a call is really necessary, it must be as short as possible.
_The key to this is thorough (тщательная) preparation.
XV. Choose the Russian words (the number) corresponding to the following English ones:
замешательство sincerely — 8. отправка order — 9. приспосабливать confusion — 10. предшествовать XVI.Choose the English translation of the following:
рады вам сообщить — 1.the letter is addressed название фирмы to Mr. Brown письмо адресовано мистеру — 2.we are enclosing our up-to-date Брауну catalogue к письму прилагаем наш — 3.we guarantee immediate последний каталог dispatch.
мы гарантируем немедленное — 4.international telephone отправление call is very expensive международный телефонный — 5.the name of the firm разговор очень дорого стоит 6.we are pleased to inform — вышеупомянутый заказ — 7.above-mentioned order SUPPLEMENTARY READING 1. FORMS OF GREETINGS A.: This is your first trip to England?
B.: Yes, it is.
A.: It reminds me of my first trip to England. At that time I met a man with a very useful list of “do’s and don’ts “.
B.: May I take a note of those “do’s and don’ts”, please.
A.: By all means. The first rule is about the forms of greeting. The very formal “How do you do?” is not a question and requires the answer “How do you do?”. The form is used when you are introduced to someone or if you meet someone for the first time.
B.: And if I meet a person from time to time?
A.: Then you say “How are you?”. The answer is “Very well, thank you”.
B.: Are there any other forms of greetings?
A.: Yes, of course. Say “Good morning” till noon.
B.: And after that?
A.: After that you say “Good afternoon” till six o’clock or so. The people always say “Good evening” and “Good night” after nightfall. Suppose you meet a friend or your good acquaintance. Say :Hello, George!” or “Hello, Mary!”. It is also a kind of greeting.
B.: And what do strangers say when they are introduced to each other?
A.: They say “Glad to meet you”;
”Hello!”. The usual introduction formula would be “May I introduce Mr. (or Mrs., Miss) So-and-so?”, or less formal “Meet Mr. So-and-so”.
B.: I see. Thank you.
Further Practice Найдите в тексте ответы на вопросы:
1. What is a formal greeting?
2. What is the answer to formal greeting?
3. What is the answer to “How are you”?
4. What forms of greeting do you know?
Forms of Greetings.
Table to express to answer 1. How do you do? 4. How do you do?
to greet Good morning! Good morning!
formally Good afternoon! Good afternoon!
Good evening! Good evening!
to greet 2. Hello ! 5. Hello !
informally How are you ! Thank you ! I’m very Hi ! well (all right).
3. Goodbye ! 6. Goodbye !
to say good-bue formally to express to answer 7. Bye-bye ! 9. Bye !
to say good-bue So long ! See you later !
informally See you tomorrow! (tomorrow, etc.) 8. Thank you ! 10. Not at all.
to thank smb Thank you ever so Don’t mention it.
much (accepting an You are welcome.
No, thanks (declining an offer) Пользуясь таблицей 3, выберите выражения для следующих ситуаций общения:
a) You meet your teacher. Greet him/her.
b) You see your friend. Greet him/her.
c) You thank your teacher for the consultation and say goodbye.
d) You thank your friend and decline his/her offer.
e) Your friend thanks you for your consultation. Answer him.
Выразить просьбу Ответить на просьбу 1. дать согласие, разрешение сделать что-либо Certainly! Of course!
May I bring my friend with me? Naturally! Sure! Surely (AE)!
May I have your dictionary just for a moment? 2. разрешить взять что-либо, May I come next week? получить что-либо Yes, of course!
Go ahead! (Please) do!
You are welcome.
3. получить совет, помощь Will you do this for me? Gladly!
Could you shut the window? With pleasure.
Could I have some informa- You are welcome.
4. передать что-либо Pass me this textbook, please. Here you are.
5. отказать в просьбе Let’s go to the theatre. I’m sorry, I can’t.
Do you go with us? No, I don’t, etc.
May I take your dictionary? Sorry (I need it myself).
Finish the following short dialogues:
A Albert: We have a party tonight.
Boris: Can I bring my sister.
B A.: I haven’t got the dictionary. May I have yours (your dictionary)?
C A.: Excuse me, Boris. I’m engaged this evening. Could you meet my sister at the station at 5? Will you do this for me?
Pass me the textbook, please.
E A.: Let’s go to have dinner after the lessons.
G A.: I wonder if you could tell me the way to... square. I’m for the first time in this city.
H A.: Excuse me, madam.
A.: Could you help me. Is it far from here to... square?
3. FINDING THE WAY.
a) At the Bus Stop A.: Excuse me, sir!
A.: I wonder if you could tell me the number of the bus to the square from here.
B.: Oh, let me think for a moment. I’m not absolutely sure, but I think it’s the number twelve bus. The stop is just round the corner.
A.: Oh, thank you. Hope you don’t mind my asking, but do you happen to know a good hotel not far from here. I’m for the first time in this city.
B.: I’m terrible sorry. I can’t. I really don’t know much about it.
A.: Thank you and good-bye.
B.: Good luck.
b) At the Square (10 minutes later) A.: Ah, excuse me, Ma’am!
A.: I wonder if you could help me to find the hotel “Metropolitan”. Where is it? Is it far from here?
C.: Um, have you got a map? We can look at it. It is easy. Look! You walk along a little bit and then turn to the right, and you go up to the Museum of Arts. Do you see it?
A.: Oh, yes. The Museum of Arts. The building is at the corner of two streets.
C.: That’s right and you walk past it and than you keep on walking past the library. The hotel is just next building.
A.: Great. I really appreciate it. Thank you very much.
C.: O.K. Good-bye.
Найдите английские фразы, соответствующие русским:
1. Вы случайно не знаете... a) Pass me the textbook, 2. Не поможете ли вы мне please.
3. Хотел бы я знать … b) - Here you are.
4. Передайте мне учебник, пожалуйста. c) Let’s go to the theatre — Пожалуйста tomorrow.
5. Давайте поедем завтра в театр. - I’m sorry. I can’t.
— К сожалению я не могу. d) You are welcome.
6. Можно мне прийти на следующей e) I wonder.
неделе? f) Do you happen to know.
— Пожалуйста. g) Could you help me.
h) May I come next week?
You are welcome.
Дополните следующие тексты соответствующими по смыслу словами.
- could you tell me the way ? 1. three - Go straight for two blocks 2. with pleasure and then turn 3. excuse me, sir - Is it far from here? 4. Oh, let me think for a moment - . It is only blocks 5. to the right from here. 6. thank you - 7. to the hotel - 8. not at all - Excuse me, could you tell me 1. walk the shortest to the National 2. way Gallery? 3. much time - Do you want to there? 4. afraid - Oh, no. I am it will take 5. for the first time me too . I am a in this city, 6. a map so I don’t know how to get there. 7. thank you and good-bye - Have you got ? Look! It is here. 8. Good luck - - 4. HIGHER EDUCATION IN OUR STATE.
1. There are higher schools with six million students. There are Universities, large academic and research centres, which train specialists in the natural and exact sciences and the humanities.
2. In most of them in the first two or three years there is a common curriculum for all related faculties.
Specialisation usually begins in the third or fourth year. A foreign language is one of the obligatory subjects at all higher education establishments.
3. Under the guidance of their professors students are engaged in research work.
4. Training at institutions of higher learning may last from four to six years.
5. The State offers considerable benefits to students who study and work at the same time. They receive extra paid holidays and a fifty per cent discount on fares for travel to and their places of study.
6. The institutions of higher education and specialized secondary schools are attended by foreign students from different countries.
7. The establishments of higher education from which foreign students graduate continue to take an interest in their former students graduates: they organize refresher courses and scientific and practical training to enable them to acquaint themselves with the latest developments in their fields.
Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых говорится:
1. о том, что в стране учится 6 миллионов студентов;
2. о продолжительности обучения в ВУЗе;
3. о времени начала специализации;
4. о льготах для студентов вечернего и заочного обучения;
5. об обучении студентов из других стран;
6. об участии студентов в научно-исследовательской работе.
5. PLANS FOR HOLIDAYS 1 - Hello, Paul, will you go to the cinema with us?
2 - Well, I’d rather not, Ales, if you don’t mind.
3 - Not at all. Have you got any other ideas?
4 - I’ll be busy this evening. I’ll read for my exams.
5 - Oh, I see. When will the exams end?
6 - We’ll have our last examination on the 24th of January.
7 - I wonder if you’d like to join us for a skiing trip on Saturday morning at 10 o’clock.
8 - That would be very pleasant, but I’ll take my first exam on that day.
9 - I see. How are you going to spend your winter holidays?
10 - If I pass the exams successfully I’ll leave for the village where I was born.
11 - Is it far from the city?
12 - No, it’s quite near, and the place is beautiful.
13 - Well, you’ll have a good time there, I hope.
14 - Oh, yes. Well, I have an idea. Let us go to the village together?
15 - That’s a great idea! I like skiing or walking in the country, but I’m not sure I’ll be able to go.
16 - You don’t have to decide right now. We’ll have time to discuss it.
17 - OK 18 - See you later.
Найдите в диалоге ответы на следующие вопросы:
1. Will Paul go to the cinema?
2. What will he do in the evening?
3. What does Alec intend to do on Saturday morning?
4. What will Paul intend to do during his holidays?
5. What will Alec do if he leaves for the village?
Дополните диалог правильными по смыслу репликами:
ДИАЛОГ 1) A: Hello, Nick! How are you?
A: When will the exams end?
A: What about the holidays?
Are you going anywhere?
4)A: But you went there last year, didn’t you?
A: Are you going by train?
A: When does the train start?
A: Have a nice trip.
N: Thank you.
РЕПЛИКИ 1. I am leaving for Kiev tomorrow.
2. At 9 p.m.
3. Fine, thank you.
4. Yes, I have already booked my ticket.
5. I passed my last exam yesterday.
6. No, I’m going there for the first time.
Составьте диалог, употребив знакомые Вам слова и фразы.
Step 1. You decide to take your friend out for the evening.
Step 2: Where to go?
Step 3: What film to see?
Step 4: You arrive at the cinema. The seats are all taken.
Step 5: You decide to go to another cinema.
Step 6: You find that another cinema has not an interesting programme.
7. THE CHANGING SHAPE OF BRITISH INDUSTRY Since the beginning of the 20th century, there has been a big change in the shape of British industry.
Until fairly recent times, the principal British exports were coal, ships and textiles. The mining, shipbuilding and textile districts of the north had some of the worst working and living conditions in the country.
The output of coal has dropped. Similarly, the demand for coal at home and abroad has also dropped, so coal is no longer a major export. Oil has taken its place as a fuel for many purposes. The British shipbuilding industry has had to face stiff competition from overseas yards particulary in Japan. And the textile industry has also suffered-partly because demand for British textiles has dropped and partly because man-made synthetic fibres have appeared.
On the other hand, the British exports of machinery, oil by-products and chemicals, vehicles and electrical goods have increased, so the shape of industry has changed. These new industries have tended to grow up in the midlands or the south. Consequently, people have moved into these districts and today over a quarter of the population of Britain lives in the London area. People have even begun to talk of the ‘Two Nations’- the prosperious south and the depressed north.
The new level of production based on the new technology demands computerized planning, socialized capital investments, a planned socialized system of distribution, a plan that synchronizes production and human needs, a world-wide division of labour, a plan creating abundance while protecting the environment.
8. AT THE MOSCOW FAIR (BUSINESS INTERVIEW) ( Mr. Smith, an English visitor to the Fair, approaches Mr. Petrov, the information officer at the cars stand) Mr. Smith: Do you speak English?
Mr. Petrov: Yes, I do. How can I help you?
Mr. Smith: I represent an English firm of importers dealing in case. I’d like to know which items displayed here are available at short notice.
Mr. Petrov: What are you particularly interested in, sir? As you can see, there’s quite a choice of cars here.
And delivery time varies according to the model and quality required.
Mr. Smith: I see. Well, I can’t single out any model at the moment. I just want to get the general outline of your delivery dates. I must be sure if I order them I can get them to my customer before the market is flooded by more fashionable and attractive models.
Mr. Petrov: I take your point. After receiving your order, we can deliver any model either at once, or within three to four months. For the delivery dates of the particular model, I’ll give you a copy of this illustrated catalogue with the price-list. The models marked in red are available for immediate delivery.
Mr. Smith: Thank you. I’ll take the catalogue with me and come back when I’ve looked through it.
Mr. Petrov: Certainly. I’m sure you’ll find some items of interest in it. And I’ll be very pleased to help you.
Mr. Smith: Thank you. See you later, then.
Mr. Petrov: Good-bye, Mr. Smith.
Choose the interrogative word to the underlined words.
1. I represent an English firm of importers dealing in car.
Узнайте, что такое Саентология...
Ваша жизнь поменяется...
2. I can’t single out any model at the moment.
1. who 3. After receiving your order, we can deliver any 2. what model.
3. where 4. He speaks English very well.
5. I’ll take several catalogues with me. 4. when 6. I’m sure you’ll find some items of interest in the 5. how catalogue.
6. how many Choose correct answers to the following questions:
1. What is your name, please? 1. I have come to tell you about our latest products.
2. Which firm do you represent? 2. Here is my card.
3. What is the purpose of your visit, sir? 3. Tomorrow morning.
4. Are there any chances of extending our mutual 4. Certainly, we could do more business with each contracts? other.
5. Shall I give you the copy of this catalogue? 5. There is a choice of cars here.
6. Could you tell me which items are displayed at 6. The models are marked in red.
the fair? 7. Yes, please. I’ll look it through.
7. What items, listed in this catalogue are available 8. An English firm of importers dealing in cars.
for immediate delivery? 9. We can deliver any model either at once or within 8. Could you give me some information about the three or four months.
9. When are you leaving?
9. THE WORLD’S POPULATION The world’s population at the beginning of our era, as estimated by Soviet demographers, can be represented as shown in the following table.
The world’s population at the beginning of our era Population Part of the World ( in millions) Europe Asia North and Central America South America Africa Oceania 1. The level of farming technique at that time could not ensure production of enough food for such a huge number of people. Many areas of the world had no population at that time, or had very little;
about two thirds of the planet’s inhabitants lived in Asia.
During the first millennium of our era population growth continued, but probably at a rather slower rate than earlier. Progress in industry and agricultural technique was very slow, and at the same time wars and epidemics carried off a vast number of people in Europe, Asia, North Africa. The approximate population of the world in A.D. 1000 was put at 275,000,000.
The mean annual rate of population increase has altered greatly. It should be mentioned here that with a general trend to higher rates of increase, the effect of the world wars is very marked in separate decades. During the second decade of the 20th century the consequences of World War I reduced the rate of population increase. As to World War II, we can see its effect only in the USSR and the rest of Europe. For the decade 1940-1950 world population as a whole increased by approximately I per cent per annum.
A steep rise in the rate of increase occured in the sixth decade, mainly as a result of the lowering of infant mortality. The rate of increase doubled and reached almost 2 per cent per annum. If we had some information on the rate of increase of the last decade, we should see the same picture. The total, now thought to be approaching more than 6.000 million is not, of course, equally distributed in proportion to the land areas. Europe, including Russia, is about averagely populated, Africa, North and South Africa and Oceania are under-populated and Asia greatly over-populated. The rate of increase is also very uneven. According to forecasts, nearly 80% of the world population will be living in Asia, Africa and Latin America by the year 2000.
Complete the sentence according to the text:
1. The population of Asia at the beginning of our era can be defined a. by the figureof 19 million b. by the figure of 220 million c. by the figure equal to the population of Europe 2. Progress in industry and agriculture technique a. was very high b. was very slow c. was slower than earlier 3. If we had some information on the rate of population increase of the last decade a. we could see that the rate of increase doubled b. we could see that the rate of increase reached almost 3 per cent per annum c. we could see that the epidemics influenced upon the mean annual rate of population increase.
10. FROM THE HISTORY OF CENSUS TAKING Counting people is one of the oldest activities of government. The term “census”can be traced back to a Roman institution, the register of adult male citizens and their property which determined political status, military obligation and taxation.
Instituted by Servius Tullius, sixth King of Rome, about 550 B.C., it was extended under Caesar Augustus to take in the entire Roman Empire. The earliest census records reach back into history far beyond Roman times. There is evidence that as early as 3800 B.C. the Babylonians took stock of their land, listing the owners names and possessions. In ancient China the population was often enumerated for purposes of taxation and military service. The Incas of ancient Peru counted their people and their resources as well.
King Philip II of Spain ordered the first census in North America in 1577. Less than a century later, in 1666 the population of new France in Eastern Canada was enumerated by name, age, sex, marital status and profession.
Two censuses were taken in the seventeenth century in what is now called the United States.
During the following century 36 additional censuses were taken in the Colonies, most at the command of the British Board of Trade and frequently in the face of considerable resistance from the independminded colonists.
Norway, which took its first general census in 1769, began a schedule of periodic enumeration in 1815, Spain in 1798, France and Great Britain in 1801, Greece in 1836, Switzerland in 1860, Italy in and Russia in 1897.
In recent years the United Nations has encouraged census taking and other statistical development around the world. Each decade more and more nations are taking periodic stock of their people and resources. In the words of a Nigerian statistician, “Without an accurate census you can not plan.
NOTES Under Caesar Augustus - при Цезаре Августе... reach back into history far beyond Roman times - уходят в историю еще до возникновения Римской империи to take stock - проводить учет, инвентаризировать as early as 3.800 B.C. - еще в 3.800 г. до нашей эры British Board of Trade - Британское министерство торговли in the face of... - перед лицом (чего-либо) Geographical Names Babilon [‘bbil n] Вавилон (древний город) China [‘tain ] Китай France [fra:ns] Франция Great Britan [‘greit ‘brit n] Великобритания Greece [gri:s] Греция Italy [‘it Италия li] Мексика Mexico [‘meksikou] Нигерия Nigeria [ nai ‘d3i ri ] Северная Америка North America [ n:
’meri ] Перу Peru [p ’ru:] Рим Rome[roum] Испания Spain [spein] Швейцария Switzerland [‘swits l nd] Сomplete the sentences according to the text:
1. Counting people is one of a) the government policy to enumerate people b) the oldest activities of government c) the historical events in the development of human society 2. The earliest census records a) were instituted by Serwius Tullius about 550 B.C.
b) took stock of the land and possessions c) reach back into history far beyond Roman times 3. In ancient China the population was often enumerated a) for purpose of taxation and military service b) by age, sex, merital status and profession c) in 550 B.C.
4. King Philip II of Spain ordered the first census a) in 1666 in France b) in North America in c) in Eastern Canada by name, age and sex 5. Russia began a shedule of periodic enumeration a) in b) in c) in 6) Without an accurate census you can not a) live b) plan c) take stock 11. WHAT IS A CASH FLOW FORECAST?
A cash flow forecast is also known as a cash budget. As a forecast or budgeted statement it deals not with what has happened but with what is expected and planned to happen. It should not be confused with a cash flow statement which is drawn up after the event. Cash accounting is not concerned with sales revenue, costs, profit or loss. It is only concerned with the flow of cash into and out of a business. Consequently, credit sales do not become positive items in a cash flow forecast until the cash flows in. Similarly, purchases of inputs are not negative items until the cash flows out. Non-cash items in a profit and loss account (notably provision for depreciation) do not feature at all in cash accounting. We can therefore define a cash flow forecast as a plan which states in detail the cash flow which is expected to take place over a specified future period 12. COST Fixed assets are “assets which a business intends to use on a continuing basis”. Thus purpose, rather than physical nature, determines whether something counts as a fixed asset. Cars, for example, which are fixed assets for many companies, are mostly current assets (stock) for Rover, which sells cars.
Accountants ‘capitalise’ spending on fixed assets in the balance sheet, rather than at once writing it off in full in the profit and loss account. But they do so only where (a) they can identify fairly accurately the cost of an asset and (b) they expect the cost to be recovered in full, normally out of future sales revenue. Point (a) rules out most spending on building up brands and general business ‘goodwill’. It is very difficult to split total spending on promotion between current and future benefits. Point (b) rules out the cost of most technical research. Companies probably wouldn't choose to spend the money on research unless they expected it to ‘pay’ (in the future), but a lot can go wrong — both on the technical side and the commercial side — and it is often difficult to come up with solid enough evidence.
For many fixed assets it is easy to tell the 'cost5. In addition to the basic invoice cost of the asset itself, it may include costs of transporting and installing equipment, legal costs on the purchase of property, etc.
13. PRICE In theory organisations price optimally by using their knowledge of cost and revenue relationships to calculate the profit maximising price level. In reality organisations may adopt a very different approach to pricing.
To some extent the pricing practices followed will be determined by the objectives of the organisation. It is not usually the case that identical procedures are used by firms which seek to maximise profits as those which seek to maximise sales. It is also possible that pricing strategies in the short run are followed which do not lead to short-run profit maximisation, but instead to maximisation of long run profits.
There is no single approach to the way organisations develop the prices for their products and in some instances empirical studies (actual studies of how firms price) give conflicting views. Differences can also exist between what decision makers say they are doing and what they are actually doing.
14. SKIMMING PRICE STRATEGY Using this pricing strategy the organisation sets a high price initially for its product with the intention of offering the product to a select group of customers. Some see this as a pricing strategy to "skim the cream" off the top of the market. The conditions seen as important for a skimming price strategy are (1) having sufficient purchasers willing to pay a high price (demand is price inelastic);
(2) where new firms are not attracted into the market in the short run by the high price;
and (3) where it is profitable to produce relatively small quantities of the product.
For many products a skimming price strategy is often used in the introductory or growth phase of a product's life cycle, then as interest in the product wanes prices are lowered. This approach may also be more appropriate where an organisation does not know the level of demand for its product. If this has been assessed to be incorrect then the organisation can lower the skimming price without harming the relationship between supplier and consumer.
15. COMPETITION Competition helps markets to work efficiently by allowing consumers to buy the goods they want at the lowest possible price and by providing firms with the incentive to innovate.
The aim of competition policy is to encourage and enhance the amount of competition in the UK;
this may well involve taking action to prevent, reduce or remove and competitive behaviour. However, it is not assumed that uncompetitive practices are automatically wrong;
each case is examined individually and only if a particular behaviour is found to be against the public interest is action taken.
UK competition policy is made up of 4 main Acts:
a. 1973 Fair Trading Act - which deals with mergers and monopolies.
b. 1976 Restrictive Practices Act - which is concerned with agreements between people or companies that could limit their freedom to act independently.
c. 1976 Resale Price Maintenance Act - which covers attempts to impose minimum prices at which goods can be resold.
d. 1980 Competition Act - which deals with anti competitive practices".
16. CHANGES IN BUSINESS The pace of change in today's business world is faster than it has ever been at any other time in history and this means that businesses must be flexible and ready to adapt to rapidly changing circumstances. Of course, changes in the way a business operates means changes for the people that work in that business - and this is where the problems begin.
We know from behavioural studies and from experience that people resist change, and that this is a natural and normal reaction. Given that organisations can no longer avoid change, it requires careful management at the highest level to ease disruption and reduce resistance from both staff and managers. It is clear that poorly managed change leading to rumours and gossip will lead in turn to lower staff motivation, a lack of cooperation, lower productivity, and higher staff turnover.
It is also clear that firms will increasingly value staff that show themselves to be flexible, adaptable, mobile (willing to change both physical location and job role), and open to new ideas. Note that it is often middle and senior managers that are the most vocal resistors to change.
Appendix СВОДНАЯ ТАБЛИЦА НЕСТАНДАРТНЫХ ГЛАГОЛОВ Infinitive Past Indefinite Participle II Перевод A arise arose arisen возникать awake awoke awoke будить, просыпаться awaked awaked B be was, were been быть bear bore born рождать bear bore borne носить, выносить beat beat beaten бить become became become становиться begin began begun начинать(ся) bend bent bent гнуть(ся), сгибать(ся) bind bound bound связывать bite bit bitten кусать blow blew blown дуть break broke broken ломать breed bred bred выводить, разводить bring brought brought приносить build built built строить burn burnt burnt горечь, жечь burst burst burst разрываться buy bought bought покупать C cast cast cast бросать, кидать catch caught caught ловить, схватывать choose chose chosen выбирать cling clung clung прилипать, цепляться come came come приходить cost cost cost стоить cut cut cut резать D deal dealt dealt иметь дело do did done делать draw drew drawn тащить, рисовать drink drank drunk пить E eat ate eaten есть F fall fell fallen падать feed fed fed кормить(ся) feel felt felt чувствовать fight fought fought бороться, сражаться find found found находить fly flew flown летать forbid forbade forbidden запрещать forget forgot forgotten забывать freeze froze frozen замерзать, замораживать G get got got получать, становиться give gave given давать go went gone идти, ехать grow grew grown расти, выращивать H hang hung hung висеть hanged hanged вешать have had had иметь hear heard heard слышать hide hid hid, hidden прятать hit hit hit ударять, поражать hold held held держать hurt hurt hurt повредить, ушибить K keep kept kept держать, хранить know knew known знать L lay laid laid класть learn learnt learnt учиться learned learned leave left left оставлять, уезжать let let let позволять, сдавать в наем lie lay lain лежать light lit lit зажигать, освещать lighted lighted loоse lost lost терять M make made made делать, заставлять mean meant meant значить, подразумевать meet met met встречать P pay paid paid платить put put put класть R read read read читать ride rode ridden ездить верхом ring rang rung звонить, звенеть rise rose risen подниматься run ran run бежать S saw sawed sawn пилить say said said говорить, сказать see saw seen видеть sell sold sold продавать send sent sent посылать set set set помещать, ставить, заходить (о солнце) shake shook shaken трясти shine shone shone сиять, светить shoot shot shot стрелять show showed shown показывать shrink shrank shrunk сморщиваться, сокращаться shut shut shut закрывать sing sang sung петь sink sank sunk погружаться, тонуть sit sat sat сидеть sleep slept slept спать slide slid slid скользить smell smelt smelt пахнуть smelled smelled sow sowed sown сеять speak spoke spoken говорить speed sped sped спешить, ускорять spell spelt spelt писать или произносить spelled spelled слова по буквам spend spent spent тратить split split split раскалываться spoil spoilt spoilt портить spoiled spoiled spread spread spread распостранять(ся) stand stood stood стоять strike struck struck ударять, бастовать strive strove striven стремиться sweep swept swept мести swell swelled swollen пахнуть, раздуваться swim swam swum плавать swing swung swung качать(ся) T take took taken брать teach taught taught обучать, учить tear tore torn рвать tell told told рассказывать think thought thought думать throw threw thrown бросать U understand understood understood понимать W wake woke woken будить waked waked просыпаться wear wore worn носить win won won выигрывать wind wound wound заводить, виться write wrote written писать _ Appendix Cardinal Numbers 0 nought/zero/ou [ou] 1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two 3 three 13 thirteen 30 thirty 4 four 14 fourteen 40 forty 5 five 15 fifteen 50 fifty 6 six 16 sixteen 60 sixty 7 seven 17 seventeen 70 seventy 8 eight 18 eighteen 80 eighty 9 nine 19 nineteen 90 ninty 10 ten 20 twenty 100 a/one hundred 101 a/one hundred and one 132 a/one hundred and thirty-two 572 five hundred and seventy-two 1,000 a/one thousand 1,000,000 a/one million Note:
1. In British English a billion usually means one thousand million, but it can mean one million.
2. We usually speak the number 0 as nought (mainly GB) or zero (mainly USA). In telephone numbers we say [ou].
Ordinal Numbers 1st first 11th eleventh 2nd second 12th twelth 3rd third 13th thirteenth 4th fourth 20th twentieth 5th fifth 40th fortieth 8th eighth 50th fiftieth 9th ninth 86th eighty-sixth 10th tenth 90th ninetieth 100th hundredth/one hundredth 101st (one) hundred and first 133rd (one) hundred and thirty-third 157th (one) hundred and fifty-seventh 1,000th (one) thousandth Fractions 1/2 a/one half half an hour 1/3 a/one third a third of a mile 3/4 three quarters three quarters of a pound 5/8 five eighths five eighths of an inch 1 1/2 one and a half one and a half days/a day and a half Decimals 0.5 oh point five / nought point five zero point five (USA) (=1/2) 2.33 two point three (=2 1/3) 5.75 five point seven five (=5 3/4) 6.08 six point oh eight Percentages 50 % fifty per cent 2 1/2 % two and a half per cent 6.25 % six point two five per cent Appendix Money GB 1p a penny / one p 10p ten pence / ten p L1 a pound / one pound L3-75 or L3.75 three pound(s) seventy-five pence three pound(s) seventy-five three seventy-five USA 1c a / one cent $1 a / one dollar $3.75 three (dollars) seventy-five (cents) Appendix Measurements inch — дюйм gramme — грамм foot — фут kilo — килограмм mile ---- миля pound — фунт millimetrs — миллиметр stone — стоун centimetre — сантиметр pint — пинта metre — метр gallon — галлон yard — ярд litre — литр ounce — унция degree — градус 1 inch = 25.4 mm 1 inch =2.54 mm 12 inches = 1 foot = 30.48 cm 3 feet =1 yard = 91.44 cm 1760 yards = 1 mile = 1.61 km 1 ounce = 28.35 gm 16 ounces = 1 pound = 0.454 kg 14 lbs = 1 stone = 6.356 kg 1 pint = 0.57 litres = 1.20 pints (USA) 8 pints = 1 gallon = 4.54 litres = 1.20 gallons (USA)
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