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Московский международный институт эконометрики, информатики, финансов и права A Course of Business English Learning Курс обучения деловому английскому языку Турук Ирина Федоровна Морозенко Валентина

Васильевна Москва 2003 УДК 42 ББК 81. 2 Т 888 Турук И.Ф., Морозенко В.В. Курс обучения деловому английскому языку. /М.

Московский международный институт эконометрики, информатики, финансов и права. 2003.

© Турук Ирина Федоровна, 2003г.

© Морозенко Валентина Васильевна, 2003г.

© Московский международный институт эконометрики, информатики, финансов и права, 2003 2 Contents Введение 4 Unit 1 5 A. For Study 5 B. Reading Comprehension 10 C. Test 10 Unit 2 11 A. For Study 11 B. Reading Comprehension 16 C. Test 17 Unit 3 18 A. For Study 18 B. Reading Comprehension 21 C. Test 23 Unit 4 24 A. For Study 24 B. Reading Comprehension 29 C. Test 30 Unit 5 31 A. For Study 31 B. Reading Comprehension 35 C. Test 36 Unit 6 A. For Study B. Reading Comprehension C. Test Unit 7 A. For Study B. Reading Comprehension C. Test Unit 8 A. For Study B. Reading Comprehension C. Test Unit 9 A. For Study B. Reading Comprehension C. Test Unit 10 A. For Study B. Reading Comprehension C. Test Supplementary Reading Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Введение Учебное пособие имеет профессионально ориентированный характер и направлено на обучение деловому английскому языку студентов экономических вузов на первоначальном этапе.

Целью данного пособия является научить студентов элементам делового английского языка в лексическом и грамматическом плане и навыкам чтения экономического текста с различными информационными задачами: понимание основной идеи текста, нахождение заданной информации в тексте, понимание общего содержания текста и т.д.

Пособие состоит из 10 уроков, дополнительных текстов для чтения и приложений.

Каждый урок включает следующие разделы: А. For Study, В. Reading Compehension, С. Test.

В разделе “For Study” приводится определенный грамматический материал, словообразовательные структуры и лексика по текстам, а так же грамматические и лексические упражнения контрольно-обучающего характера. Это дает возможность выполнять упражнения в аудитории на базе немедленной обратной связи аналитическим путем.

Развитие навыков чтения осуществляется в разделе “Reading Comprehension” через серию упражнений выбора правильных решений. Контроль знаний и навыков студентов представлен в разделе “Test”.

Набор текстов в конце пособия под рубрикой “Supplementary Reading” дает возможность студентам читать и переводить дополнительный материал с целью закрепления знаний и навыков, полученных на занятиях, а так же повторить ряд речевых ситуаций.

Данное пособие представляет собой заново структурированный, дополненный и исправленный вариант учебного пособия “Английский язык для экономистов” в знак памяти и сохранения методического наследия проф. Морозенко В.В. в новых условиях работы кафедры иностранных языков.

Турук И.Ф.

UNIT Grammar: Verb Text: The Economy (Canada) A. FOR STUDY Verb (глагол) По употреблению в речи глаголы классифицируются на:

1) самостоятельные (смысловые или знаменательные);

he works 2) модальные;

he can work 3) глаголы-связки;

he is a student 4) вспомогательные глаголы;

he is reading Глагол становится служебным, если он выполняет функцию глагола-связки или вспомогательного глагола.

Глагол, выполняющий функцию смыслового глагола в предложении, имеет форму времени, категорию наклонения и залог.

В английском языке глагол имеет следующие видо-временные группы:

Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continuous.

Сводная таблица видо-временных форм глагола.

Форма глагола Употребление формы Indefinite (or Simple) Present Past Future I ask I I shall Глагол в форме Indefinite He asks He He представляет действие как:

She She She will 1) факт;

We We asked We shall ask 2) обычное, регулярно You ask You You повторяющееся действие;

They They They will 3) последовательность действий Форма глагола Употребление формы Continuous (or Progressive) Present Past Future I am Глагол в форме Continuous I shall be I обозначает:

He He He was 1) процесс, происходящий She will be She is asking She в определенный какой-то asking asking момент (или период);

We shall be We We 2) параллельно You will be You are You were происходящие процессы They They They 3) процесс, охватывающий определенный отрезок времени.

Форма глагола Употребление формы Perfect Present Past Future Глагол в форме Perfect обозначает:

I shall I have I He will 1) действие, завершенное к He He She have asked определенному моменту и She has asked She We shall результат этого действия We We had asked You will налицо;

You have You They 2) Past и Future Perfect They They выражают действия, завершенные до другого действия и предшествующие ему.

Форма глагола Употребление формы Perfect Continuous Present Past Future I have been asking I I shall have Глагол в форме Perfect He has been He had We been asking Continuous выражает действие, She asking She been начавшееся до какого-то момента We have been We asking He и продолжающееся в данный You asking You She will have момент, включая или исключая They They You been asking его (for two hours - в течение 2-х They часов;

since 1941 - c 1941 года) I. Grammar Exercises I. Put “am”, “is” or “are” in the blanks:

1. Where... I standing? 2. Miss A, Mr. B. And Mr. C.... sitting in the back row.

3. Paul... sitting between Mary and Tom. 4. Where... Mr. Green standing? 5. You...

writing sentences. 6. What... the girl carrying? 7. What... the woman doing?

II. Choose the correct form of the verb.

1.... you ring your friend up yesterday?

1) do 2) did 3) are 4) were 2.... she reading an English book?

1) do 2) does 3) is 4) are 3.... he work at your plant?

1) do 2) does 3) is 4) was 4. They... discussing some problems when he entered the room.

1) do 2) did 3) are 4) were 5. She... very busy last week.

1) is 2) was 3) did 4) does 6. What... they doing now?

1) is 2) are 3) do 4) did 7.... you work last year?

1) do 2) did 3) are 4) were 8. Who... taking an examination now?

1) do 2) does 3) is 4) are 9. They... conducting this experiment from 6 till 9 tomorrow morning.

1) will be 2) do 3) are 4) were III. Multiple Choice.

a) Choose the correct form of the verb.

1. There... the difference between holiday and festival. a) are 2.... you planning a holiday on the Black Sea? b) is 3. What... you intend to do on Sunday? c) was 4. When... people free from work? d) will 5. Where... she standing when she saw a stranger in her flat? e) shall be 6. What... the man doing when she entered the room? f) shall 7. I... waiting for you at 5 p.m. tomorrow. g) do 8. I... come if I have time.

b) Choose the correct form of the predicate for the following sentences:

1. When he entered the room she.... a. was reading 2. What … you … now? b. do … do 3. You... for me at 5, won’t you? c. are …doing 4. They... for you all the evening long yesterday. d. did …do 5. What... you... at this lab? e. wait 6. They... their chance to do it. f. shall wait 7. We... until she leaves. g. will be waiting 8. We’ll have... and see (поживем - увидим). h. are waiting 9. What... you... on Sundays? i. were waiting 10. What... you... yesterday? j. to wait IV. Make up sentences using the following words:

1. 1) this week 2. 1) we 3. 1) we 2) that film 1) weather 2) decided 3) at the cinema 2) recently 3) have not 4) I 3) rainy 4) where 5) have seen 4) have had 5) this evening 6) to go V. Make up sentences negative:

1. He has already passed his exam.

2. He has come in time.

3. She will have finished her work by 6 o’clock tomorrow.

4. We had reached the station when it began to rain.

VI. Choose the correct form of the predicate in English for the following Russian sentences:

1. Мы переводим такие тексты на каждом уроке. 1) translate 2. Мы сейчас переводим этот текст. 2) translates 3. Она уже перевела этот текст. 3) translated 4. Вы перевели этот текст на прошлом уроке. 4) are translating 5. Мы всегда переводили такие тексты со словарем. 5) is translating 6. Он хорошо переводит тексты по своей специальности. 6) have translated 7. Кто сейчас переводит тексты? 7) has translated 8. Мы думали, что вы уже перевели текст. 8) had translated 9. Они переведут статью к вечеру. 9) will have translated VII. Complete the following sentences below.

1. They were writing a test … 2. I passed my exam … 3. We’ll have finished the work … 4. They have … seen this film.

5. She is abroad. We haven’t seen her … 6. They had finished their experiment … 7. He will leave Moscow … 8. They have not come … 9. I had stayed in Samarkand for a week … 1. a few days ago 6. for a few minutes 2. before he arrived 7. yet 3. before I left Moscow 8. by 5 o’clock tomorrow 4. next week 9. since 5. already II. Vocabulary Exercises VIII. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations.

advanced [ d’va:nst] a передовой, повышенного типа самолеты;

авиация aircraft [‘ kra:ft] n annual [‘njuel] a годовой, ежегодный contributor [k n’tribjut ] n вкладчик design [di’zain] v планировать;

конструировать develop [di’v l p] v развивать(ся);

совершенствовать(ся) diversified [,dai’vsifaid] a разнообразный expertise [,eksp :’tiz] n компетентность;

эрудиция fabricate [‘fbrikeit] v производить goods [guds] n товар(ы) grow [grou] v выращивать;

расти leasure [‘leiз досуг ] n manufacture [,mnju’fkt производить;

фабриковать ] v metal [metl] металл mine [main] v добывать руду newsprint [‘nju:zprint] n газетная бумага ore [ :] n руда predominantly [pri’d min ntli] adv преимущественно process [pr ’ses] v обрабатывать receipt [ri’si:t] n получение;

pl доходы research [ri’s :t ] n исследование, исследовательская работа substantial [s b’stn l] a существенный vehicle [‘vi:ikl] n автотранспорт;

pl транспортные средства Word Combinations by dollar value - стоимостное выражение в долларах gross national product (GNP) - валовой национальный продукт communication satellites - спутники связи disease-resistant wheat - болезнеустойчивая пшеница nuclear power station - атомная электростанция owing to - благодаря measured in terms of - измеряемый в понятиях highly advanced country - высокоразвитая страна 15 billion a year - 15 млд в год edible products - пищевые продукты plant breeding - растениеводство crop and animal production - зд. с/х производство /зерновых и скота/ IX. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words 1. The service sector... rapidly owing to substantial increases in income and leisure time.

a) grew b) grows c) has grown 2. Agriculture is a scientific... in Canada.

a) production b) output c) industry 3. Total... from the service trades are well over $15 billion a year.

a) income b) receipts c) output 4. At the same time, Canada is an important exporter of... industrial commodities.

a) necessary b) fabricated c) advanced 5. They arrived at 3 p.m., but the match... at 2.30 p.m.

a) begins b) had begun c) began 6. I saw the Ivanovs last week, but I …them this week.

a) did not see b) have not seen c) do not meet 7. She... her work by 6 o'clock tomorrow.

a) will finish b) finishes c) will have finished 8. He... the station when it began to rain.

a) reaches b) had reached c) has reached B. READING COMPREHENTION X. Read the text and mark the main aspects of the Economy of Canada.

The Economy of Canada Measured in terms of gross national product, Canada’s economy is one of the most diversified in the world. Canada grows, develops, mines, processes, designs, manufactures or fabricates everything from communication satellites to disease-resistant wheat, from advanced aircraft to strategic ores and metals, from nuclear stations to newsprint.

Of all sectors in the economy, manufacturing is the largest contributor to the country’s annual output. As in the other highly advanced countries, however, there has been a shift in Canada from predominantly goods-producing economy to a predominantly service-producing economy.

The service sector has grown rapidly owing to substantial increases in income and leisure time. Total receipts from the service trades are well over $ 15 billion a year.

The four main classes of Canadian exports by dollar value are motor vehicles and parts, machinery and equipment, fabricated metals and other fabricated materials. Another major export is electronics and manufacturing work in many parts of the world.

Agriculture is a scientific industry in Canada. Many scientists are employed in agricultural research. Without Canada research in plant breeding, crop and animal production etc. would not be able to export between $4 and $5 billion of wheat, animal and edible products every year.

C. TEST XI. Составьте вопросительные предложения из данного набора слов. Запишите цифры, которыми обозначены слова в правильном порядке:

1. agriculture 2. a scientific industry 3. in 4. Canada 5. Is 1. lived2. there 3. how long 4. you 5. have 1. they 2. have done 3. the work 4. by 5 p.m. tomorrow 5. will XII. Выбрав правильную форму вспомогательного глагола, дополните сказуемое в предложениях (выпишите номер выбранного глагола):

Глаголы The service sector … grown rapidly owing to substantial increases in 1. will income and leisure time.

have They … finished their experiment by 5 p.m.

2. have We … reached the station when it began to rain.

3. was The towns … changed very much since the industrial revolution.

4. is … he spoken to the dean?

5. had He … writing a letter when I came in.

6. has She … an economist. She … graduated from the Institute of Economics this year.

XIII. Выберите русские слова, соответствующие данным английским:

(выпишите номера выбранных русских слов) advanced - 1. планировать, конструировать annual - 2. производить design - 3. товар (ы);

develop - 4. производить, фабриковать fabricate - 5. доходы substantial - 6. исследование goods - 7. развивать (ся) manufacture - 8. передовой receipts - 9. годовой research - 10.существенный UNIT Grammar: The Indefinite (or Simple) Tenses in the Passive Voice.

Придаточные предложения - подлежащие.

Word Building: Suffixes -er, -or, -ment, -tion, -ist, -al, -able Text A: To Manage is to Foresee.

Text B: For Ancient Times A. FOR STUDY The Passive Voice /Страдательный залог/ В английском языке, как и в русском, различают формы глагола действительного или страдательного залога;

формы глагола страдательного залога выражают действие, совершенное подлежащим и направленное на него, в то время как форма действительного залога показывает действие, производимое самим подлежащим.

Например:

Действительный залог Страдательный залог /Active Voice/ /Passive Voice/ He asked them at the lesson They were asked (by him) at the lesson.

(он спросил их на уроке) (их спросили на уроке) Страдательный залог образуется из вспомогательного глагола “to be” в соответствующем времени, лице, числе и формы Past Participle (Participle II) смыслового глагола (см. Таблицу I).

The Indefinite Tenses in the Passive Voice (to be asked) Таблица I Affirmative Interrogative Negative Present I am asked. Am I asked? I am not asked.

He is asked. Is he He is not She she asked? She asked.

We Are we We You are asked. you You are not They they asked? They asked.

Past I Was I I He was asked. he He was not She she asked? She asked.

We Were we We You were asked. you You were not They they asked? They asked.

Future I shall be asked. Shall I be asked? I shall not be asked.

He will be Will he He will not be She asked. she be asked? She asked.

We shall be asked. Shall we be asked? We shall not be asked.

You will be Will you You will not be They asked. they be asked? They asked.

I. Grammar Exercises I. Составьте предложения из следующего набора слов:

Например: 1) 2,4,1,5, 1) 1. delivered 2. the furniture 3. him 4. is 5. by 2) 1. used 2. a creative approach 3. for 4. the solution 5. this problem 6. of 7. was 3) 1. was 2. my sister 3. asked 4. to tell 5. about 6. her opinion (мнение) 7. that story 4) 1. Will be 2. the report 3. written 4. by the manager II. Выберите правильную форму перевода на русский язык подчеркнутых слов и запишите, Например: 1) a Запомните: предложения с глаголами в страдательном залоге переводятся на русский язык неопределенно-личными предложениями, глаголами на -ся (не имеющими возвратного значения), краткими причастиями в сочетании с глаголом быть, а также глаголом в действительном залоге.

1) I was told about it only yesterday.

a) мне сказали b) я говорил с) мне говорят 2) Many new houses are built in our town every year.

a) построены b) строятся c) строят 3) His new book was much spoken about.

a) много говорили b) много сказано с) много говорят 4) You will be spoken to later.

a) поговорят b) расскажут с) будет сказано 5) Computers are used to process information.

a) использовались b) пользовались с) используются 6) The news is much spoken about.

a) много сообщали b) много говорили с) много говорят 7) New methods of work will be discussed at the meeting.

a) обсуждаются b) будут обсуждаться с) обсуждают III. Выберите форму глагола для каждого предложения. Переведите их на русский язык.

Например: 1) 1. This translation... either orally or in written form. 1. ought to be rewritten 2. If the request..., a short letter, stating the reasons for 2. may be done the refusal.... 3. must be refused 3. The reply... today. 4. must be sent 4. It... that this program is a long-term one. 5. should be written 5. Should this letter be corrected as regards names, 6. should be noted facts, grammar, spelling and punctuation, sir? 7. can be done - No, I think it....

It... easily, I think.

Придаточные предложения-подлежащие Таблица Вводящее Перевод Пример Перевод слово That что /то, что/ That you have done it То, что вы сделали это in time is fine. вовремя, хорошо.

It's fine that you have Хорошо, что вы сделали это вовремя.

done it in time.

Whether, ли /ставится после Whether they'll spend Проведут ли они if глагола в русском holidays in the Cauca- отпуск на Кавказе, еще языке/ неизвестно.

sus is not known yet.

Еще неизвестно, It is not known yet проведут ли они отпуск whether they'll spend на Кавказе.

holidays in the Caucasus.

Вводящее Перевод Пример Перевод слово Who кто (whom) (кого) Whose чей What что, какой What he wants to say is То, что он хочет Which который not clear. сказать – не ясно.

Where куда, где Where we must go is Куда мы должны пойти When когда not clear. - не ясно.

Why почему Why she has done it is a Почему она сделала это How как mystery. - загадка /тайна/.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения (см. Таб. 2) That you have come early is fine. Whether they will have a meeting tomorrow is not known. That the classical economists led by Adam Smith had little to do with statistics is known. That there are many definitions of the word “statistics” as a science is clear.

2. Word Building Exercises Запомните:

- al суффиксы прилагательных - able (the suffixes of adjectives) - ment суффиксы существительных - er (the suffixes of nouns) - tion - ist V. State the part of speech of the following words:

management, speaker, proposition, production, economist, helper, economical, economic, electronic, national, unavoidable VI. Form nouns with the help of the suffixes:

- ment: to manage, to improve, to establish, to pay - er: to speak, to compute, to teach, to learn - tion: to propose, to prepare, to organize, to produce - ist: commune, social, economy, special VII. Form adjectives with the help of the suffixes:

- al: profession, economic, nation - able: fashion, to avoid, to read VIII. Form adverbs with the help of the suffix “-ly”:

practical, scientific, formal, qualitative, incidental, economical, particular, special, statistical 3. Vocabulary Exercises IX. Read the new words and memorize them.

alike [ точно также;

подобно 'laik] adv animal [' nim( животное )l] n art [a:t] n искусство;

умение as for [' z f :] что касается;

call [k :l] v звать;

называть требовать;

предусматривать ~ for clarification [,kl rIfI'keI n] n очистка;

очищение;

прояснение;

потребление consumption [k n'sm(p) ( )n] n означать, значить;

denote [dI'nout] v показывать;

указывать определять;

устанавливать;

determine [dI:'t :mIn] v назначать (дату и т.п.);

кончаться;

devoid [dI'v Id] v истекать (о сроке) (of) лишенный (чего-л.);

a свободный (от чего-л.) distribution [,dIstrI 'bju: ( )n] n распределение;

распространение;

размещение, расположение experience [Iks'pI rI ns] n опыт;

случай;

v испытать;

узнать по опыту foresee [f :'sI:] v предвидеть;

знать заранее (foresaw, foreseen) layman ['leIm n] n неспециалист machine-tool [m ' I:ntu:l] n станок;

станкостроительная промышленность ~ industry manage ['m nIdз] v управлять;

справляться;

успеть milling machine ['mIlIm I:n] n фрезерный станок pertain [p :'teIn] v иметь отношение (к чему-л.);

относиться;

принадлежать reliable [rI'laI bl] a надежный;

достоверный skill n мастерство skilled a опытный, искусный state plan ['steIt 'pl n] n государственный план succeed [s k'sI:d] v преуспевать в чем-л.;

иметь успех total ['toutl] a общий;

полный totality [to(u)'tliti] n вся сумма целиком;

все количество value ['v lju:] n ценность;

стоимость, цена;

важность, значительность;

v оценивать;

дорожить, ценить Word Combinations to run an economy - управлять хозяйством, экономикой to take up the subject - продолжать разговор о предмете to drive a car - водить машину social relations - общественные отношения in the realm of production - в области (сфере) производства the point is... -дело в том...

in regard to - по отношению к, относительно;

что касается;

по поводу X. Read the following words and translate them possible - possibly;

deep - deeply;

simple - simply;

particular - particularly;

economical - economically;

reliable - reliably;

precise - precisely to continue - continuation;

to produce - production;

to consider - consideration;

to determine - determination to compute - computer;

to lead - leader;

to operate - operator;

to manage - manager;

to produce - producer;

to teach - teacher;

to design - designer;

to construct - constructor, to build - builder XI. Choose from (a) the words which can be associated with (b).

For example:

-1- a b 1. to run 1. the future 2. to distribute 2. the national economy 3. to foresee 3. a newspaper 4. to manage 4. machines 5. to publish 5. goods 6. to control 6. special skills 7. to determine 7. economy 8. to call for 8. the day to start 9. to do away with 9. the economic crisis 10. to drive 10. a car 11. to take up 11. the subject 12. to fulfill 12. a plan XII. Choose the Russian equivalent to the following phrasal verbs.

For example:

-1- 1. call for 1. преуспевать 2. look at 2. выполнять, осуществлять 3. look through 3. иметь дело 4. look over 4. торговать 5. look after 5. требовать, предусматривать 6. carry out 6. смотреть 7. deal in 7. просматривать 8. deal with 8. не заметить 9. single out 9. присматривать за кем-либо 10. come on 10. выбирать, отбирать B. READING COMPREHENSION XIII. Read Text A.

Text A. To Manage is to Foresee One short clarification before we take up the subject. Economics is a very broad concept often used to denote a range of different things. Amidst all these differences the two distinct aspects are shown quite clearly: technical and social. Both are reflected in management. In the technical sense, management has to do with machines, instruments, etc. Men control machines and mechanical systems, and this calls for professional knowledge and special skills. In principle, however, management of this kind pertains to the technical aspect of production and, strictly speaking, reminds outside the sphere of economics. It is devoid of any social elements. The rules of driving a car or operating a milling machine are mainly the same in Russia, in the USA, in France and in Portugal.

What we are going to examine is the social aspect of management of the economy, i.e., a sphere where objects of management are not things but men and their social relations. Using an analogy we may say that what interests us is not how the musician controls his instrument, but how the conductor controls the orchestra.

Economics as a totality of the relations between men in the realm of the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods includes, of course, the movement of material values, that is, of things. But the point is that relations between men do not form on their own, but in regard to the production of the appropriation of goods. This is the basis of economic science. Behind the relation of things stand real relationships between people, the motives and aims of their activity. That to manage the economy means to foresee their future is clear. But it also means to orientate them in a definite direction, towards working for a set goal.

This constitutes the socio-economic aspect of the management of the national economy.

XIV. Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed:

1. Technical and social aspects are two distinct aspects reflected in management.

2. Economics includes the movement of material values.

3. What constitutes the socio-economic aspect of the management of the national economy?

XV. Read text B and try to understand its main idea.

Text B. From Ancient Times Some people may think that planned economic management originates processes dated back to ancient days.

The sources of management are rooted in antiquity. For instance, the Egyptian pyramids could not have been built without directing the joint labour of the tens of thousands of their builders. Similarly, without management, the construction and operation of ancient irrigation systems would have been impossible.

Generally speaking, any joint work on any more or less large scale needs management. A building or production team must have its team leader;

an orchestra - the conductor: a military unit - the commander.

This is all the more true of the collective work in a modern enterprise, in a firm.

XVI. From the sentences given below choose the one which contains the main idea of Text B:

I. The planned economic management originates from ancient Egypt. 2. Any joint work on any more or less scale needs management. 3. The sources of management are rooted in antiquity. There are examples of large-scale well organized constructions such as Egyptian pyramids, for example.

C. TEST XVII. Choose the correct translation of the following sentence:

That to manage the economy means to foresee their future is clear.

1) Управление экономикой означает предвидеть будущее. И это ясно.

2) То, что управлять экономикой значит предвидеть будущее - ясно.

3) Ясно, что управлять экономикой означает предвидеть будущее.

XVIII. Choose the correct translation of the following sentence:

Whether they will have meeting tomorrow or not is not known yet.

1) Проведут ли они собрание завтра или нет - еще неизвестно.

2) Мы не знаем, проведут ли они завтра собрание или нет.

3) Неизвестно, проведут ли они завтра собрание или нет.

XIX. Choose the correct translation of the following sentence:

What made these changes possible is clear for us.

1) То, что сделало эти изменения возможными - ясно для нас.

2) Ясно то, что сделало эти изменения возможными.

3) Эти изменения стали возможными. Это для нас ясно.

XX. State the part of speech of the following words.

For example:

-1- 1. consumption - 1. noun 2. reliable - 2. adjective 3. clarification - 3. adverb 4. national - 5. establishment - 6. programmer - 7. specialist - 8. fashionable - 9. determination - 10. possibly - XXI. Choose Russian words corresponding to the following English ones.

For example -1- 1. clarification - 1. распределение;

размещение 2. consumption - 2. означать;

указывать 3. distribution - 3. опыт;

случай 4. denote - 4. предвидеть 5. experience - 5. надежный;

достоверный 6. forsee - 6. ценность;

стоимость 7. reliable - 7. потребление 8. skillful - 8. опытный, искусный 9. succeed - 9. очистка;

пояснение 10.value - 10. преуспевать UNIT 3.

Grammar: The Present, Past Continuous Tenses in the Passive Voice.

Придаточные предложения-сказуемые.

Word Building: Suffixes -ess, -ing, -ness, -ism, -ance, -ics, -ation, -sion Text A: Profit Text B: What is Commodity?

A. FOR STUDY Времена группы Continuous в страдательном залоге (The Continuous Tenses in the Passive Voice) Таблица Affirmative Interrogative Negative Present I am Am I I am He is being Is he being He is not being She is asked now. she asked? She is asked.

We are Are we We are not You being you being You being They asked. they asked? They asked.

Past I Was I I He was being he being He was not She asked. she asked? She being asked.

We Were we We You were being you being You were not They asked. they asked? They being asked.

Future Эта форма отсутствует. Вместо отсутствующей формы Future Continuous употребляется Future Indefinite.

Примечание: Английский глагол в форме Continuous Passive переводится на русский язык формами глагола только несовершенного вида с окончанием на -ся или неопределенно-личным предложением.

Например:

New houses are (were) being built.

Новые дома строятся (строились).

I. Grammar Exercises I. Choose the appropriate form of the predicate expressed in Russian.

1) The economic reform is being introduced at this enterprise.

a) введена b) вводится с) была введена 2) The problem of raw material expenditure was being discussed at the session when I entered the conference hall.

a) обсудим b) обсуждалась с) обсуждают II. Choose the appropriate form of the predicate for the following sentences:

1. This work now (делается) at our Institute. 1. are being 2. Debates and seminars (проводятся) in the conference hall now. discussed 3. What questions (обсуждаются) now? 2. are being built 4. New experiments (обсуждаются). 3. is being 5. I wonder what these buildings (строят) for? processed 6. In this area new chemical plants (строят). 4. are taking place 7. The business information is (обрабатывается) at the computer 5. is being done center now.

III. Memorize the following information:

Придаточные предложения-сказуемые выполняют функцию именной части сказуемого и отвечают на вопрос: каково подлежащее?

Таблица Вводящее слово Пример Перевод that The difficulty is how this Трудность заключаются в том, whether problem is solved without the как решают эту задачу без if help of a computer. компьютера.

whom The problem is whether they’ll Вопрос состоит, (заключается) who have got this equipment by в том, получат ли они это what June 10. оборудование к 10 июня.

when where why IV. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

The trouble is that they can’t organize short-term courses for workers. The question is whether he knows about the midnight train. Now the problem is when they start the experiment.

V. Make up the sentences out of the following words and write them down.

1. the difficulty, equip, according to this scheme, how, we, the machine, is.

2. the trouble, there are, difficulties, that, is, some, with, this tool.

3. was, whether, would go, by train, he, the problem, or by bus.

2. Word Building Exercises VI. Memorize the following suffixes:

Suffixes Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs - ance - ize - able - ly - ence - ate - ible - ward - or - fy - less - er - en - ic - ist - ify - ical - ness - ish - ment - ive - ent - al - ion - ory - ing - ary - th - ous - ity - ful - ing - ent VII. Form nouns with the help of the given suffixes and translate them into Russian:

(English - Russian dictionary will help you) 1. verb + -ing: farm, open, build, read, model, drive, govern, plan, visit, process, travel 2. noun + -ism: patriot, hero, commune, magnet, capital, collective 3. adjective + -ness: hard, conscious, frank (откровенный), mad (безумный), kind, cold 4. noun + - (r)ess: poet, act, fort (форт), lion, host (хозяин) 5. verb + -ance, -ence: assist, occur, exist, convey, perform, resist, attend, differ, appear, interfere, correspond 6. verb + -tion, -ation, -ion: exhibit, invent, calculate, limit, repeat, install, present, dictate, accumulate 7. verb + -sion: decide, provide, conclude, confuse VIII. Name the part of speech to which the following words belong. Translate them into Russian:

principal, industrial, management, development, transportation, agricultural, processing, production, improvement, sector, technical, chemical, protection, primarily, capitalism, reliable, kindness, building, well-being, fortress, strangeness, stewardess, cleaning, simultaneousness, planning, waitress, princess 3. Vocabulary Exercises IX. Guess the meaning of the following international words. Translate them.

climate, territory, method, construction, energy, model, variant, exam(ination), statistics, practice, economic categories, to compensate, to fix, to form, proportional, industrial production, subjectivism, dynamic process, sector, sectorial, technological progress, rational, history, socio-economic system, exploitation, collective, interest, turbines, socialist sector, textile, tractor, automobile X. Read the new words and word combinations. Memorize them.

acquire [ приобретать;

получать;

овладеть 'kwaI ]v (навыками) как..., так и both...and conj товар, предмет потребления;

эк.

commodity [ k m dItI] ’ n продукт стоимость cost [k st] I n издержки производства;

production ~ стоить II v избыток excess [Ik'ses] n расход;

трата;

статья расхода expenditure [Iks'pendIt ] с этих пор;

следовательно, поэтому hence [hens] adv стимул, побуждение incentive [In'sentIv] n доход income ['Inkm] национальный доход national ~ подвергаться (чему-л.) incur [In'k :] v денежный;

монетный monetary [' mnt( )rI] a расходы outlay ['autleI] n цена price [praIs] n cost ~ себестоимость fixed ~ твердая цена v оценивать, назначать цену profit ['pr fIt] n доход, прибыль;

валовая прибыль gross ~ чистая прибыль;

net ~ получать прибыль;

v приносить пользу отдельно separately ['sep( )rItlI] adv услуга;

обслуживание;

служба service ['s :vIs] I n обслужить II n использование utilisation [, jutIl(a)I'zeI ( )n]n наоборот vice versa ['vaIsI'v :s ] adv преим. pl заработная плата, жалованье;

wage [weId3] I n вести, проводить, осуществлять II v Word Combinations cost accounting - хозрасчет, калькуляция стоимости dope peddler - уличный торговец наркотиками the monetary expression - денежное выражение material means - материальные средства as a whole - в целом commodity production - товарное производство first of all - прежде всего division of labour - разделение труда sale and purchase - продажа и покупка value of the commodity - стоимость товара, товарная стоимость XI. Fill in each blank with the appropriate word.

1. Price is always being formed from... and profit. 1. the price 2. What is... of this equipment? 2. a profit 3. The term... is one of the notions of economics. 3. cost 4. His project made... of 50000 rubles. 4. commodity 5.... is determined by the value of the materials used plus 5. production expenditure on equipment, power, wages and so on. cost B. READING COMPREHENSION XII. Read text A and find the answers:

1) Does money have a smell?

2) Is profit as an excess of income over outlay an invention of socialism?

3) Does the notion “profit” acquire a fundamentally new social content at present?

Text A. Profit.

Profit as an excess of income over outlay is not the invention of socialism. It existed long before its birth and was often damned (обсуждалось) as an expression of insatiable lust (ненасытной страсти) for gain and ruthless exploitation. But the whole point is, how it is obtained, and in whose interests it is used.

You will agree that there is a difference between the money “earned” by a dope peddler and the money a peasant, or a worker receives for his honest labour. It is not true that money has no smell. It does have a smell - a social one.

Hence, we cannot speak of profit “in general”. In economics such talk is meaningless (бессмысленный) and leads to errors. As one socio-economic system gives way to another, some economic categories acquire a fundamentally new social content while retaining their form and name, as has been the case with profit. To repeat, everything depends on how profit is made, and whose interests it is used.

XIII. Read text B and choose the sentence which best expresses the main idea of the text.

Text B. What is Commodity?

The commodity is a product of labour made for exchange (обмен). Commodity production is a type of economic organization of society in which products are made for sale rather than for consumption (потребление) by the producers themselves.

For products of labour to become commodities, it is necessary, first of all, to have a division of labour whereby a person produces not everything he needs for his own consumption but specializes in some one kind of production. Secondly, the means of production must be owned by individuals or groups of individuals. When these two conditions exist (существуют), the sale and purchase of commodities become an economic necessity.

When we compare and evaluate commodities we are actually comparing the amount of labour contained in them. The labour embodied (воплощенный) in a commodity determines (определяет) the value of the commodity. Labour itself is not value. It only takes on a value when commodities are produced for exchange.

1. The text deals with the value.

2. The text is about commodity production and division of labour.

3. The text describes the commodity as a product of labour made for exchange and the conditions under which products of labour become commodities.

C. TEST XIV. State the Tense and the Voice of the following verbs:

For example: is done – 3.

was being done 1. Present Continuous Passive is being carried out 2. Past Continuous Passive was being exhibited 3. Present Indefinite Passive will be teaching 4. Past Indefinite Passive will be done 5. Future Indefinite Passive was taught 6. Future Continuous Passive XV. State the part of speech of the following words:

darkness extraordinary farming separately driver difference lioness fundamentally provision modernize installation utilize 1. существительное 2. прилагательное 3. наречие 4. глагол XVI. Choose Russian words corresponding to the following English ones:

expenditure 1. денежный monetary 2. приобретать;

получать acquire 3. издержки производства production cost 4. расход;

трата commodity 5. наоборот vice versa 6. заработная плата wage(s) 7. стимул, побуждение material means 8. материальные средства cost accounting 9. товар;

продукт 10. хозрасчет UNIT Grammar: The Perfect Tenses in the Passive Voice.

Придаточные обстоятельственные предложения времени и места.

Word Building: Suffixes -age, -dom, -hood, -(i)ty, -al Text A: Cost Text B: Production A. FOR STUDY Времена группы Perfect в страдательном залоге (The Perfect Tenses in the Passive Voice) Table Affirmative Interrogative Negative Present I have Have I been I have not He has been Has he asked? He has been She asked. she She asked.

We have been Have we We have not You asked. you been You been They they asked? They asked Past I I I He he He She had been Had she been She had not We asked. we asked? We been asked.

You you You They they They Future I shall Shall I I shall He will Will he have He will not She have she been She have We shall been Shall we asked? We shall been You will asked Will you You will asked They they They Примечание: Употребление глагольных форм Perfect Passive такое же, как и в действительном залоге.

I. Grammar Exercises I. Choose the appropriate form of the predicate expressed in Russian.

1) Lessons had been over by 5 o’clock.

a) заканчиваются b) закончились c) закончат 2) They have been given every opportunity to pursue their studies successfully.

а) им дают b) им дадут c) им дали 3) Take something like the motor-car, for instance. It’s noisy, dangerous, etc. So perhaps in the future it will have been replaced by something better.

а) будет заменен b) будет иметь замену c) заменить 4) Over 1,5 million students have been drawn into research projects.

а) привлекаются b) привлечены c) должны быть привлечены 5) This photo has been found in the archives of the theatre.

а) была найдена;

нашли b) находят c) найдут 6) All students have been provided with curricula (учебными программами) in the foreign languages taught at the college.

a) обеспечиваются b) были обеспечены c) должны быть обеспечены II. Choose the appropriate form of the predicate to complete the sentences.

1) He... before Ann could stop him.

а) had gone b) went c) is going 2) By that time the pollution... eliminated.

a) will be b) will have been c) is 3) These goods... last year.

a) have been exported b) are exported c) were exported 4) I... him since he left Moscow.

a) have not seen b) did not see c) do not see 5) He said that the letter....

a) was posted b) had been posted c) is posted III. Read attentively Tables 2 and 3, make up sentences using the following words:

1) 1. had gone 2. before 3. I 4. could stop 5. him 6. he 2) 1. we 2. job 3. when 4. had done 5. he 6. returned 7. our 3) 1. he 2. as long 3. could stay 4. as 5. liked 4) 1. here is 2. where 3. you 4. can 5. stay 6. the hotel Придаточные обстоятельственные предложения I. времени Table Вводяще Перевод Главное Придаточное е слово предложение предложение after после того как;

I’ll give you the book after I have read it myself.

as в то время как;

It began to rain as I was leaving home когда;

по мере того как as long as пока;

до тех пор He could stay in the as long as he liked пока country as soon as как только We left as soon as we could before прежде чем;

перед Put out the lights before you go to bed тем как;

до того как since с тех пор как I have not seen him since he left Moscow until (till) (до тех пор) пока Wait until I call you не I stayed till he phoned when когда I was suprised when I saw you here 2. места Table Вводяще Перевод Главное Придаточное е слово предложение предложение Where где (там, где) I found the book where I had left it Wherever где бы ни, куда They’ll find him wherever he is бы ни Further Practice IV. Express the following sentences in Russian.

I.

1) Before they built the bridge (мост), we had to cross by ferry (паром).

2) I didn’t believe it until I saw her myself 3) I found her ring (кольцо) after she had gone.

4) As long as I live I’ll never forget it.

5) He could stay as long as he liked.

6) Where have you been since we parted?

7) We had done our job when he returned.

8) The door has not been opened since he entered the house last night.

9) Since they left London every year on the same date I have always received a letter from them.

II.

1) You can see him from where you are sitting.

2) I will go wherever she likes.

3) The town where we live is not large. It's situated in such a district of the North where summer is the shortest in the country.

4) There are many holiday homes where you can rest very well.

5) Could you tell me where Trafalgar Square is?

6) Here's the hotel where you can stay.

7) Nick often waits for his wife in the library where she works.

8) At last I see the places where I have lived for 10 years.

9) He said that he had visited Stratford-on-Avon where Shakespeare was born and lived many years.

2. Word Building Exercises V. Form nouns with the help of the suffixes and translate them into Russian /consult Table 4/:

-age: pilot, parent, pack (пакет), percent, coin, cover /крышка, покров/ -dom: king, free, wise (мудрый) -hood: child, brother, mother, neighbour (сосед) -i(ty): minor, electrical, mortal (смертный) -al: arrive, refuse (отказывать), propose, betray (предавать), dispose (располагаться) Суффиксы -age, -dom, -hood, -i(ty), -al, -y, образующие абстрактные существительные.

Table Суффикс Исходная форма Производная форма - age существительное mile (миля) существительное mileage (расстояние в милях) -dom глагол leak (течь) leakage (течь) прилагательное free (свободный) существительное freedom (свобода) существительное martyr существительное martyrdom (мученик) (мученичество) -hood существительное (child) существительное childhood (детство) -i(ty) прилагательное original существительное originality (оригинальный) (оригинальность) -al глагол deny (отрицать) существительное: denial (отрицание), -y - geology, biology, geography (название наук) 3. Vocabulary Exercises VI. Give Russian equivalents for:

geology, metrology, biology, antropology, political economy, sociology, morphology, geodesy, geometry, philosophy, philology, psychology, demography, chemistry VII. Find the best way of expressing the international words in Russian:

cooperation, financial, credit, rouble, international, bank, million, system, project, session, equivalency, intensification, crisis, capitalist system, expedition, barrier, language barrier, economic categories, industrial production VIII. Give Russian equivalents for:

long-term credit, short- term credit, in accordance with the decision, in the interest of their planned economic cooperation IX. Point to remember:

“One” can be used as:

1) numeral (количественное числительное) 2) pronoun (неопределенное местоимение, выступающее в роли формального подлежащего неопределенно-личного предложения) 3) pronoun (неопределенное местоимение как заменитель, ранее упомянутого существительного) X. Translate the following sentences and pay attention to “one”:

1) These articles are more difficult than the ones we translated last week.

2) One must go in for sports.

3) One never knows what may happen.

4) Thank you for taking me to see this film. I certainly enjoyed it. Next time, we'll go to the one you like.

5) Those are nice apples. I'd like one.

6) I'd like a red one.

7) I'd like the red one.

8) I'd like the red ones.

9) I'd like them (apples) all except the brown one.

10) I'd like two green ones.

11) I'd like two green ones and the yellow one.

12) One can choose any apple he likes best of all. Which one do you like most?

XI. Read the following words and try to memorize them:

accrue [ kru:] v доставаться, нарастать (о процентах) ' премия bonus ['boun s] n выгода, польза;

пособие benefit [ 'benefit] n стоимость cost [k st] n издержки производства production c.

определять determine [di 't min ] v эффективность;

продуктивность, efficiency [i'fi nci] n производительность топливо, горючее fuel ['fjuel] n включать, заключать include [in'klu:d] v персонал, личный состав personnel [p :s nel] n ' выгодный, доходный;

полезный profitable ['pr fit bl] a оставаться remain [ri'mein] v сырье raw material [r :m ti ri l] n ' точный;

строгий strict ['strikt] a Word Combinations in large measure - в большей мере economic incentive fund - фонд (предприятия) для материального стимулирования рабочих и служащих that is why - вот почему How much does it cost? - сколько стоит?

What is the price of this equipment? - какая цена этому оборудованию?

В. READING COMPREHENTION XII. Read Text A “Cost” Text A. Cost 1. Price is always being formed from cost and profit. What do these economic categories mean? Let us examine them separately.

2. Cost is the monetary expression of the expenditure incurred by an enterprise in the process of the production of a product - a commodity or a service. Since the cost is included in the price of the product goods, when the goods are sold the enterprise is compensated for its expenditure and this acquires the material means to continue production.

3. Cost is determined by the value of the materials used plus expenditure on equipment, power, wages, and so on. But it also depends in large measure on the efficiency and quality of the work of the enterprise as a whole. The better the performance the lower the cost, and vice versa. And since prices remain constant (the state sees to this), profit, and hence the economic incentive fund, i.e., the part of the income that accrues to the personnel in the form of bonuses and various other payments and benefits, will be proportional to production costs.

4. How can the cost be lowered? Production costs can be reduced primarily through the economic use of raw materials, fuel and energy, better utilization of fixed capital and higher productivity. That is why strict cost accounting is profitable both to the individual work collective and to the society as a whole.

XIII. Find the passage where the following ideas are discussed:

1) о компенсации предприятия за его расходы;

2) чем определяется стоимость;

3) что собой представляет фонд материального стимулирования;

4) посредством чего можно снизить стоимость товара.

XIV. Read the text and define the main idea of it.

Text B. Production Production is any purposeful activity which serves to satisfy human wants (человеческие потребности). In its widest sense it consists in using resources. It includes not only the process of manufacture, but also the work of those who move goods, transport, warehousing (хранение на складах), wholesaling (оптовая торговля) and shop keeping.

The production process is determined by two basic factors: by labour and by means of production. The labour increases the value of the resources. Therefore production might also be defined briefly as the creation of value.

1) The text is about using resources to obtain goods and services.

2) The text deals with the basic factors that determine the production process.

3) The text is about the production process.

4) The text deals with the definition of the term “production” and the explanation of what production is, what it includes, what factors determine the production process.

C. TEST XV. Choose the correct translation of the predicate in the following sentences:

(для каждого предложения укажите номер выбранного перевода) _ The problem of raw material expenditure had already been discussed when I entered the conference hall.

1. обсуждалась 2. была уже обсуждена 3. уже обсуждают _ Cost accounting has been extended to the most links of the economic system.

1. распространен 2. распространяется 3. распространяют _ They said that the economic reform had been introduced at the enterprise.

1. вводится 2. введена 3. вводят _ By that time the cost of fuel and energy has been lowered.

1. снизиться 2. снизили 3. снизят _ Much attention has been paid to the growth of labour efficiency.

1. было уделено (оказано) 2. уделяется (оказывается) 3. будет уделено (оказано) XVI. State the part of speech of the following words and write down the numbers to the words:

kindom 1. noun bonus 2. adjective strict 3. verb profitably 4. adverb price 5. conjunction efficient 6. preposition neighbourhood include management arrival where before XVII. Choose Russian words corresponding to the following English ones:

to provide (with) 1. где бы ни, куда бы ни as long as 2. выгода;

пособие whenever 3. включать efficiency 4. оставаться fuel 5. точный;

строгий include 6. пока;

до тех пор, пока remain 7. выгодный, доходный strict 8. обеспечивать profitable 9. производительность benefit 10.топливо, горючее UNIT Grammar: Participle I, Participle II, Absolute Participle Construction;

it is (was)... that (who) Word Building: Suffixes -ent, -ant, -ese, -ian/ -an Text A: The Student and the Scientific - Technological Revolution Text B: The Principal Task of the Higher School.

A. FOR STUDY Forms of the Participle Table I Participle I Participle II Tense Voice Active Passive 1. -ed for Indefinite asking being asked regular verbs e.g. asked Perfect having asked having been 2. specific form for asked irregular verbs e.g. written spoken etc.

I. Grammar Exercises I. Name the form of the following participles:

reading, obtained, being asked, bringing, told, developed, having been asked, containing, being provided, taught, offered, worked out, having graduated (from), reporting, given.

II. Form Participle I (Indefinite Active) of the following words:

to hear, to enable, to say, to train, to appear, to study, to combine, to research, to devote, to provide.

III. Form Participle II of the following verbs:

to write, to read, to send, to give, to take, to leave, to show, to divide, to make, to do, to see, to speak, to play, to sell, to have.

IV. Choose the appropriate form of the Participle to complete the sentences:

1)... at the airport they took a taxi to the hotel.

1. having arrived 2. arrived 3. arriving 4. being arrived 2)... all the instructions they started their tests.

1. having given 2. having been given 3. giving 4. being given 3) Here and in the side streets... from Fleet Street, the most important newspapers have their offices.

1. running 2. run 3. being run 4. having been run V. Memorize the following information:

функции Participle I:

1. Определение, которое может стоять перед существительным. В этой функции перфектные формы причастия не употребляются. Переводится на русский язык как причастие, а иногда как обычное прилагательное (читающий).

Participle I может стоять после существительного. В этом случае после Participle I могут стоять прямое дополнение и обстоятельство, которые в целом образуют причастный оборот. Переводится причастный оборот на русский язык придаточным определительным предложением или причастным оборотом.

2. Часть сложного дополнения. I saw him reading. – Я видел, как он читал.

3. Обстоятельство /времени, образа действия, причины/ и переводится как деепричастие. Reading – читая, having read – прочитав.

Participle I может быть частью самостоятельного причастного оборота (The Absolute Participle Construction), т.е. такого причастного оборота, в котором перед причастием стоит существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в именительном падеже, являющееся субъектом действия, выраженного причастием.

Такой оборот отделяется запятой и переводится на русский язык придаточным предложением, если стоит в начале предложения.

For example:

Weather permitting, we'll continue our Если позволит погода, мы продолжим search. свой поиск VI. Translate the following sentences and analyse the function of the Participle in the sentences.

1) Being a highly industrialized country without rich natural resources Great Britain has to import raw materials for her industries.

2) Being started in time the experiments will be completed before the beginning of tests.

3) I saw the roof /крыша/ being painted.

4) When going home I came across my old friend.

5) Having graduated from the Institute he decided to enter the postgraduate courses /аспирантуру/.

VII. Translate the following sentences with Absolute Participle Construction into Russian.

1) The question being too difficult, no one could answer it.

2) The train being late, we decided to return home.

3) Everything having been ready, we started our tests.

4) He was writing a programme for a computer, two students helping him. (причем) Further Practice VIII. Memorize the following information:

Participle II в предложении может иметь следующие функции:

1. Определения. Стоит перед или чаще после определяемого существительного и переводится на русский язык причастиями на -мый, -нный, тый, -вший(ся) (предшествование).

2. Части сказуемого в страдательном залоге.

3. Части сложного дополнения.

4. Обстоятельства /переводится обстоятельственным придаточным предложениtями времени, условия, причины и др./. Перед Participle II в этой функции иногда могут стоять союзы if, unless, when.

IX. Translate the following sentences and analyse the function of Participle II in the sentences.

1) Among them were present the people dismissed from their job.

2) He has been asked today.

3) I want the translation finished today.

4) When offered help he refused it.

5) She will certainly help them if asked to.

6) A number of recently liberated states have understood fully that sovereignty in this world is only when justified technically and economically.

X. Compare the following sentences (Russian and English ones):

Именно он создал эту теорию. It was he who had created this theory.

Только когда я нашел эту книгу, я It was not until I found the book I left ушел из библиотеки. the library.

Как раз в 1902 году это и произошло. It was in 1902 that it happened.

Именно ваша сестра рассказывала It was your sister who told us about it.

нам об этом.

Примечание: Обороты It is (was)... that (who), которые также называются эмфатическими конструкциями, можно встретить в устной и, чаще, в письменной речи, когда автор хочет выделить какой-то член предложения, усилить его значимость, подчеркнуть (to emphasize) его. В этом случае выделяемый член предложения вместе со словом it, служащим формальным подлежащим, и глаголом связкой to be в соответствующем времени образуют главное предложение, после которого следует определительное придаточное предложение, вводимое союзными словами: that (чаще всего), who, which, whom, которые не переводятся на русский язык.

При переводе всего предложения усиление /выделение/ осуществляется при помощи слов: именно, только, лишь, как раз, это, вот, вот и, которые ставятся в начале предложения перед выделяемым словом.

2. Word Building Exercises XI. Form nouns with the help of the suffixes. /consult Table 2/ -ent: to emigrate, to consult, to participate -ese: China, Japan, Sudan -ian/-an: Russia, Canada, America, statistics, India, Indonesia Table Суффиксы для образования существительных, обозначающих действия или лицa различных национальностей Суффикс Исходная форма Производное /глагол или сущ./ слово -ent correspond correspondent -ant inhabit inhabitant -eer / ier engine engineer finance financier -ese Japan Japanese -ian / an America American 3. Vocabulary Exercises XII. Give the meaning /значение/ of the following international words:

specialist, process (n), discussion, seminar, rational (a), diploma, engineer, firm, boom, budjet, balance, clerk, acceleration, video (video tape recorder), television, resources, conference, laboratory, computer, bank, examination, students.

XIII. Practice the use of the word “as”. Translate the examples and construct sentences of your own:

as... as - такой же как, так же... как He is as tall as his father. Do it as quickly as possible. His hair is as white as snow. I like good literature as much as you.

as - в качестве He works as an economist.

as well - также Everybody was there. Peter came as well.

as - когда, в то время как As I was walking in the street I met my old friend. As I was leaving home, it began to rain.

as soon as - как только He'll come as soon as the lessons are over.

as - поскольку, так как As it was a long way to go I took a taxi.

as long as - пока, до тех пор пока He can stay there as long as he likes.

as far as - настолько As far as I know he was not there.

as - который, какой, что I have the same problem as you have.

XIV. Read the following words and try to memorize them:

alternate [ :l't nit] a чередующийся;

чередоваться [' :lt (:) nit] v перемещающийся;

переменный alternating [' :lt neiti] a усваивать (ся) assimilate [ 'simileit] v требовать;

претендовать;

claim [kleim] v утверждать, заявлять заставлять, принуждать compel [k m'pel] v ободрять;

поощрять;

encourage [in'kridз] v поддерживать;

способствовать семейное положение family status ['fmili 'steit s] посредник intermediary [,int (:)'mi:dj ri] n снабжать;

выдавать;

пускать в issue ['isju:] v обращение (деньги) рабочая сила manpower ['mn,pau ] n обязательный;

обязывающий obligatory [ 'blig t ri] a мировоззрение, кругозор outlook ['autluk] n (with) снабжать, обеспечивать;

(for) provide [pr 'vaid] v обеспечивать (средствами);

принимать меры;

предусматривать ограничивать restrict [ris'trikt] v существенный substantial [s b'stn ( )l] a выпускать, производить turn out ['t :n'aut] v Word Combinations automated control system - автоматическая система управления in view of - в виду to be dismissed from one's job - быть уволенным с работы a highly-skilled specialist - высококвалифицированный специалист institutions of higher learning - высшие учебные заведение XV. Choose the equivalent to the following phrasal verbs:

1. to provide with 1. выпускать, производить 2. to provide for 2. обеспечивать 3. to turn out 3. выполнять, осуществлять 4. to carry out 4. снабжать, обеспечивать B. READING COMPREHENSION XVI. Read text A.

Text A. The Student and the Scientific - Technological Revolution 1. Today student has to assimilate a much greater amount of new information than, let us say, ten years ago, and this amount tends to grow.

2. Independent work claims a substantial share of the higher school student's time with lectures and seminars alternating with laboratory work, the heading and presentation of reports, discussion and participation in research work.

3. Today there have appeared “intermediaries” between science and the student such as television, computers, video tape records, etc. The process of assimilating knowledge having become more complex, more and more the student needs to acquire a researcher's skills. This can be done in students' scientific societies, study circles and at conferences.

One out of two students takes part in these activities.

4. In most cases studies are combined with obligatory research in the field of automated control system, applied mathematics, mechanized processing of economic information. Specialists are also trained in rational utilization of natural resources and environmental protection.

5. During his student years the future specialist, who receives broad specialized training, has extensive production practice in the course of which he is paid a salary corresponding to the work he performs. After graduation (state examinations and the presentation of his diploma work) he is given a post enjoying all the rights of a specialist.

XVII. Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed:

1. Independent work is a substantial share of student's time.

2. Student's scientific societies and conferences help them to acquire a researcher's skills.

3. Students have the extensive production practice before graduating from the Institute.

4. In most cases studies are combined with research in the field of new information technologies.

XVIII. Read Text B and choose the sentence (1,2,3) which best expresses the main idea of the text.

Text B. The Principal Task of the Higher School A large part of study time is devoted to fundamental subjects. This enables future specialists to acquire greater professional knowledge and skills, assimilate modern methods of scientific research, advanced production technology, its organization and management. This provides a basis for the study of special subjects and the organization of production practice as a necessary condition of the students's professional training.

To train highly-skilled specialist with a wide theoretical and political outlook is the chief task of the institutions of higher learning.

The higher school aims to turn out highly-educated specialists whose training is not restricted to the present-day requirements of a narrow branch of production, let alone a concrete enterprise or institution.

There is a great demand for skilled workers and specialists more industrialized in the result of the scientific-technological revolution.

1. Students must master fundamental subjects.

2. To train highly-skilled specialists with a wide theoretical and political outlook is the principal task of the institution of higher learning.

3. The higher school aims to turn out highly-educated and skilled workers and specialists in industry as well as in agriculture.

C. TEST XIX. Choose the English translation of underlined Russian words in the following sentences (для каждого предложения укажите номер выбранного перевода):

_ Окончив перевод, они отнесли его на кафедру иностранных языков.

_ Видишь того студента, который говорит с заведующим кафедрой?

_ Так как вопросы были трудными, никто не смог ответить на них.

_ Если погода позволит, мы поедем завтра за город.

1. the questions being difficult 3. speaking 2. weather permitting 4. having finished XX. Choose the English translation of the underlined Russian words in the following sentences (для каждого предложения укажите номер выбранного перевода) _ Она не спешит, возвращаясь домой.

_ Переводя текст, Мэри всегда пользуется словарем.

_ Читая много, она многое узнает.

_ Вот разбитое стекло.

- Прочитав книгу, она вернула ее в библиотеку.

1. reading 4. translating 2. returning 5. broken 3. having read XXI. Choose the correct translation of the following sentences:

It was in 1989 that we could buy this car.

1. Это было в 1989г. когда мы могли купить эту машину.

2. Только в 1989г. мы смогли купить эту машину.

3. В 1989г. мы смогли купить эту машину.

(Укажите номер правильного перевода) It is the hotel that I was advised to stay.

1. Именно в этой гостинице мне советовали остановиться.

2. Это гостиница, в которой мне советовали остановиться.

3. Это та гостиница, в которой я буду жить.

It was my brother who did not agree to sign this document.

1. Как раз мой брат не соглашался подписывать этот документ.

2. Это был мой брат, который не согласился подписывать этот документ.

3. Мой брат не согласился подписывать этот документ.

XXII. Choose Russian words corresponding to the following English ones:

1. alternate 1. в качестве 2. as 2. требовать, утверждать 3. as well 3. пока, до тех пор пока 4. claim 4. также 5. as long as 5. поощрять, одобрять 6. encourage 6. рабочая сила 7. manpower 7. снабжать 8. provide (with) 8. чередоваться 9. restrict 9. ограничивать XXIII. Choose English translation of the following:

_ в большинстве случаев 1. independent work _ самостоятельная работа 2. to assimilate a great amount of _ в ходе (чего-то), в течение (чего-то) information _ усвоить большое количество информации 3. to improve one's qualification _ специалист высокой квалификации 4. professional training.

_ профессиональное обучение 5. in the course of _ повысить свою квалификацию 6. in most cases _ в виду (чего-л.) 7. in view of 8. a highly-skilled specialist UNIT Grammar: Gerund, Verbal Noun;

Определительные придаточные предложения Word Building: Suffixes -able/ -ible;

al;

-ed Text A: Market Research Text B: Brokers A. FOR STUDY The Gerund (Герундий) The Forms of Gerund Table I Tense Voice Active Passive Indefinite asking being asked Perfect having asked having been asked Будучи неличной формой глагола, герундий имеет категорию относительного времени и залога, может иметь прямое дополнение и определяется наречием.

Имея свойства существительного, герундий выполняет в предложении те же синтаксические функции, что и существительное.

После глаголов, данных ниже, в качестве прямого дополнения может стоять только герундий:

to avoid (избегать);

to enjoy (получать удовольствие);

to excuse (извинять(ся));

to intend (намереваться);

to need (нуждаться);

to require (требовать);

to want (хотеть).

Герундий может определяться существительным в притяжательном или общем падеже, а также притяжательным или указательным местоимением.

John’s returning so late stayed unnoticed.

(То, что Джон вернулся так поздно, осталось незамеченным) His returning home so late suprised nobody.

(Его возвращение домой так поздно никого не удивило.) Такие герундиальные обороты обычно переводятся придаточным предложением, вводимым словами:

то, что;

в том, что;

тем, что;

о том, что и т.п.

I. Grammar Exercises I. Name the forms of the gerund:

reading, being read, having read, having been read, graduating, having graduated, being processed, having been processed, saying, being asked, returning II. Translate the following sentences into Russian and analyse the function of the gerund in the sentence.

1. Writing exercises is useful.

2. Asking him about that accident was useless.

3. Her greatest pleasure is skiing.

4. I like reading detective stories.

5. The computer is a device for processing information.

6. After graduating from the institute he decided to enter the post-graduate courses.

7. She enriches /обогащает/ her knowledge in English by reading English newspapers.

III. Choose an appropriate form of the gerund to complete the sentences.

1.The funds are used for... the population with free education and free medical care.

a) having provided b) providing c) being provided 2. This is not the ABC of life, but a real basis for...

a) planning b) having planned c) having been planned 3. It is not simply a question of raising people's professional qualification, but systematically... their level of education and market.

a) being improved b) having improved c) improving 4. He left without... good-bye.

a) having said b) having been said c) saying 5. He attracted our attention by...

a) shouting b) having shouted c) having been shouted IV. Compare the verbal noun with the gerund in the following sentences:

Verbal Noun Gerund The writing of exercises is useful. Writing exercises is useful.

The Lomonosov readings at Moscow His reading English economic literature University take place every year. helps him in his research work.

I remember that the reading of this book I remember reading this book.

was a very pleasant occupation.

V. Memorize the following information:

Отглагольное существительное совпадает по форме с герундием, но оно является существительным со всеми его свойствами.

Оно отличается от герундия следующими признаками:

Отглагольное существительное Герундий Имеет перед собой артикль: Артикля иметь не может:

The reading of scientific books is useful. Reading scientific books is useful - - Чтение научных книг полезно. Читать научные книги полезно.

Употребляется во множественном Не употребляется во множественном числе: числе:

The readings of this device are correct. - His reading scientific magazine helps him Показания этого прибора правильны. in his research work. - То, что он читает научные журналы, помогает ему в его научно-исследовательской работе.

За ним может следовать определение с Определение с предлогом of не может предлогом of: следовать за герундием.

The reading of scientific books is useful. Reading scientific books is useful.

VI. Read the following sentences, analyse the “ing-form” and translate them.

1. Those students who work have their training at evening departments and the correspondence departments of higher schools.

2. They think of taking examinations before the winter examination session.

3. They don't remember having read this paragraph before.

4. The first distinguishing feature of the plan is its constant orientation of economic growth towards the solution of social tasks.

5. Money is an ideal unit for expressing the value of all other commodities. (товары) VII. Translate the following into Russian paying attention to the attributive clauses:

1. Georgia that is known as the main producer of tea and citrus fruit also grows grapes, fruit and tobacco.

2. In Kazakhstan a largescale modern industry has been created on the basis of the natural resources which have been discovered mainly during last sixty years.

3. The Ukranian Republic has a highly developed and a multi-sectoral agriculture which provides the country with grain (зерно) and all other agricultural produces.

VIII. Memorize the following information:

Придаточные определительные предложения следуют непосредственно за словами, которые они определяют, и вводятся союзными словами who (about whom, with whom) - который, whom - которого, whose - чей, который, which - который, that - который.

Союзные слова that, which могут быть опущены в том случае, если эти слова не являются подлежащим определительного придаточного предложения. При этом предлог ставиться в конец придаточного предложения;

при переводе на русский язык он ставится в начале придаточного предложения.

This is a problem we have spent much time on.

Это проблема, на которую мы потратили много времени.

2. Word Building Exercises IX. Form adjectives with the help of the given suffixes:

-able: to change, to accept, to consider, to pay, to rely, to profit, to pronounce, to debate, to define, to disagree, to dispute, to drink, to permit, to respond -al(ial): region, culture, instrument, cubic, experiment, fate, globe, information, revolution, benefit, industry, proportion, essence, substance -ed: to approve, to depress, to recommend, to use, to plan X. State the part of speech of the following words:

Indian assignment considerable education profitable characterize fatal considerably 3. Vocabulary Exercises XI. Give Russian equivalents for the following words:

type, agent, client, special agency, contract, auction, firm, statistical, publication, analysis, interview, role, result, situation, function, ideal, real, fact, accumulate, metal, minimize, production.

XII. Read the following words and word combinations. Try to memorize them.

achieve [ t i:ve] v достигать ' advertise ['dv taiz] v рекламировать affect [ fekt] v воздействовать, влиять ' auction [ :k n] v аукцион bind [baind] v связывать, обязывать broker [brouk брокер;

маклер;

комиссионер ] n brokerage [broukerid3] n комиссионное, вознаграждение constantly ['k nst ntli] adv постоянно, всегда consumer [k nsju:m ] n потребитель exchange [iks't eind3] n обмен;

биржа;

фондовая биржа stock e.

insurance [in' u r ns] n страхование obtain [ b'tein] v получать, доставать questionnaire [,kw sti n ] n исследование, вопросник ' possession [p ze n] n владение, обладание ' research [ri's :t ] n исследование, изучение stockbroker ['st kbrouk ] n биржевой маклер trade [treid] I n торговля II v торговать современный, новейший up-to-date ['pt 'deit] a Word Combinations and Phrases for the account of - за счет (чего-то, кого-то) to be familiar with - быть знакомым с to charter ships - фрахтовать корабли statistical data - статистические данные market analysis - анализ рынка market research - исследование рынка, изучение рынка, рыночное исследование under review - рассматриваемый to transact business - вести дело, заключать сделки in the name of - во имя (чего-то) B. READING COMPREHENSION XIII. Read Text A.

Text A. Market Research 1. In achieving good results in trade, it is necessary to be familiar both with the general economic situation in the territory to be traded (territory research) and with the factors affecting commodities (commodity research).

2. The information obtained must be up-to-date and must be constantly under review, because both the goods and the conditions on the market often, and sometimes suddenly change.

3. The material serving “desk research” includes particularly statistical data, official or private economic reports, trade publications, information provided by special agencies, etc.

4. “Field research” is primarily based on findings of a market analysis made in shops among consumers.

5. To have a clear idea of the situation on the market a lot of various methods are used, e.g. interviews, questionnaires, etc.

XIV. Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed:

1. The information about market situation must be up-to-date because of the goods and conditions on the market which are changeable.

2. The findings of market analysis made in shops provide the data for field research.

3. Such methods as interviews, questionnaires are used to clarify the situation on the market.

4. The good results in trade require knowledge of the economic situation in the territory, where there are shops, and of factors affecting commodities.

XV. Read text B and choose the sentence which best expresses the main idea of the text.

Text B. Brokers Brokers are a special type of agents who transact business in the name and for the account of their clients on stock and commodity exchanges without binding themselves to them by special agency contract. Brokers are never in actual possession of the goods they buy or sell. The remuneration they are paid for their services is called brokerage. Brokers play an important role on stock and commodity exchanges, at auctions, in insurance, in chartering ships and aircraft, etc. Hence there are stockbrokers, exchange brokers, insurance brokers, shipbrokers, etc.

Brokers have intimate knowledge role of the markets and extensive connections with firms of their line of business. They can, therefore, influence the general level of prices.

1. Brokers play an important role on stock and commodity exchanges, at auctions, in insurance, in chartering ships.

2. Brokers have intimate knowledge of the markets and extensive connections with firms of their line of business.

3. The text deals with the definition of a notion “broker”, as a special type of an agent and explains some aspects of broker’s activity and operations.

C. TEST XVI. Choose the Russian sentence equivalent to the following:

They are glad of having translated such interesting articles.

1. Они рады, что перевели такие интересные статьи.

2. Они рады, что переведут такие интересные статьи.

3. Они рады, что переводят такие интересные статьи.

(Укажите номер выбранного предложения) He remembers having been asked to make a review of the latest news.

1. Он помнит, что попросил сделать обзор последних известий.

2. Он помнит тот обзор последних известий, который его попросили сделать.

3. Он помнит, что его попросили сделать обзор последних известий.

Statistics playing an important role in the management of our national economy is a well known fact.

1. Важная роль статистики в управлении народным хозяйством, хорошо известный факт.

2. Статистика играет важную роль в управлении народным хозяйством, и это хорошо известный факт.

3. То, что статистика играет важную роль в управлении народным хозяйством, хорошо известный факт.

We know of these firms having concluded a number of important contracts.

1. Мы знаем, что эти фирмы заключают ряд важных контрактов.

2. Мы знаем, что эти фирмы заключили ряд важных контрактов.

3. Мы знаем, что у этих фирм есть ряд важных заключенных контрактов.

XVII. Choose the Russian words equivalent to the following English ones (укажите номера выбранных слов):

obtain — 1. потребитель possession — 2. воздействовать, влиять consumer — 3. достигать affect — 4. получать achieve — 5. связывать exchange — 6. исследование, изучение bind — 7. обмен, биржа research — 8. владение, овладание XVIII. Choose the English words equivalent to the following Russian ones:

быть знакомым с — 1. to charter ships статистические данные — 2. market research рассматриваемый — 3. to be familiar with во имя (чего-то) — 4. for the account of вести дело, заключать сделки — 5. statistical data фондовая биржа — 6. up-to-date фрахтовать корабли — 7. stock exchange изучение рынка — 8. to transact business за счет (чего-то, кого-то) — 9. in the name of современный — 10.under review UNIT Grammar: The Infinitive, Forms and Functions Word Building: Suffixes -less, -ful, -ous, -ive;

Prefixes un-, de-, dis-, non- Text A: Statistical Methods Text B: English A. For Study The Infinitive Table The Forms of the Infinitive Active Passive Выражает действие Indefinite to ask to be asked одновременное действию, выраженному Continuous to be asking — сказуемым Perfect to have asked to have been asked Выражает действие, предшествующее Perfect Continuous to have been asking — действию, выраженному сказуемым Infinitive (to speak - говорить) – неличная форма глагола.

Функции инфинитива:

Подлежащего (To read is this difficult) Именной части составного сказуемого (My task is to study) Дополнения (I want to read English books) Определения (The book to be translated is interesting – книга, которую надо перевести – интересная) Обстоятельства цели и следствия (To translate this text I need a dictionary – чтобы перевести этот текст мне нужен словарь) I. Grammar Exercises I. Translate the following into Russian and analyse the functions of the Infinitive in the sentences.

1. To help him is my duty.

2. The aim of my work is to find necessary data from the experiment.

3. He asked me to help him in translation.

4. He spoke about the plan to increase the output of machine-tools.

5. Here is the article to translate.

6. To memorize the passage I had to read it many times.

7. He is clever enough not to do it.

II. Use the Past Indefinite, Past Perfect or Past Continuous Tenses to complete the following sentences:

1.He (be) tired out because he (work) in the laboratory all day.2. He quickly (forget) all he (learn) at school.

3. After she (read) the letter, she (ring up) me. 4. They (work) there for more than three hours when it (to happen). 5. They (leave) the institute as soon as the lessons (be over). 6.When you (come) to our city I (live already) here for twenty years. 7. He (tell) me that he (spend) his weekends for the last two years in the country.

2. Word Building Exercises III. Add the prefix “un-” to the following words and translate them into Russian:

expressed, equal, satisfactory, familiar, known, finished, happy, connected, important, covered, dressed, favourable, countable, born, available, able.

(префиксы un-, dis-, non-, имеют отрицательное значение) IV. Read the following groups of words. State what part of speech each word belongs to:

discouraged, disappointment, decentralized, discover, non-interference, non-essential, non philological, non-productive, non-effective, unknown, unavoidable, unemployment thankful, heartless, fruitful, fruitless, courageous, advantageous, collective, productive, attentive management, production, building, construction, statistics, productivity, well-being, replacement changeable, considerable, reliable, cultural, instrumental, approved, used, economic, economical, statistic(al), organized 3.Vocabulary Exercises V. Give Russian equivalents for the following:

temperature, information, statistics, subject, modern, civilization, series, figure, mathematics, classification, statistical, material, basis, physics, chemistry, biology, laboratory, experimental method, summarize, procedure, groups, principles, principal, date VI. Choose the Russian equivalents for the following:

1.If it (material) is to be used as a basis.

a. если он употребляется как база b. если он будет употреблен как базис c. если он должен употребляться в качестве основания 2.He has to take the data as they occur.

a. он взял данные, когда они поступили b. ему нужно брать данные в том порядке, в каком они поступали c. он должен брать данные, как только они поступают 3. to take into account a. брать на учет b. вести счет c. принимать (кого-либо) во внимание VII. Choose antonyms:

1.theory — a. experiment;

b. method;

c. practice 2.employment — a. occupation;

b. freedom;

c. unemployment 3.agreement — a. refusal;

b. reduction;

c. disagreement 4.useful — a. helpless;

b. applied;

c. useless 5.payment — a. expense;

b. expenditure;

c. non-payment VIII. Choose synonyms:

1.precise — a) important;

b) exact;

c) accurate;

d) concrete 2.connect — a) tie;

b) correspond;

c) link;

d) associate 3.information — a) knowledge;

b) announcement;

c) data;

d) report 4.a piece of information — a) a part of information;

b) a bit of information IX. Read the following words and word combinations and try to memorize them:

collection [ k денежный сбор;

коллекция, ( ’lek )n] n собрание (трудов) confuse [k смешивать, спутывать;

приводить n’fju:z] v в замешательство connect [k соединять;

связывать(ся) ’nekt] v ассоциировать connected [k связанный, соединенный ’nektid] a disentangle [ ‘disin’tgl] v распутывать(ся);

впутываться inexact [, inig’zkt] a неточный intelligible [in’telid bl] a понятный;

вразумительный judgement [‘d3d3m суждение, мнение;

здравый смысл nt] n рассудительность numerous [‘nju:m r( )s] a многочисленный precise [pri’sais] a точный;

определенный;

аккуратный;

тщательный precisely [pri’saisli] adv точно;

как раз;

определенно precision [pri’si3( точность;

четкость;

аккуратность;

)n] n меткость refer [ri’f направлять (за информацией);

:] v наводить справку, справляться;

относиться за счет (чего-либо) subject-matter предмет (науки) [‘sbd3ikt,mt ] n tabulate [‘tbjuleit] v табулировать Word Combinations to place emphasis – делать ударение, выделять to be concerned with – зд. быть заинтересованным to make use of – использовать, воспользоваться to handle data – обрабатывать (зд. статистические) данные X. Choose the translation of the following:

1. a branch of applied mathematics 1. точные науки 2. they constitute the rules 2. количественные данные 3. quantitative data 3. следовательно 4. exact sciences 4. они составляют правила 5. consequently 5. отрасль прикладной математики B. READING COMPREHENSION XI. Read Text A.

Text A. Statistical Methods 1. All progressive knowledge in the modern world tends to precision. Precision is obtained with the help of numbers. Consequently, the science which deals with numbers has a very vital role to play in the development of our civilization. This science is statistics.

2. The word “statistics” is used in two senses. One, when used in the plural, refers to a series of connected figures, and the other, when used in the singular, relates to that branch of applied mathematics which deals with the collection, classification and use of quantitative data.

3. Quite a large number of definitions have been given to statistics as a science.

Different writers place emphasis on different aspects of the subject-matter of this science.

One main reason for this disagreement has been the constant development of the scope of this science.

4. The collected statistical material, which is influenced by numerous causes, has to be rendered easily intelligible, if it is to be used as a basis for judgement or action. In exact sciences like physics and chemistry the experimenter tries to disentangle complex causes by taking into account only the one with which he is concerned and keeping others aside.

He can control the conditions in his laboratory. But in other sciences this is not possible.

The experimental method fails. Conditions are not within the control of the observer. He has to take the data as they occur. We have to make use of some other methods for achieving their end. These are the methods of statistics. In order to get a clear picture out of the confusing mass of data, the latter have to be systematically collected, classified, tabulated, summarized, compared and presented. These are called “statistical methods”.

They constitute definite rules of procedure in handling groups of data. A proper study of these principles forms the subject-matter of the “science of statistics”.

XII. Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed:

1. Different writers give different definitions to statistics as a science.

2. Statistics is a science which play a very vital role in our civilization.

3. Two senses of the word “statistics”.

4. The passage explains what statistical methods are. Mass data have to be systematically collected, classified, tabulated, summarized, compared and presented.

XIII. Read text B and choose the sentence which best expresses the main idea of the text.

Text B. English.

English is a wide-spread language. It is the mother tongue of hundreds of millions of people. English is spoken throughout the continent of North America (the USA and Canada), in the British Isles, South Africa, Australia and New Zeland. For a long time English had been the language of colonization in Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania where it was introduced as the only means of communication. For many centuries the colonies had been under British rule. At present many countries declared themselves republics, some of them became independent and encourage the use of local languages.

Though some efforts are made to gradually substitute English for the native tongues, English is still widely used as the official language and the international language of commerce.

English is one of the five working languages used in the United Nations Orgenization.

1. English is spoken in Asia and Africa.

2. At present many countries declared themselves republics, some of them became independent.

3. English is a wide-spread language in the world and is used as the official language and the international language of commerce.

C. TEST XIV. Choose Russian words corresponding to the following English ones:

Confuse - 1. соединять;

connect - 2. справляться intelligible - 3. табулировать refer - 4. точный subject-matter - 5. многочисленный tabulate - 6. смешивать;

приводить в замешательство precise - 7. понятный numerous - 8. предмет (науки) XV. Choose English translation of the following:

распутывать (ся) - 1. to make use of суждение, мнение - 2. judgement выделять - 3. to handle data использовать - 4. disentangle обрабатывать данные - 5. definition определение - 6. to place emphasis точные науки - 7. exact sciences отрасль статистики - 8. branch of statistics сравнить - 9. compare исследовать, расследовать - 10.investigate XVI. State the function of the Infinitive in the sentences and translate them:

(для каждого предложения укажите номер выбранной функции) The total amount of information to be investigated is called “universe” (совокупность) It may be either necessary to sample (сделать выборку) the universe to be tested rather than to take census.

To interpret the results of data handling is not an easy problem.

The problem is to collect data.

In order to get a clear picture out of the confusing mass data, the latter have to be systematically collected, classified, tabulated, summarized, compared and presented.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Функции: 1. подлежащее 2. часть составного сказуемого 3.дополнение 4.определение 5.обстоятельство цели UNIT Grammar: The Complex Object;

The Complex Subject Word Building: Suffixes -ize, -ise, -en, -ate Prefixes re-, trans-, inter Text A: Sampling.

Text B: Moscow, Idaho.

A. FOR STUDY The Complex Object /объектный инфинитивный оборот/ Этот оборот выступает как единый член предложения – сложное дополнение – и представляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже с инфинитивом. Переводится на русский язык придаточным дополнительным предложением, вводимым союзами: что, чтобы, как.

Примеры:

1. желание или потребность (to want, to wish, Would you like me to translate this text?

to desire, to like) Не хотели бы вы, чтобы я перевел этот текст?

2. физическое восприятие или ощущение (to watch, to observe, I saw him enter the room.

to notice, to see, Я видел, что он входит в комнату.

to hear, to feel) ! После них любой инфинитив употребляется без частицы “to“ 3. утверждение, знание, осведомленность, констатация факта.

( to claim, to find, I know them to have passed the exams to know, to note, successfully.

to state) Я знаю, что они успешно сдали экзамены.

4. предположение, мнение, суждение (to assume, to believe, I consider him to be a good economist.

to suppose, to consider, Я считаю, что он хороший экономист.

to expect, to prove, to think, to understand) 5. разрешение или запрет (to make, to cause, He ordered the letters to be sent to force, to allow, immediatly.

to permit, to let, Он приказал, чтобы письма отправили to order, to command) немедлено I. Grammar Exercises I. Choose Russian sentences equivalent to the following:

1) They wanted us to make decision.

a) Они хотели принять решение.

b) Нам нужно принять решение.

c) Они хотели, чтобы мы приняли решение.

2) I watch the car move away.

a) Я следил за отъездом машины.

b) Я наблюдал как отъехала машина.

c) Я видел, что машина уезжает.

3) I know the song to have won the first prize at the Sochi Festival.

a) Я знаю, что эта песня получила первый приз на фестивале в Сочи.

b) Я знаю эту песню как одну из получивших премию на фестивале в Сочи.

c) На фестивале в Сочи эта песня получила первую премию.

4) I assume the problem to be rather difficult but we must solve it.

a) Я предполагаю, что проблему нам будет довольно трудно разрешить.

b) Я полагаю, что эта проблема довольно трудная, но мы должны ее разрешить.

c) Проблема довольно трудная, но я полагаю, что мы должны ее разрешить.

5) He ordered the mixture to be heated for five minutes.

a) Он приказал подогревать эту смесь 5 минут.

b) Он велел, чтобы эту смесь подогревали в течение 5 минут.

c) По его распоряжению смесь должна подогреваться в течение 5 минут.

The Complex Subject /субъектный инфинитивный оборот/ Этот оборот представляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в именительном падеже с инфинитивом, на русский язык переводится сложноподчиненным предложением.

Например: He is known to be the founder of this museum.

Известно, что он основатель этого музея.

II. Memorize the following:

Complex Subject употребляется:

1.с глаголами, обозначающими утверждение, знание, физическое восприятие, просьбу, приказание, которые могут стоять в любом времени в страдательном залоге / to assume, to believe, to consider, to expect, to hear, to know, to order, to say, to see, to suppose и т.д./ 2. Cо следующими глаголами: to appear, to seem, to prove, to turn out, to happen, to chance 3. Cо сказуемым типа is (un)likely (мало вероятно, вряд ли);

is sure, is certain (несомненно, конечно, безусловно, непременно) III. Choose Russian sentences equivalent to the following (1-с):

1. A theory is known to be tested by practice a) Известно, что теория проверяется практикой.

b) Теория проверяется практикой.

c)Теория известна и проверяется она практикой.

2.Statistics is considered to be a powerful instrument of state administration.

a) Статистика рассматривается как великий инструмент у правительства государства.

b) Статистику рассматривают как важный инструмент управления государством.

c) Считают, что статистика - это мощный инструмент управления государством.

3.This approach seems to ignore the objective conditions.

a) Кажется этот подход игнорирует объективные условия.

b) Этот подход игнорирует объективные условия.

c) Этот подход, кажется, игнорирует объективные условия.

4.He is sure to come.

a) Он уверен, что придет.

b) Он непременно придет.

c) Он уверен и придет.

IV. Read the following verbs, paying attention to the suffixes “-ize, -en, -ate” modernize, industrialize, communicate, utilize, operate, eliminate, facilitate, standardize, broaden, concentrate, necessitate, maximize, shorten, idealize V. Form verbs ending in “-ize, -ate,-en” from the following words:

organ concentration minim(um) idea wide coordination consolidation standart VI. Read and translate the following words with prefixes “re-, trans-, inter-“ interconnection, international, intermediate, intercommunication, interdependence, interplanetary, interview, reorganize, reconstruct, renew, remake, react, refresh, regenerate, re-count, rewrite, transcription, transformer, transmission, transoceanic, transportation, transshipment 3.Vocabulary Exercises VII.Choose synonyms:

1. crucial - a. necessary b. important c. decisive 2. progress - a. development b. advance c. growth 3. construction - a. operation b. building c. manufacture 4. entire - a. steady b. whole c. cardinal 5. specialist - a. member b. expert c. observer 6. to achieve - a. to produce b. to reach c. to prove 7. to prepare - a. to occur b. to guarantee c. to provide 8. aim - a. idea b. mode c. purpose 9. for instance - a. forever b. most of all c. for example VIII. Read the following words and word combinations and remember them:

оценивать, определять assess [ ’ses] v перепись census [‘sens s] n полная перепись complete c.

заключение, вывод conclusion [ k n’klu:3n] n разрушение, разорение destruction [dis’trk n] n влечь за собой, вызывать entail [in’teil] v перечислять enumerate [i’njum reit] v ошибка, погрешность error [‘er ] n достигать, выигрывать gain [gein] v вместо, взамен расследовать,исследовать instead [ins’ted] adv репрезентативный, типичный investigate [in’vestigeit] v опрашиваемый (при переписи населения) representative [,repri’zent tiv] a возвращение, сведение(отчетные) respondent [ris’p nd nt] n скорость, быстрота return [ri’t :n] n выборка, отобранная единица или группа выборочный метод speed [spi:d] n выборка sample [s:mpl] n re-приставка повторного действия trans- за (пределами чего-то), inter- между, взаимо- проведение (процесс) выборки s. method целое sampling [s:mpli] n s. process whole [houl] n Word Combinations and Phrases to give detailed information - предоставлять подробную информацию with great care - с большой тщательностью a small proportion of the population - незначительная часть населения a number of advantages - ряд преимуществ B. READING COMPREHENSION IX. Read text A.

Text A. Sampling.

The Sampling Process. Instead of obtaining data from the whole of the material being investigated, sampling methods are often used in which only a sample selected from the whole is dealt with, and from this sample conclusions are drawn relating to the whole.

If the conclusions are to be valid, the sample must therefore be made with great care.

The Advantages of Using Sampling Methods. There are a number of advantages to be gained by using sampling methods. Among these advantages may be enumerated the following :

1. The results can be obtained more quickly, for two reasons: the data are obtained more rapidly and can be analysed more quickly. Speed in analysing the data is also possible by analysing a sample of the data before analysing the whole. The analysis of a 1% sample of the last population census was such an example.

2. When the respondents constitute only a small proportion of the population they are more willing to give detailed information, and because fewer interviewers are required, a much higher quality of interviewer can be employed.

3. Higher-grade labour can be employed on the computing, tabulating, and analysis of the data.

4. Lower costs.

5. The error can be assessed.

6. It is easier to guard against incomplete and inaccurate returns. A sample is often used as a check on the accuracy of complete censuses.

7. When the investigation entails the destruction of the material - e.g. to discover the life of a lamp - sampling methods are the only practical methods to use.

X. Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed:

1. Sampling methods provide advantages such as the speed in analysing the data in obtaining the information about the whole.

2. By using sampling methods one more advantage is gained. It is the detailed information to be obtained and a more higher quality of inteviewer can be employed.

3. A sample is often used as a check on the accuracy of complete censuses.

4. Sampling methods are known to be the only practical methods when the investigation entails the destruction.

XI. Read text B and choose the sentence which best expresses the main idea of the text.

1. The people of Moscow, Idaho, grow a rich harvest of maize, peas and potatoes.

2. Many people from Europe went to America to start a new life.

3. People of different nationalities, including Russians and Ukrainians, settled in a new place of the USA and named the new towns in honour of the places where they had been born.

Text B. Moscow, Idaho In the USA there are many cities, towns and villages which are namesakes not only of Moscow or Odessa in the USSR, but also of London, Paris, Rome, Geneva and so on. In the USA, for example, there are big- and small-populated places in many states which have the name of Moscow. One such Moscow is the administrative in Idaho. How did these namesakes of European cities come to the American continent? In the 1880 a lot of people from Europe went to America to start a new life. People of different nationalities, including Russians and Ukrainians, settled in a new place but they did not forget their home towns and villages. They named the new villages and towns in honour of the places where they had been born.

Many people from Europe went to the Rocky Mountains in search of gold and they called one of the settlements Moscow. Earlier that area had been populated by Indians.

Today Moscow, Idaho, is a nice town, situated among green hills. Americans call it a students home, because almost 50 per cent of the population are students. The University of Moscow, Idaho, founded in 1889, stands on a hill. The University’s library is one of the best in the USA and has a collection of interesting books on American history. The people of Moscow, Idaho, grow a rich harvest of maize, peas and potatoes. It also has a developed industry and produces lead, copper, silver and other metals.

Vocabulary Notes namesake - тезка... settled in a new place - поселившиеся на новом месте in honour of - в честь the Rocky Mountains - Скалистые горы lead - свинец copper – медь maize - кукуруза potato – картофель silver – серебро C. TEST XII. Choose the Russian sentences equivalent to the following:

The management of the firm wants them to report about the results of their negotiations.

1. Дирекция фирмы хочет доложить им о результатах переговоров.

2. Дирекция фирмы хочет, чтобы они доложили о результатах их переговоров.

3. Дирекция фирмы хочет, чтобы им доложили о результатах их переговоров.

The customers are said to buy the goods at a price fixed by a special agreement.

1. Заказчики говорят, что купят товары по цене, установленной специальным соглашением.

2. Говорят, заказчики купят товары по цене, установленной специальным соглашением.

3. Говорят, заказчики купили товар по цене, установленной специальным соглашением.

Would you like me to translate this text?

1. Вам нравится, что я перевожу этот текст?

2. Хотели бы вы, чтобы я перевел этот текст?

3. Хотите я переведу этот текст?

XIII. Choose Russian words corresponding to the following English ones:

1. заключение, вывод census — 2. репрезентативный error — 3. выборка, отобранная единица investigate — 4. скорость, быстрота conclusion — 5. выборка gain — 6. опрашиваемый 7. перепись representative — 8. ошибка, погрешность sample — 9. достигать, выигрывать speed — 10. рассматривать, исследовать sampling — 11. вызывать respondent — 12. оценивать, определять assess — entail — XIV. Choose English translation of the following:

с большой тщательностью — 1. a small proportion ряд преимуществ — 2. sampling method незначительная часть — 3. the whole выборочный метод — 4. destruction целое — 5. a number of advantages разрушение — 6. with great care XV. Supply the correct prepositions (of, for, to, in, after):

We took all...... them to the railway station.

They had to wait...... bus...... three hours.

He listens...... the radio every day.

I have to look...... children today.

Albert asked him...... a new book.

He knew a flight...... New York and Paris was possible.

He wrote many stories...... order to pay his debts.

UNIT Grammar: Adverbial Clauses Word Building: Prefixes over-, super-, out- Conversion Text A: Money Text B: An Exchange A. FOR STUDY Table Adverbial Clauses / придаточные обстоятельственные предложения/ Придаточные Вводятся союзом или союзным словом:

предложения 1. обстоятельства времени /adverbial after /после того, как/ clauses of time/ as /когда, в то время как/ as long as /пока/ as soon as /как только/ before /прежде чем/ since /с тех пор как/ till /до тех пор как/ untill /до тех пор пока не/ when /когда/ while /в то время как/ 2. обстоятельства места /adverbial clauses where of place/ wherever /где бы ни, куда бы ни/ 3. обстоятельства причины /adverbial as /так как/ clauses of reason/ since /так как, поскольку/ because /потому, что/ 4. обстоятельства цели /adverbial clauses (so) that /(так) чтобы, чтобы/ of purpose/ in order that /для того, чтобы/ lest /так, чтобы/ 5. обстоятельства условия /adverbial if /если/ clauses of condition/ provided (that) /при условии если/ in case that /в случае если/ unless /если не/ on condition that /при условии если/ supposing (that), suppose (that) /предположим, что/ 6. обстоятельства образа действия as /как/ /adverbial clauses of manner/ as if, as though /как будто, как если бы/ 7. следствия /adverbial clauses of result/ so that, so /так что/ 8. уступительные /adverbial clauses of though (although) /хотя/ concession/ in spite of the fact that /несмотря на то,что/ I. Grammar Exercises I. Read the following sentences and state the types of the adverbial subordinate clauses /consult Table I/:

1. After the agreement had been signed, the delegation left Moscow.

2. He spoke as if he knew this problem very well.

3. He could not come to the lecture because he was ill.

4. He went where the doctor sent him.

5. Mike acted as though nothing had happened.

6. She sat behind me so that I could not see the expression of her face.

II. Put the verbs into the suitable tense form:

1. I already (have) my holiday this year.

2. It (rain) when I (wake up) last Sunday.

3. It always (rain) when I am not working.

4. We (arrange) to meet Ann outside the theatre, and she (wait) for twenty minutes when we ( get) there.

5. It’s Monday again today, and I (work) as usual.

6. I (go) to the Caucasus next summer.

7. I (live) for 20 years in this city.

2. Word Building Exercises III. Give the meaning of the following words:* production - overproduction estimate - overestimate fulfilment - overfulfirment heat - overheat man - superman natural - supernatural structure - superstructure tax - supertax sonic - ultrasonic sound - ultrasound violet – ultraviolet IV. Give the meaning of the following words:

to employ, employee, employer, employment, unemployment, employed to pay, paid, payment, paying, payable, payer to buy, bought, buyer to sell, seller, selling, sold certain, certainly, uncertain to own, owner, ownership V. Give the meaning of the following words:

light - to light;

answer - to answer;

face - to face;

screen - to screen;

place - to place;

land - to land;

order - to order;

walk - to walk;

broadcast - to broadcast;

machine - to machine;

work - to work;

change - to change;

class - to class;

hand - to hand;

measure - to measure;

purchase - to purchase;

run - to run;

hunger - to hunger;

clean - to clean;

dirty - to dirty;

cool - to cool;

quiet - to quiet;

empty - to empty;

free - to free;

wet - to wet;

busy - to busy Примечание: в английском языке во многих случаях слова, являющиеся различными частями речи, совпадают в произношении и написании. Такое совпадение форм особенно часто встречается у существительных и глаголов. В некоторых случаях совпадение форм встречается у нескольких частей речи, например:light n - свет, light a – светлый;

light v – освещать.

* over - пере, super – сверх, над;

ultra – ультра, сверх 3.Vocabulary Exercises VI. Read the new words, word combinations and phrases. Memorize them.

accept [ k’sept] v принимать;

соглашаться, допускать cash [k ] n деньги;

звонкая монета spot c.

наличные деньги circulation [, s n] n :kju’lei обращение;

денежное обращение convert [k n’v :t] v превращать;

конвертировать воплощать (в себе);

включать в себя, содержать;

embody [im’b di] v воплощать в жизнь воплощение;

олицетворение embodiment [ im’b nt] n] dim обмен;

биржа exchange [iks’t eind3] n товарная биржа commodity e.

равнять, уравнивать equate [i’kweit] v золото, богатство gold [gould] n зерно;

хлебные злаки grain [grein] n шкура;

кожа hide [haid] n шкура и кожа h. and skins необходимый, обязательный indispensable [,indi’spens bl] a мера measure [‘me ] I n мерить II v плавить (ся) melt [melt] v окислять(ся) oxidize [‘ ksidaiz] v цена price [prais] n 1. собственность;

имущество property [‘prp 2.свойство (чего-либо) ti] n резина, каучук rubber [‘rb ] n вещество;

реальная ценность;

substance [‘subst ns] n богатство;

состояние происходить;

брать начало stem [stem] v законное платежное средство tender [‘tend ] n сокровище treasure [‘tre ] n ценность;

важность;

стоимость value [‘vlju:] I n оценивать;

ценить II v растительное масло vegetable oil обьем volume [‘vljum] вес weight [weit] I n нагружать II v Word Combinations and Phrases to serve as a means of... - служить средством (чего-либо) to break into pieces - разби(ва)ть на куски acts of sale and purchase - акты продажы и купли in terms of money - в денежном выражении means of circulation - средство обращения means of accumulation - средство накопления with the aid of - с помощью...

a way of hoarding treasures - путь, способ накопления богатств to a certain extent - до определенной степени B. READING COMPREHENSION VII.Read text A.

Text A. Money.

1. Money is indispensable in a society in which commodity exchange takes place. In commodity exchange money plays the role of a universal equivalent, that of commodity expressing the value of all the other commodities.

2. Gold is the generally accepted money commodity. Because of its natural properties gold is the most convenient substance to carry out the social function of money. It can be easily broken into pieces and melted and “recombined” without any loss of value. It can also be kept safely as it does not become oxidized.

In addition it has relatively small volume for its weight while denoting a considerable value.

3. Money performs a number of functions. First of all, it serves as a measure of value;

that is, it is used to measure the value of all other commodities. Each commodity is sold for a certain sum of money, which expresses its value. The value of a commodity in terms of money is called its price.

4. Money is an ideal unit for expressing the value of all other commodities. What this means is that to measure the value of commodities it is not necessary to have cash. As acts of sale and purchase (i.e. the exchange of commodities for money) are repeated many times, the seller and buyer mentally equate the commodity to a certain amount of money (or gold) corresponding to its value.

5. When commodities are exchanged with the aid of money, the latter also serves as a means of circulation. To perform this function money has to be real, not ideal. What is important is that anyone receiving these symbols of value must be assured that they will be accepted from him too, when he pays for other commodities. That is why states declare paper money to be legal tender.

6. Money also serves as a means of accumulation or a way of hoarding treasures. This function stems from the fact that money can buy any commodity. Therefore, money is a universal embodiment of wealth and a means of accumulating it. Taken out of circulation, however, money becomes treasure only if it is gold, or money converted into articles of gold, silver and other precious metals or stones.

7. Money is not always in the from of cash. Sales and purchases are often made on credit.

VIII. Find the passages in the text where the following ideas are expressed.

1. что деньги являются идеальной единицей для выражения стоимости товаров.

2. что деньги служат средством накопления богатствa.

3. что деньги выполняют ряд функций.

4. что деньги необходимы в обществе, в котором существует товарный обмен.

5. что акты купли и продажи часто совершаются в кредит.

IX.Read Text B and choose the sentence which best expresses the main idea of the text:

1. In all large cities there are commodity and stock exchanges.

2. In the USA the best-known commodity exchanges are the Board of Trade in Chicago and the New York Produce Exchange and the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange.

3. There are two types of exchanges: the commodity exchange for trading in such commodities as cotton, sugar, grain etc., and stock exchange where securities are bought and sold.

Text B. An Exchange.

An exchange is a market, i.e. a permanent (постоянное) place in which persons meet with the aim of buying and selling. The trading there is governed by certain rules and is limited to members of the exchange, who are known as brokers. The two chief types of exchanges are the commodity exchange and the stock exchange.

Commodity exchanges have been established in important cities for trading in such commodities as cotton, sugar, grain, etc.

Among the more important commodity exchanges in Great Britan are the London Commodity Exchange (cocoa, coffee, hides and skins, rubber and sugar), the London Wool Exchange, the London Metal Exchange, the Liverpool Cotton Exchange and the Liverpool Corn Exchange. In the USA, the best-known are the Board of Trade in Chicago (corn), the New York Produce Exchange, the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange.

Stock exchanges, on the other hand, are places where securities (ценные бумаги) are bought and sold. The most famous stock exchanges are the London Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange.

С. TEST X. Analyse the subordinate clauses in the following sentences and translate them:

(около каждого предложения укажите номер выбранного типа придаточного предложения) 1. Do it when I come.

2. Leave it where it is.

3. Whenever acts of sale and purchase took place people used money or its equivalent.

4. It is important that students of English should do some English - reading, listening or speaking - regularly, if you wish to make continued progress.

5. Money is not always in the form of cash so sales and purchases are often used on credit.

Adverbial clauses 1) of time 2) of place 3) of condition 4) of result XI. Pay attention to the words underlined in the sentences.

Choose their translation into Russian.

(около каждого предложения укажите номер выбранного перевода) _ Money serves as a means of accumulation or a way of hoarding treasures.

_ What does it mean?

_ He is a mean man.

_ With money we can purchase consumer goods.

_ Your purchase is just in time.

_ What do we use to measure distance?

_ There must be another measure and other methods of measurement.

_ The value of a commodity in terms of money is called its price.

_ It has always been valued very much.

_ 1. значить, означать 4. измерять, мерить 7. средство 2. низкий 5. мера 8.покупать 3. покупка 6. стоимость, цена 9. ценить XII. Choose the Russian words (the number) corresponding to the following English ones:

1. volume — 1. свойство 2. treasure — 2. происходить 3. property — 3. каучук 4. value — 4. обмен 5. stem — 5. вес 6. weight — 6. деньги 7. rubber — 7. принимать 8. exchange — 8. мера 9. cash — 9. цена 10. accept — 10. равнять, уравнивать 11. measure — 11. превращать, конвертировать 12. price — 12. объем 13. equate — 13. стоимость, цена 14. convert — 14. сокровища XIII. Choose Russian translation of the following:

1. acts of sale and purchase 1. разби(ва)ть на куски 2. in terms of money 2. средство накопления 3. to break into pieces 3. служить средством 4. to a certain extent 4. средство обращения 5. means of accumulation 5. фондовая биржа 6. to serve as a means of 6. до определенной степени 7. means of circulation 7. акты продажи и купли 8. stock exchange 8. в денежном выражении UNIT Grammar: The Compound Sentences Word Building: Compounding Conversion Text A: Business Letters Text B: English of Commerce A. FOR STUDY The Compound Sentences /Сложносочиненные предложения/ Этот тип сложного предложения может включать в свой состав два или несколько самостоятельных предложений, соединяющихся друг с другом сочинительными союзами and, but, or и др. Нередко можно встретить бессоюзное соединение предложений (clauses) в сложносочиненном предложении.

Примеры:

Geography begins and ends with maps, and the Siberian geographers did not depart from this tradition.

Commodities thus must meet certain needs or be useful in some way or other, or no one would buy them.

They will go to the Caucasus next summer, but I’ll stay at home.

They will go to the Caucasus next summer;

I’ll stay at home.

I. Grammar Exercises I. Read the senteces;

state the compound and complex sentences. Translate them.

1. Everybody knows the mountains (горы) and lakes (озера) in Wales, but not many people know about this interesting old slate (сланец) mine in North Wales.

2. The old slate mine has 67 kilometres of tunnels, and you can travel through them in a special train.

3. There is a museum where you can see all the old mining machinery.

4. In the old miner’s cottages you can see how people lived more than 100 years ago.

II. Find the subject in the following sentences. Translate them.

1. History has a direction. There are setbacks, there are zigs and zags, there are stages of uneven development, there are moments of retrogression, but they take place within the overall framework of advancing from a lower social structure to a step up the ladder./лестница/ 2. Commodities must meet certain needs or be useful in some way or other, or no one would buy them.

3. In some countries foreign trade is a state monopoly, and no private individual may engage in it in his own name and on his own account.

4. The economic sphere is a decisive one, for only by building a truly independent economy of its own a country can achieve genuine independence.

2. Word Building Exercises:

III. Memorize the following:

Многие слова в английском языке являются составными, т.е. образуются путем соединения двух слов в одно слово. Некоторые составные слова пишутся слитно, а другие через черточку (дефис).

Примеры:

Составные существительные:

bedroom, railway, newspaper, schoolboy, spaceship, waterway, etc.

Составные прилагательные:

dark-blue (темносиний), first-class (первокласный), peace-loving (миролюбивый), etc.

Составные местоимения:

somebody, nothing, everyone, anything, etc.

Составные глаголы:

to whitewash (белить), to broadcast (передавать по радио), to pick up (поднимать), to ring up, to go on, etc.

Составные наречия:

somewhere (где-то), nowhere (нигде), everywhere (везде), etc.

IV. In the following sentences find the words formed by means of compounding:

1. World’s oil pipelines total 50,000 kilometres, 10,000 km longer than the earth’s equator.

2. Freight traffic by all means of transport (railway, marine, inland waterway, pipeline, etc.) has increased greatly as compared with previous years.

3. Whenever you read a book, newspaper or text in English, make a point of finding the phrasal verbs, and write down in a special notebook the whole sentence in which they appear.

4. However difficult the work is they will do it in time.

5. Don’t believe him whatever he may say.

6. He said that he was greatly impressed by the model of the spaceship which he had seen at the exhibition.

7. Those who believe that the struggle for peace is only the concern of governments and is organized by them are wrong. It is the concern of every honest person, of every peace-loving nation.

8. We agree with all those in different countries who also protest against the further build-up of nuclear weapons in Europe and throughout the world, and demand that they should be frozen and reduced without delay.

3.Vocabulary Exercises V. Memorize the following words, word combinations and phrases:

abbreviation [ сокращение;

аббревиатура n] n,brivi’ei acquaintance [ знакомство;

знакомый ’kweint ns] n adjust [ 1. приспосабливать ’d3 st] v 2. улаживать (спор и т.д.) addressee [,re, si:] n адресат colonel [‘k полковник :n l] n complimentary [,k mpli’ment лестный, поздравительный ri] a c. close вежливый конец (письма) confusion [kn’fju:3n] n 1. путаница 2. замешательство cordially [‘k :dj сердечно li] adv dispatch [dis’pt] n отправка;

отправление v отправлять;

посылать heading [‘hedi] n заголовок honour [ ‘n честь;

] n pl. отличие university h. университетские отличия (степень, ученое звание) armed forces h. воинские знаки отличия leave [li:v] v (past, p.p left) 1. уезжать 2. оставлять, покидать order [‘:d 1. порядок;

2. заказ ] n precede [pri:’si:d] v предшествовать, стоять перед чем-либо signature [‘signit подпись ] n sincerely [sin’si искренне li] adv treasurer [‘tre3 казначей r ] n truely yours [‘tru:li] adv преданный вам (в конце письма) Word Combinations and Phrases armed forces - вооруженные силы attached is... - ( к письму) прилагается in reply to... - в ответ на lefthand side of the page - левая сторона страницы in the mean time - в то же самое время;

между тем we are enclosing... - (к письму) прилагаем we are pleased to offer you - рады предложить вам B. READING COMPREHENSION VI.Read text A and translate it into Russian.

Text A. Business Letters Every letter that leaves the office should be looked upon as a representative of the firm. Its appearence, therefore, must be in keeping with this function.

An English business letter generally consists of the following six parts:

1. the Heading with the Date 2. the Inside Address 3. Titles 4. the Greeting 5. the Body of the Letter 6. the Complimentary Close 7. the Signature The heading of a business letter is usually printed and indicates by whom, where and when a letter was written. Besides these three items, i.e. the name and address of the firm and the date of writing the letter, the heading usually contains the telephone number, the telex and fax.

The date, which is a part of the heading, may take any one of the following forms:

4th January (,) 4 January (,) January 4th January 4, Such abbreviations as 4/1/1995 are not generally adopted since they lead to confusion. It is preferable not to abbreviate the names of months.

The inside address consists of the name and the address of the addressee and is written on the lefthand side of the page.

Titels. When a letter is addressed to a woman, the title is “Mrs” if she is married and “Miss” if she is unmarried. The plural form in both cases is “Mmes”(=Medames) Titles such as “Doctor”, “Professor”, “Colonel”, “Sir” always precede the name of a person.

University degrees and honours gained in the armed forces are put after the name.

Examples: Mr. Henry A. Williams Colonel James B. Adams Professor (Prof) James B.Adams Mr. J.B. Turner, M.A. (=Master of Arts) Titles indicating positions, such as Treasurer, Secretary, Manager, President usually follow the name.

Examples: Mr. Charles Simpson, Secretary Mr. John Smith, President VII. Memorize the following possible forms of greetings used in business letters.

Degree of formality Men Women formal -Dear Sir, - Dear Madam, (=G.B.: Dear sirs, (=G.B.: Dear USA: Madames) Dear Gentlemen) less formal and friendly - Dear Mr. Smith - Dear Mrs. Jackson VIII. Memorize the following Complimentary Close:

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