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613.83 51.1(2)5 61 Lynn Zimmer and John P. Morgan, 1997 Drug Policy Alliance All rights reserved. ...

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, 40% 5 , 15 [10].

Shafer , , , . 1970 . , 45% , 27% . , , , . , .

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. , , .

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: , , , . , ... , [15].

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108 : : ;

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: [19].

: [20].

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: , [21].

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1977 . ( ) ( misdemeanor). [25]. 1978 . . , (civil offense), 100 [26].

1974 . , James Eastland, Shafer [27]. , . , . [28].

70 . , . 1977 . 56% , 45% 19% 8 [29]. .

, . NIDA, , [30] [31].

, PRIDE (Parents Resource Institute for Drug Education), , , (Families in Action). , , , [32]. , , , [33]. , , , . , .

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NIDA Robert DuPont , [35]. NIDA 1978 ., DuPont Marsha Manatt , , NIDA. , . , , , , , , , , , , [36].

70 . , , , , Saturday Evening Post, McCalls, Good Housekeeping Ladies Home Journal [37].

Reader's Digest , 4 110 : , Peggy Mann. , . , , , , , , [38]. Reader's Digest Mann 6 . , , [39].

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Donna Shalala , , , [68].

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, , . , , , , . 6070 ., 80 . 90 , [75].

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114 : . (Operation Pressure Point and the Disruption of Street Level Trafficing, New York University School of Law, 1987) , (Women Guarding Men, University of Chicago Press, 1986). , Behavioral Sciences and the Law, Social Problems, Gender and Society, Women and Criminal Justice, Contemporary Drug Problems, American Journal of the Police International Journal of Drug Policy. , , . . .

, , Edna McCornell Clark , .

. , , Mount Sinai. , . , . Journal of the American Medical Association, New England Journal of Medicine, British Medical Journal, Archives of Neurology, Annals of Internal Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1996 . LeDain .

. . .

: , (The Pharmacology of Smokable Cocaine: Not at All Its Cracked Up to Be) (Crack in America) C. Reinarman H.G. Levine (University of California Press, 1997). : , (Animal Self Administration of Cocaine: Misinterpretation, Misrepresentation, and Invalid Extrapolation to Humans) P.G. Erickson . (New Public Health Policies and Programs for the Reduction of Drug Related Harm, University of Toronto Press, 1997).

, , . , Web (www.lindesmith.org). , , , . , . , , .

1. Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, Report of the Hemp Drugs Commission, Simla, India: Government Central Printing Office (1894).

2. Canal Zone Committee, The Panama Canal Zone Military Investigations (1925).

3. Mayor's Committee on Marihuana, The Marihuana Problem in the City of New York: Sociological, Medical, Psychological, and Pharmacological Studies, Lancaster, PA: Jacques Cattel Press (1944).

4. Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office (1969).

5. Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry, The Non Medical Use of Drugs, Ottawa, Canada: Information Canada (1970).

6. National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (1972).

7. Werkgroep Verdovende Middelen, Background and Risks of Drug Use, The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij (1972).

8. Senate Standing Committee on Social Welfare, Drug Problems in Australia An Intoxicated Society?, Canberra:

Australian Commonwealth Government Printing Office (1977).

9. National Research Council, An Analysis of Marijuana Policy, Washington, DC: National Academy Press (1982).

10. Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Drug Policy in the Netherlands: Continuity and Change, The Netherlands (1995).

11. For a review of the history surrounding marijuana prohibition in the United States, see Bonnie R.J., Whitebread C.H. The Marihuana Conviction: A History of Marihuana Prohibition in the United States, Charlottesville:

University of Virginia Press (1974);

Kaplan J. Marijuana: The New Prohibition, New York: World Publishing Company (1970).

12. For a more recent history of anti marijuana campaigns in the United States see Himmelstein J.L. The Strange Career of Marihuana: Politics and Ideology of Drug Control in the United States, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press (1983);

Baum D. Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure, Boston: Little Brown and Company (1996).

1. 1. President Bill Clinton, remarks at signing of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1994, Framington, MA (20 October 1994).

2. Marijuana for the Sick, New York Times (30 December 1996), p. A14.

3. Lane E. Reefer Madness Revisited, Newsday (3 September 1996), p. B21.

4. California Narcotic Officers Association, Marijuana is NOT a Medicine, Santa Clarita, CA (1996), p. 2.

5. Taking the Cover Off Pot, Washington Post (7 December 1996), p. A24.

6. U.S. Public Law 91513, Part F, Sec. 601 (1970).

7. National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding, U.S.

Government Printing Office (1972), p. 90.

8. National Commission (1972), . 7, p. 167.

9. Marijuana Decriminalization, Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate (14 May 1975), pp. 23.

10. New York Academy of Medicine, Committee on Public Health, Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 49: 7780 (1973).

11. Grinspoon L. Marihuana Reconsidered, Cambridge: Harvard University Press (1971);

Kaplan J. Marijuana:

The New Prohibition, New York: World Publishing Company (1970);

Brecher E.M. Licit and Illicit Drugs, Boston:

Little, Brown and Company (1972);

Bonnie R.J., Whitebread C.H. The Marihuana Conviction: A History of Marihuana Prohibition in the United States, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press (1974);

Kittrie N.N. MarijuanaThe Right to Truth, South Carolina Law Review 23: 36176 (1971).

116 : 12. Commission of Inquiry into the Non Medical Use of Drugs, Final Report, Ottawa: Information Canada (1972);

Werkgroep Verdovende Middelen, Background and Risks of Drug Use, The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij (1972);

Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis, London: H.M. Stationery Office (1968);

Senate Standing Committee on Social Welfare, Drug Problems in AustraliaAn Intoxicated Society?, Canberra: Australian Commonwealth Government Printing Office (1977).

13. Nahas G.G., Greenwood A. The First Report of the National Commission on Marihuana (1972): Signal of Misunderstanding or Exercise in Ambiguity?, Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 50: 5575 (1974);

Nahas G.G. Marihuana: Deceptive Weed, New York: Raven Press (1973).

14. Nahas G.G. Keep Off the Grass, New York: Readers Digest Press (1976).

15. Subcommittee Hearings to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Se-curity Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Marihuana Hashish Epidemic and Its Impact on United States Security, Washington, DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office (1974), p. xii.

16. Institute of Medicine, Marijuana and Health, Washington, DC: National Academy Press (1982);

Report on Cannabis Use, Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation (1982).

17. Jones R. Clinical Pharmacology of Marijuana, paper presented at National Institute of Health, Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana, Bethesda, MD (19 February 1997).

18. National Commission (1972), . 7, p. 8.

19. Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Drug Policy in the Netherlands: Continuity and Change, The Netherlands (1995).

20. Deglamorising Cannabis, Lancet 346: 1241 (1995).

2. 1. Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Legalization: Myths and Misconceptions, Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of Justice (1994), p. 49.

2. Peterson R.E. The Marijuana as Medicine Scam, Lansing, MI: Michigan Office of Drug Control Policy (undated).

3. Schwartz R.A., Voth E.A. Marijuana as Medicine: Making a Silk Purse Out of a Sow's Ear, Journal of Addictive Diseases 14: 1521 (1995).

4. Drug Watch International, By Any Modern Medical Standard, Marijuana is No Medicine, Omaha (undated).

5. Barry McCaffrey, Director of National Drug Control Policy, Office of National Drug Control Policy Press Release, Washington, DC (15 November 1996).

6. Chang A.E. et al. Delta Nine Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High Dose Methotrexate: A Prospective Randomised Evaluation, Annals of Internal Medicine 91: 81924 (1979);

Lucas V.S., Laszlo J. Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol for Refractory Vomiting Induced by Cancer Chemotherapy, Journal of the American Medical Association 243: 124143 (1980);

Orr L.E. et al. Antiemetic Effect of Tetrahydrocannabinol Compared with Placebo and Prochlorperazine in Chemotherapy Associated Nausea and Emesis, Archives of Internal Medicine 140:143133 (1980);

Ekert K. et al. Amelioration of Cancer Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting by Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol, Medical Journal of Australia 2:65759 (1979);

Sallan S.E. et al. Antiemetic Effect of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol in Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy, New England Journal of Medicine 293: 79597 (1975);

Sallan S.E. et al. Antiemetics in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Randomized Comparison of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol and Prochlorperazine, New England Journal of Medicine 302: 135 38 (1980);

Ungerleider J.T. et al. Cannabis and Cancer Chemotherapy: A Comparison of Oral Delta 9 THC and Prochlorperazine, Cancer 50: 63645 (1982);

Vinciguerra V. et al. Inhalation of Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy, New York State Journal of Medicine 85: 52527 (1988);

Frytak S. et al. Delta Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic for Patients Receiving Cancer Chemotherapy: A Comparison with Prochlorperazine and a Placebo, Annals of Internal Medicine 91: 82530 (1979);

Kluin Neleman J.C. et al. Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an Antiemetic in Patients Treated with Cancerchemotherapy: A Double Blind Cross Over Trial Against Placebo, Veterinary and Human Toxicology 21: 33840 (1979).

7. Foltin R.W. et al. Behavioral Analysis of Marijuana Effects on Food Intake in Humans, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 25: 57782 (1986);

Foltin R.W. et al. Effects of Smoked Marijuana on Food Intake and Body Weight of Humans Living in a Residential Laboratory, Appetite 11: 114 (1988);

Plasse T.F. et al.

Recent Clinical Experience with Dronabinol Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 40: 695700 (1991);

Regelson W. et al. Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Effective Antidepressant and Appetite Stimulating Agent in Advanced Cancer Patients, pp. 76376 in Braude M.C., Szara S. (eds) The Pharmacology of Marihuana, New York:

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Gorter R. et al. Dronabinol Effects on Weight in Patients with HIV Infection, AIDS 6: 127 38 (1992);

Greenberg I. et al. Effects of Marijuana use on Body Weight and Caloric Intake in Humans, Psychopharmacology 49: 7984 (1976);

Ungerleider J.T. et al. (1979), . 6;

Ekert K. et al. (1979), . 6;

Sallan S.E. et al. (1980), . 6.

8. Crawford W.J., Merritt J.C. Effect of Tetrahydrocannabinol on Arterial and Intraocular Hypertension, International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmaceutics 17: 19196 (1979);

Merritt J.C. et al. Effects of Marijuana on Intraocular and Blood Pressure in Glaucoma, Ophthalmology 87: 22228 (1980);

Merritt J.C. et al. Oral Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol in Heterogeneous Glaucoma, Annals of Ophthalmology 12: 94750 (1980);

Hepler R.S., Petrus R. Experiences with Administration of Marijuana to Glaucoma Patients, pp. 6376 in Cohen S., Stillman R. (eds), The Therapeutic Potential of Marihuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976);

Hepler R.S. et al. Ocular Effects of Marijuana Smoking, pp. 81524 in Braude M.C., Szara S. (eds), Pharmacology of Marihuana, New York: Raven Press (1976).

9. Malec J. et al. Cannabis Effect on Spasticity in Spinal Cord Injury, Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation 63: 11618 (1982);

Dunn M., Davis R. The Perceived Effects of Marijuana on Spinal Cord Injured Males Paraplegia 12: 175 (1974);

Mauer M. et al. Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannibinol Shows Antispastic and Analgesic Effects in a Single Case Double Blind Trial, European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 240: 1 4 (1990);

Hanigan W.C. et al. The Effect of Delta 9 THC on Human Spasticity, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 39: 198 (1986).

10. Ungerleider J.T. et al. Delta 9 THC in the Treatment of Spasticity Associated with Multiple Sclerosis Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 7: 3950 (1987);

Petro D.J. Marijuana as a Therapeutic Agent for Muscle Spasm or Spasricity Psychosomatics 21: 8185 (1980);

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Meinck H.M. et al.

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12. Grinspoon L., Bakalar J.B. Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine, Revised and Expanded Edition, New Haven: Yale University Press (1997);

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Consroe P. P., Snider S.R. Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Neurological Disorders, pp. 2150 in Mechoulam R. (ed), Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents, Boca Raton: CRC Press (1986).

14. Uniform Controlled Substances Act of 1970, 21 U.S. Sec. 800.

15. MPP Analyzes States' Medicinal Marijuana Laws, Marijuana Policy Report 2, 3: 16 (1996).

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Treaster J.B. Healing Herb or Narcotic? Marijuana as Medication New York Times (14 November 1993), p. 37;

Meyer E.L. Marijuana as Medicine at Heart of Md. Case, Washington Post (20 December 1994), p. Dl;

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Prohibition of Marijuana Prescribing Will Be Tested in Ohio, New York Times (17 September 1995), p. 29.

19. Agurell S. et al. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Delta 1 Tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids with Emphasis on Man, Pharmacological Reviews 38: 2143 (1986);

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Agurell S. et al. (1986), . 19.

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22. Mattes R.D. et al. (1994), . 20;

Agurell S. et al. (1986), . 19;

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24. Cone E.J. et al. Marijuana Laced Brownies: Behavioral Effects, Physiological Effects, and Urinalysis in Humans Following Ingesrion, Journal of Analytical Toxicology 12: 16975 (1988);

Lemberger Z. et al. (1972), .

19;

Chait Z.D., Zacny Z.P. (1992), . 23;

Ohlsson A. et al. (1980), . 19.

25. Perez Reyes M. Pharmacodynamics of Certain Drugs of Abuse, pp. 287310 in Barnett G., Chiang C.N.

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Sallan S.E. et al. (1975), . 6;

Chait Z.D., Zacny Z.P. (1992), . 23.

26. Perez Reyes M. et al. Intravenous Injection in Man of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol and ll Hydroxy Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol, Science 177: 63335 (1972);

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Lemberger L. et al. Comparative Pharmacology of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol and its Metabolite 11 OH Delta 9 THC, Journal of Clinical Investigation 54: 241117 (1973);

Wall M.E., Perez Reyes M. (1981), . 19;

Agurell S. et al. (1986), . 19.

27. Mason A.P., McBay A.Z. (1985), . 19;

Agurell S. et al. (1986), . 19;

Lemberger M. et al.

(1973), . 26;

Perez Reyes et al. (1973), . 26.

28. Mason A.P. McBay A.Z. (1985), . 19;

Agurell S. et al. (1986), . 19;

Peat M.A. (1989), . 20;

Ohlsson A. et al. (1980), . 19.

29. Karniol G. et al. Cannabidiol Interferes with the Effects of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol in Man, European Journal of Pharmacology 28: 17277 (1974);

Zuardi A.W. et al. Action of Cannabidiol on the Anxiety and Other Effects Produced by Delta 9 THC in Normal Subjects, Psychopharmacology 76: 24550 (1982).

30. Frytak T.S. et al. (1979), . 6.

31. Schwartz R.H., Beveridge R.A. Marijuana as an Antiemetic Drug: How Useful Today? Opinions From Clinical Oncologists, Journal of Addictive Diseases 13: 5365 (1994).

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35. Agurell S. et al. (1986), . 19;

Ohlsson A. et al. (1980), . 19.

36. Elsohly M.A. et al. Rectal Bioavailablity of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol From Various Esters, Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 40: 497502 (1991);

Mattes R.D. et al. (1993), . 21.

37. Olsen J.L. et al. An Inhalation Aerosol of Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 28: 86 (1976).

38. National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding, Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office (1972);

Cohen S. Therapeutic Aspects, pp. 194225 in Petersen R.C. (ed), Marihuana Research Findings: 1976, Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (1977);

Cohen S., Stillman R.C. (eds), The Therapeutic Potential of Marihuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976);

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana and Healtb, Eighth Annual Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services (1980).

39. Access to Cannabinoids and Marijuana for Research and Treatment, Appendix III, pp. 17576 in Mechoulam R. (ed), Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press (1986).

40. Randall R.C. (ed), Marijuana, Medicine and the Law, Washington, DC: Galen Press (1988), pp. 2750.

41. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marihuana and Health, Sixth Annual Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (1976).

42. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marihuana and Health, Seventh Annual Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare (1977);

National Institute on Drug Abuse (1980), . 37.

43. Drug Policy Office, Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, Washington, DC:

The White House (1982).

44. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana and Health, Ninth Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services (1982), p. 5.

45. 54 Federal Register 53767 (29 December 1989).

46. In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling, Docket 8622, Opinion, Recommended Ruling, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law, and Decision of Administrative Law Judge. Washington, DC: Drug Enforcement Administration (6 September 1988).

47. Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics and NORML v DEA, 15 F.2d 1131 (D.C. Cir. 1994).

48. 57 Federal Register 10499 (26 March 1992).

49. Cotton P. (1992), . 17;

U.S. Rescinds Approval of Marijuana as Therapy, New York Times (11 March 1992), p. A21.

50. Voelker R. Medical Marijuana: A Trial of Science and Politics Journal of the American Medical Association 271: 1645 (1994).

51. Drug Enforcement Administration Press Release, Response to JAMA Article Titled Marihuana as Medicine, Washington, DC (20 June 1995).

52. Drug Enforcement Administration (1994), . 1.

53. Doblin R. Medical Marijuana Research: NIDA Just Says No to Science, Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies 5, 4: 1113 (1995);

Lehrman S. U.S. Drug Agencies Resist Medicinal Pot Plan, San Francisco Examiner (8 January 1995), p. B2;

Okie S. Plan to Test Drug's Effectiveness in Bureaucratic Limbo, Washington Post Health (19 November 1996), p. 7.

54. McCaffrey B. Director of National Drug Control Policy, Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings, Teenage Drug Use (4 September 1996).

55. Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Administration's Response to the Passage of California Proposition 215 and Arisona Proposition 200, Washington, DC (30 December 1996);

Doctors Given Federal Threat on Marijuana:

U.S. Acts to Overcome States' Easing of Law, New York Times (31 December 1996), p. 1.

56. Lapey J. The Medical Marijuana Scam, Hanover, MA: Concerned Citizens for Drug Prevention, Inc. (1993);

Bennett S.S. Therapeutic Marijuana: Fact or Fiction, Portland: Oregon Federation of Parents for Drug Free Youth (1992);

Voth E.A. The International Drug Strategy Institute Position Paper on the Medicinal Applications of Marijuana, Drug Watch International, Omaha (no date);

Gorman T.J. Marijuana is NOT a Medicine, Santa Clarita, CA: California Narcotics Officers' Association (1996);

Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse Press Release, Majority of Californians Support Marijuana for Terminally Ill But Reject Other Provisions, New York (28 October 1996).

57. Gwynne P. Trials of Medical Marijuana's Medical Potential Languish as Government Says Just Say No, The Scientist 9, 23: 12 (1995).

58. American Public Health Association, Access to Therapeutic Marijuana / Cannabis, Resolution 9513 (1995).

59. Federation of American Scientists, Medical Use of Whole Cannabis (1994).

60. See Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics and NORML v DEA, 15 F.2d 1131 (D.C. Cir. 1994).

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