«На правах рукописи ГУБИНА НАТАЛИЯ МИХАЙЛОВНА ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ МЕЖКУЛЬТУРНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ В ПРОЦЕССЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ДЕЛОВОМУ АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ В ЭЛЕКТИВНОМ СПЕЦКУРСЕ (продвинутый уровень, специальность ...»
-- [ Страница 3 ] --
клуб FLT «Пути взаимодействия языковых и профилирующих кафедр в неязыковом вузе. М.: ГУВШЭ. – 2000. № 1. – 92. Кушнир А.М. Педагогика иностранного языка// Школьные технологии. – 1997. - № 6. – 191 с. 93. Леонтьев А.А. Культуры и языки народов России, стран СНГ и Балтии. М., 1998. 94. Леонтьев А.А. Психология общения. - 2-е изд., испр. и доп. - М.: Смысл, 1997.-365 с. 95. Леонтьев А.А., Ленская Е.А., Розанова Е.Д. Единый подход к предметам языкового цикла// Иностр. языки в школе. - 1990.- № 5. - С. 26-35. 96. Леонтьев А.Н. Деятельность, сознание, личность. - М.: Политиздат, 1977. 304 с. 97. Липканская Е.Л. Современный взгляд на учебный проект// Искусство и образование. - 1999. - №1. - С. 77-79. 98. Лиферов А.П. Культурологическая составляющая интернационализации мирового образования. - Ряз. Гос. Пед. ун-т им. С.А. Есенина.- Рязань: 1996.-31 с. 99. Ломов Б. Ф. Категория общения и деятельности в психологии // Вопросы философии. 1979.- № 8.- С. 34-47. 100. Ломов Б.Ф. Особенности познавательных процессов в условиях общения. // Психологический журнал. – 1980. – N 5. – c. 26-42. 101. Лукавченко И.М. сост. Язык средств массовой информации. М.: МГЛУ, 2001. - 40с. 102. Льюис Р.Д. Деловые культуры в международном бизнесе. - М.: ДЕЛО,2001. - 446с. 103. Мамонтов С. П. Основы культурологии. - М.: Изд-во РОУ, 1996. - 271 с. 104. Мильруд Р. П. Методология и развитие методики обучения иностранным языкам//Иностр. языки в школе. - 1995. - № 5. - С. 13-18. 105. Миньяр-Белоручев Р.К. Методика обучения иностранным языкам или лингводидактика?// Иностр. языки в школе. - 1996. - №1. - С. 2-4. 106. Миньяр-Белоручев Р.К. Методический словник. Толковый словарь терминов методики обучения языкам. - М.: Стела, 1996. - 144 с. 107. Миньяр – Белоручева А.П. Англо-русские обороты научной речи. – М.: ООО Издательский дом «Проспект – АП». – 2004. – 112 с. 108. Москвин В. А.Предприятие и коммерческий банк. Пермь 1998.-243с. 109. Мясищев В.Н. Проблемы личности и психологии в медицине. В кн.: Актуальные вопросы медицинской психологии. Л. : 1974. с. 3-25. 110. Найсснер У. Познание и реальность. Смысл и принципы когнитивной психологии. - Благовещенск, 1998. - 230 с. 111. Ненашева Т.А., Ефимова А.А. Роль культурного фактора в обучении некоторым формам письменной речи и критерии их оценки– М.//Сб.:Дискуссионный клуб FLT «Межкультурная коммуникация: Теория и практика.- М.: ГУВШЭ. – 2000. № 2. – 267 - 288 с. 112. Носонович Е.В. Методическая аутентичность в обучении иностранным языкам// Иностранные языки в школе.- 2000. N 1. С.11-15 113. Озерова М.В. Содержание профессионально – направленного обучения иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе. – Сб.:Профессиональная коммуникация, как цель обучения иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе. – М.:МГЛУ. – 2000. № 454. – 23 – 32 с. 114. Образовательная система "Школа 2100". Педагогика здравого смысла. М: Баласс, Издательский Дом РАО, 2003. - 368 с. 115. Основные направления в методике преподавания иностранных языков в XIX-XX вв. Под ред. И.В. Рахманова. - М.: Педагогика, 1972. - 320 с. 116. Основы теории речевой деятельности. Под ред. А.А. Леонтьева. - М.: Наука, 1974. -386 с. 117. Основы педагогических технологий: Краткий толковый словарь Урал. Гос. Пед. ун-т.Екатеринбург, 1995.-227с. 118. Павелко Н.Н. Культура делового общения: Атореф. дисс.... канд. культурологических наук: 24.00.02. - Краснодар, 1998. - 22 с.
119. Пассов Е.И. Коммуникативное иноязычное образование. Концепция развития индивидуальности в диалоге культур. - Липецк, 1998. - 159 с. 120. Пассов Е.И. Культуросообразная модель профессиональной подготовки учителя: философия, содержание, реализация. - М., 2001.- 48 с. 121. Пассов Е.И. Методология методики: Аксиологический, онтологический и прикладной аспекты.//Липецк: Доклад на научной конференции по проблеме методологии методики. – Типография ЛГТУ. – 2001. – 26 с. 122. Пахотин А.И.ред. Живой английский. Сборник живых бесед носителей языка по 19 темам ( с параллельным русским переводом ). М.: Издатель Кареева А.К., 2002. – 272с. 123. Педагогика/ В.А. Сластенин, И.Ф. Исаев, А.И. Мищенко, Е. Н. Шиянов. М.:Школа-Пресс,1998.С.311 124. Перетягенко Е. Мечта работодателя// Столичное образование. -2002. -№ 6.-С.20-21. 125. Персикова Т.Н. Понятие корпоративной культуры и его значение в современном мире. – М.//Сб.:Дискуссионный клуб FLT «Межкультурная коммуникация: Теория и практика.- М.: ГУВШЭ. – 2000. № 2. – 66 - 92 с. 126. Платов В.Я. Деловые игры: разработка, организация, проведение: Учеб. – М.:ИПО Профиздат, 1991.- 191с. 127. Полат Е.С. Метод проектов на уроках иностранного языка// Иностр. языки в школе. - 2000. - № 2. - С. 3-10/ №3. - С. 3-9. 128. Полат Е.С. Обучение в сотрудничестве// Иностранные языки в школе. 2000. -№1.-С. 4-11. 129. Полат Е.С. Разноуровневое обучение// Иностранные языки в школе. 2000. -№ 6. - С. 6-11/ 2001. - №1. - С. 4-14. 130. Полат Е.С., Моисеева М.В., Петров А.Е., Бухаркина М.Ю., Горбунькова Т.Ф., Дмитриева Е.И., Аксенов Ю.В. Дистанционное обучение.- М.: ВЛАДОС, 1998. 190с. 131. Полат Е.С. Некоторые концептуальные положения организации дистанционного обучения иностранному языку на базе компьютерных телекоммуникаций// Иностранные языки в школе :1998.-№5-С 6-14;
№6 –С.18-24. 132. Полат Е.С. Интернет на уроках иностранного языка.//Иностранные языки в школе.-2001.-№ 2.-С14-19. 133. Полат Е.С. Новые педагогические технологии в системе образования. М.: Владос.2001.-с.221. 134. Полякова А.А. Теория и практика развития аксиологического потенциала личности студента в диалоге культур: Автореф. дисс....д-ра пед. наук: 13.00.01. - Оренбург, 2002.- 37 с. 135. Попова И.П. Межкультурное обучение иностранному школы: Дисс… канд. пед. наук :13.00.02.-Москва,2003.-190с. 136. Путиловская Т.С. Формирование социокультурного компонента делового общения в ходе коммуникативного развития личности// Иностранный язык и межкультурная коммуникация. Сб. научных статей./ Под ред. Зиновьевой А.Ф. - ГУУ. - М., 2001. - С. 101-107. 137. Романова Л.И. Методический подход к изучению английского языка на факультете экономики ГУ-ВШЭ. – М.//Сб.: Дискуссионный клуб FLT «Пути взаимодействия языковых и профилирующих кафедр в неязыковом вузе. М.: ГУВШЭ. – 2000. – 75 - 77 с. 138. Рот Ю., Коптельцева Г. Встречи на грани культур: Игры и упражнения для межкультурного обучения. - Калуга: ООО "Полиграф-Информ", 2001.-188 с. 139. Рубинштейн С.Л. Основы общей психологии.- СПб.: Питер, 1946.-720 с. 140. Савченко Г. П. Обучение профориентированному иноязычному общению студентов-юристов. Автореф…канд. пед. Наук.-М.:1990-16с. 141. Самуэльян Н.А. English for Banking. М.: Менеджер. - 240 с. 142. Сафонова В. В. Социокультурный подход к обучению иностранным языкам. -М.:Высш.шк., Амскорт Интернэшнл.1991.-261с. 143. Сафонова В.В. Изучение языков международного общения в контексте языку в спецкурсе социально-экономического профиля на старшей ступени диалога культур и цивилизаций. - Воронеж: ИСТОКИ, 1996. - 237 с. 144. Сафонова В.В. Культуроведение в системе современного языкового образования// Иностр. языки в школе.- 2001. - № 3. - С. 17-24. 145. Сафонова В.В. Культуроведение и социология в языковой педагогике. Воронеж: Истоки, 1992. - 430 с. 146. Сафонова В.В. Программа по английскому языку для школ с углубленным изучением иностранного языка.-М.: Просвещение, 1998. 97с. 147. Сафонова В.В. Социокультурный подход к обучению иностранному языку как специальности: Автореф. Дис. … д-ра пед. наук: 13.00.02. М., 1993. -46 с. 148. Сафонова В. В. Культурно-языковая экспансия С.22-32. 149. Селевко Г.К.Современные образовательные технологии. Учебное пособие М.: Народное образование,1998.-256с.. 150. Сепир Э. Язык. Введение в изучение речи// Избранные труды по языкознанию и культурологии. - М: Прогресс, 1993. - 654 с. 151. Синицина Ю.А. Межкультурная коммуникативная компетенция: требования к уровню владения и некоторые пути ее формирования// Иностр. языки в школе. - 2002. - № 6. - С. 8-14. 152. Словенко И.С. Деловая переписка на английском языке. М.:изд. Словенко И.С., 1993. – 39с. 153. Смирнов С.А. Технологии в обучении// Педагогика: педагогические теории, системы, технологии./ С.А.Смирнов, И.Б. Котова, Е.Н. Шиянов, Т.И. Бабаева и др.;
/ Под ред. С.А.Смирнова. — М.: Академия,1999. — С.312. 154. Смирнова Е.В. Развитие культуры иноязычного полилогического общения в послевузовском образовании преподавателей иностранного языка: Дисс.... канд пед наук: 13.00.02. - М, 1999. - 205 с. 155. Соколова Н.Г. Билингвальные аспекты методической подготовки и её проявления в языковой политике и образовании.// Иностр. языки в школе.-2002.-№3. студентов педагогического колледжа к межкультурному профессионально-ориентированному общению: Дисс… канд пед. наук: 13.00.02.-М., 1999.-164 с. 156. Соловова Е.Н. Обучение говорению// ELT News & Views. - 2001. - № 3. - С. 2-4. 157. Соловцова Э.И. Образовательная область "Иностранный язык" и ее актуальные проблемы// Сб.: Тезисы докладов к конференции "Языковое образование в национально-культурном наследии России: исторические традиции, современность, взгляд в будущее". - М.: АПК и ПРО, 2001.-С. 912 158. Социологический энциклопедический словарь /Ред. Г.В.Осипов. М.: Инфра М-Норма,1998.с.368.. 159. Стернин И.А. Модели описания коммуникативного поведения. Воронеж: ВГТУ, 2000. - 27 с. 160. Стояновский А.М., Пассов Е.И. Ситуативная позиция как основа создания ситуации речевого общения// Иностранные языки в школе. – 1990.- N 1. - C.19-23. 161. Строкова С.А. Культуроведческие аспекты развития иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов языкового вуза: Автореф. дисс.... канд. пед. наук: 13.00.02.-М., 2002. -16 с. 162. Сысоев П.В. Культурное самоопределение личности как часть поликультурного образования в России средствами иностранного и родного языков// Иностр. языки в школе. - 2003. - № 1. - С. 42-47. 163. Сысоев П.В. Социокультурный компонент содержания обучения американскому варианту английского языка (для школ с углубленным изучением иностранного языка): Дисс… канд. пед. наук: 13.00.02. Тамбов, 1999.-231 с. 164. Сысоев П.В. Язык и культура: в поисках нового направления в преподавании культуры страны изучаемого языка// Иностранные языки в школе.-2001.-№4.-С. 12-18.
165. Тамбовкина Т.Ю.
О некоторых принципах построения интегрированного курса «Иностранный язык и регионоведение»// Иностранные языки в школе. - 1996.-№ 5.-С. 2-5. 166. Тер-Минасова С.Г. Язык и межкультурная коммуникация: Учебное пособие для студентов, аспирантов и соискателей по специальности "Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация". - М.: Слово, 2000. 261с. 167. Томахин Г.Д. Лингвострановедение: что это такое? - Иностранные языки в школе. - 1996. - № 6. - С. 22-27. 168. Томахин Г.Д. Реалии в языке и культуре. - Иностранные языки в школе. -1997.-№3.-С. 13-18. 169. Трайнев В.А. Деловые игры в учебном процессе: Методология разработки и практика проведения. - М.: 2002.- с.360. 170. Трофимова А.С. Синтаксические единицы современных английских текстов делового стиля: Автореф. дисс.... канд. филол. наук: 10.02.04. Одесса, 1988. - 16 с. 171. Трубицина М.С. Опыт использования проектного метода в учебной деятельности// Проблемы содержания и методики преподавания иностранных 356-359. 172. Тучкова Т.У., Федотова "Языковое М.А. Интеркультурное образование в образование в национально-культурном Липецкой области на основе регионоведения// Сб.: Тезисы докладов к конференции наследии России: исторические традиции, современность, взгляд в будущее". - М.: АПК и ПРО, 2001. - С. 24-26. 173. Уткин Э.А., Бутова Т.В. Менеджмент. Вопросы и ответы. Пособие для подготовки к экзамену. - М: ИКФ "ЭКМОС", 2002. - 456 с. 174. Федотова Н.А. Глобализация и поиск парадигмы социологии. // Философские науки. 1997, № 3, с. 64-69. языков: Доклады и материалы сообщений на международной конференции 25 - 27 марта 1998г. - Владимир, 1998. -С.
175. Филатова Е.С. Искусство понимать себя и окружающих. — СПб.: Дельта, 1999. – 368 с. 176. Фоломкина С.К. Методика рецептивного и репродуктивного овладения иностранным языком. // Иностранные языки в школе. - 1950. - №3.С.50-61. 177. Фоломкина С.К. К проблеме отбора текстов для чтения на иностранных языках. - В кн.: Актуальные вопросы обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе. — М., 1973. 178. Фоломкина С.К..Обучение чтению на иностранном языке в неязыковом вузе – М.: Высш. шк.,1987.-208с. 179. Фомина Н.О. Ценностные аспекты межкультурной компетенции: личностный уровень: Дисс… канд. философских наук: 09.00.11. - М., 1999.-135 с. 180. Фурманова В.П. Межкультурная коммуникация и культурно-языковая прагматика в теории и практике преподавания иностранных языков: Автореф. дисс.... д-ра пед. наук: 13.00.02. - М., 1994. - 58 с. 181. Фурманова В.П. Межкультурная коммуникация и преподавание иностранных языков// Россия и Запад: диалог культур. Материалы 2-ой международной конференции 28-30 ноября 1995 г. - М., 1996. - С. 236243. 182. Фурманова В.П. Языковое образование в поликультурной среде// Сб.: Тезисы докладов к конференции "Языковое образование в национально- культурном наследии России: исторические традиции, современность, взгляд в будущее". - М.: АПК и ПРО, 2001. - С. 14-16. 183. Халеева И.И. Вторичная языковая личность как реципиент инофонного текста// Язык-система. Язык – текст. Язык – способность.- М.: РАН ИРЯ, 1995. – С. 277-286. 184. Хорн Дж. В. Основы управления финансами.//М.: Финансы и статистика, 1999-214 с. 185. Цветкова Т.К. Грамматика английского языка в таблицах. М.:
Компания «Спутник». – 2003. – 23 с. 186. Цветкова Т.К. Обучение межкультурной коммуникации в свете теории языковой 2000. 187. Чекулаева Н.Я. Основы проектирования интегративного курса "Деловое общение с зарубежным партнером": Дисс.... канд. пед. наук: 13.00.01. - Сочи, 1996.-178 с. 188. Черенкова Н.И. О месте и роли курса «Международные бизнескоммуникации Дискуссионный 65 - 74 с. 189. Шадриков В.Д. Информационные технологии в образовании // Инновации в образовании.— 2001.-№1.-с.28-30. 190. Шепель В.М. Человековедческая компетентность менеджера. – М.: Народное образование, 1999. – 431 с. 191. Щепилова А. В. Проблемы преподавания второго иностранного языка и вопросы подготовки педагогических кадров.// Иностранные языки в школе.-2000.-№6-с.15-22. 192. Языковое образование и воспитание языковой личности (в школе и в вузе): Материалы межвуз. семинара (С.-Петербург, 20-21 апр. 1995 г.) / Сев.-зап. отд. РАО, Рос. гос. пед. ун-т им. А.И. Герцена. - СПб.: Образование, 1995. - 93 с. 193. Яковлева Л.Н. Межкультурная коммуникация как основа обучению второму иностранному языку// Иностранные языки в школе. - 2001. - №6. С. 4-7. 194. Albert R.D., Triandis H.D. Intercultural education for multicultural societies: critical issues // Samovar L.A., Porter R.E. Intercultural communication. A reader. - Belmont, 1994. - 452p. в обучении FLT английскому «Пути языку». – М.//Сб.: и клуб взаимодействия языковых личности. – М.//Сб.:Дискуссионный клуб FLT «Межкультурная коммуникация: Теория и практика.- М.: ГУВШЭ. – профилирующих кафедр в неязыковом вузе. М.: ГУВШЭ. – 2000. № 1 – 195. Appadurai A. Modernity at Large. Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. USA: University of Minnesota Press, 2003 – 229p. 196. Bangs D.H. Jr. The Business Planning Guide. USA: Upstart Publishing Company, Inc.,1992 – 184 p. 197. Barker A. M., ed. Consuming Russia. USA: Duke University Press, 1999 - 473 p. 198. Beamer L., Varner I. Intercultural Communication in the Global Workplace. USA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2001 - 360p. 199. Bennet M.J. A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity//International journal of intercultural relations. - 1986. - № 10. pp. 179-196. 200. Berlitz Ch. Business to Business Guides. Russian. New York: The Puman Publishing Group, 1994. – 202 p. 201. Brown A.L. Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom setting// The Journal of the learning sciences. - 1992. - № 2. - 141 p. 202. Byram M. Language and Culture Learning: The Need for Integration // In Germany. It's Representation in Textbooks for Teaching German in Great Britain. - Frankfurt am Main.: Moritz Diesterweg, 1993. - Pp. 71-78. 203. Candfield J., Hansen M.V., Spilchuk B. A Cup of Chicken Soup for the Soul. USA: Health Communications, Inc., 1996 - Pp. 130-131 204. Chilver J. English for Business. UK: Continuum, 2003 – 304 p. 205. Cyrs Th.E., editor. Teaching and Learning at a Distance: What It Takes to Effectively Design, Deliver, and Evaluate Programs. USA: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1997 – 125 p. 206. Dabars Z., Vokhmina L. The Russian Way. USA: McGraw-Hill, 2002 – 131 p. 207. Dill D.D., Goedegebuure. The Nature of Academic Organization. Institutional management and Change in Higher Education. – Utrecht. The Netherlands: Lemma Publishers, 2002.- 89 p.
208. Dinges N. Intercultural competence // Landis D., Brislin R.W.: Handbook of intercultural training. - Vol. 1: Issues in theory and design. - New York, 1983.-Pp. 176-202. 209. Evans D. Decisionmaker. – UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998 – 100 p. 210. Figes O. Natasha’s Dance. A Cultural History of Russia. London: Penguin Group, 2003. – 729 p. 211. Graetz R/ Odissee- ein Netzspiel per E- Mail// R.Donath (Hrsg.):Deutsch als Fremdsprache.Projekte im Internet.-Stuttgart:Klett,1998.-178S. 212. Gudykunst W.B., Hammer M.R. Basic training design: approaches to intercultural training// Landis D., Brisling R.W.: Handbook of intercultural training. - Vol. 1. Issues in theory and design. - New York, 1983. - Pp. 118-154. 213. Gudykunst W.B., Ting-Toomey S., Wiseman R.S. Taming the beast: designing a course in intercultural communication// Communication education. - 1991. - 40. – 285p. 214. Hampden-Turner Ch., Trompenaars F. Building Cross-Cultural Competence USA: Yale University Press, 2000. – 388 p. 215. Harrison L.E., Hutchinson, editors. Culture Matters. New York: Books, 2000 – 348 p. 216. Heller R., Hindle T. Essential Manager’s Manual. USA: DK Publishing INC, 1998. – 861p. 217. Holl E.T. Beyond culture. - Garden City, 1976. - 152 p. 218. Holl E.T. Silent Language. - Garden City, 1973. - 89 p. 219. Hoopes D.S. Intercultural communication concepts and the psychology of intercultural experience// Push M.D.: Multicultural education. A crosscultural training approach. - Chicago, 1981. - Pp. 9-38. 220. Jenniskens I., editor. Management and Decision-Making in Higher Education Institutions. Reader. Utrecht: Lemma Publishers, 2001 – 395 p. 221. Jenniskens I., Maassen P., Huisman J., Vossensteyn, Kaiser F., De Boer H. Management and Decision – Making in Higher Education Institutions. A Guide. - Utrecht. The Netherlands: Lemma Publishers, 2002.- 62 p. Basic 222. Jones L. Working in English. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. –144p. 223. Kaiser F.-J. Die Fallstudie// Theorie und Praxis der allstudiendidaktik. – Bad Heilbrunn, 1983. – Pp. 42-56. 224. Kaiser F.-J., Kaminski H. Methodik des Oekonomie-Unterrichts. Grundlagen eines handlungsorientierten Lernkonzeptes mit Beispielen. - 3. Auflage. – Bad Heilbrunn/ Obb.: Julius Klinkhardt, 1999. - 384 S 225. KilpatrickW.H. The Project Methode. Dies Anwendung des zweckvollen Handelns im padagogischen Prozeus, in: DeweyJ./Kilpatrick W.H..: Der Project – Plan. Grundlegung und Praxis, Weimar, 1934. – 161 S 226. Kohls L.R. Four traditional approaches to developing cross-cultural prepareness in adults: education, training, orientation and briefing//International journal of intercultural relations. - 1987 - 11. -Pp. 89-106. 227. Kral Th., editor. Economic Considerations. USA: Materials Development and Review Branch, 1996 – 135p. 228. Krasnykh V. British Cultural Phenomena as Models of Russian Culture. // British Studies. Newletter.N.4, 2001. – Pp.17-20. 229. Kruchkov V., Sheina I. Competencies and Skills: A way Torwardsa Dynamic View of the Target Culture. // British Studies. Newsletter N. 4, 2001. - Pp.5-10. 230. Lewis R.D. When Cultures Collide. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2003 – 462 p. 231. Littlejohn A. Company to Company. A New Approach to Business Correspondence in English. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995. – 106 p. 232. Martin J., Nakayama Т.К. Intercultural communication in contexts. Mountain View, 2000. - 167 p. 233. Martin J.N. Training issues in cross-cultural orientation// International Journal of intercultural relations. - 1986. - 10. - P. 103-116. 234. Mascull B. Market Leader. Longman, 2001 – 220p. 235. Peters T.J., Waterman R.H. In Search of Excellence. Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies. USA: Warner Books, 1984. – 360p. Upper Intermediate Business English. UK:
236. Puhl C.A. Develop, Not Judge. // USA: Forum Vol.35, 1997 – Pp. 2 – 9 237. Richmond Y. From Net to Da. Understanding the Russians. – USA: Intercultural Press, Inc.: 1996. - 191 p. 238. Saandhaas D. Interkulturelles Lernen – zur Grundlage eines diaktischen Prinzips interkultureller Begegnung. – Hamburg, 239. Thurbon C. In Siberia.- London: Penguin Books, 2000 – 287 p. 240. Trompenaars F., Hampden-Turner Ch. Riding the Waves of Culture. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2002 – 265 p. 241. Valdes J.M., editor. Cultural Bound. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001– 222p. 242. R.L.Wiseman, J. Koester (Eds.): Intercultural communication competence Newbury Park: Sage, 1993.-Pp. 16-29. 243. Visson L. Wedded Strangers. New York: Hippocrene Books, 2001 – 296p. 244. Yaroslavl Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Yaroslavl, 2003 – 25p. 245. Zikmund W.G., Middlemist R.D., Middlemist M.R. Business: The American Challenge for Global Competitiveness. USA: IRWIN, 1995. – 600p. НОРМАТИВНО-ПРАВОВЫЕ ДОКУМЕНТЫ 246. Всемирная декларация о высшем образовании в XXI веке. ЮНЕСКО, 1988, ст.15 247. Всеобщая декларация о культурном разнообразии. ЮНЕСКО, 2001. 248. Государственный образовательный стандарт высшего профессионального образования. Специальность “Мировая экономика” (060600). М-Министерство образования РФ, 2000.-29 с. 249. Закон Российской Федерации "Об образовании" от 10.07.92, № 3266-1. 250. Концепция модернизации российского образования на период до 2010 г. / Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 29.12.2001, №1756-р// Официальные документы в образовании. - 2002. - № 4. - С. 331. 251. Национальная доктрина образования. - М.: МАНПО, 2000. - 20 с.
252. Общеевропейские коммуникативные компетенции. Страсбург, 2000. 253. Программа профессиональной подготовки учителя иностранного языка в межкультурной коммуникацию// науч.консультант Бауш К.Р.;
авторсоставитель- Яцковская Г.В., М.: 254. Типовая программа по иностранным языкам для вузов неязыковых специальностей.- М.: МГЛУ, 1994.-22 с. 255. Common European Framework of Reference, 1993. – С.62.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1 Анкета 1 Считаете ли Вы, что при хорошем знании английского языка возможно провести деловые переговоры с представителями любых культур? 2 Считаете ли Вы себя готовыми к проведению подобных переговоров? 3 Что позволило вам дать именно такой ответ? 4 Можете ли Вы объяснить, что такое межкультурная коммуникация? 5 Все ли культуры одинаково относятся к иерархии, званиям, титулам и реальным умениям специалиста? 6 Можете ли Вы проанализировать российскую культуру с вышеназванной точки зрения? 7 Можете ли Вы объяснить разницу между полилингвальной, монолингвальной и реактивной культурами? 8 Знаете ли Вы, какие культуры больше сфокусированы на интересах и правах индивида, а какие на аналогичных категориях общества? 9 Во всех ли культурах одинаково относятся к личному и общественному пространству жизни? 10 Что Вы понимаете под межкультурными знаниями и умениями специалиста в области мировой экономики?
11 Что Вы знаете о том, как организовывали бизнес наши предки в Ярославской области?
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Перевод рекламных текстов: межкультурные различия и их отражение в языке Автор: Вероника Комарова Источник: Энциклопедия практического психолога от Psycho.ru Дата публикации в источнике: 2000г. Адаптация названий брендов В Агентстве "Медиа Артс" одним из клиентов являются немецкие офисные уничтожители бумаг. В оригинале название бренда звучит как Intimus. Видимо, у носителя немецкого языка данное слово ассоциируется с умением скрывать тайны, хранить секреты, в то время как у русскоязычного человека такое слово вызывает в первую очередь ассоциации с сексуальной стороной жизни. В связи с этим было принято решение адаптировать название бренда. В результате было создано название, являющееся искусственным словом, которое вызывает у потребителя ассоциации с чем-то немецким и при этом имеющим способность уничтожать, рвать, дробить. Таким образом, на российский рынок эти уничтожители бумаг были выведены под названием Ruddler. What is your variant of translation?
Huilor - растительное масло Hui-fresh - мужской дезодорант What translation of vegetable oil and fresh spray can your offer to the wholesalers in the Russian market? Восприятие продукта органами чувств в рекламных текстах В настоящее время можно наблюдать кампанию наружной рекламы сигарет "L&M" со следующим слоганом "Живи со вкусом/ L&M". Понятно, что в данном случае мы имеем дело с игрой слов: фразеологизм "жить со вкусом", где слово "вкус" употреблено в переносном значении, и словосочетание "вкус L&M", в котором это же слово используется в прямом значении. Однако ошибка заключается в том, что сигареты это чисто имиджевый и статусный продукт, употребление которого мало связано с его вкусом, а выбор между теми или иными сигаретами осуществляется в первую очередь на основании имиджа, который придает курение этих сигарет. К тому же курильщики предпочитают либо употреблять жвачку, либо пить воду после курения с тем, чтобы заглушить неприятный вкус, остающийся после сигарет. Поэтому упоминание о вкусе сигарет как таковом при этом в сочетании с призывом жить с этим вкусом может не самым лучшим образом сказаться на этом бренде. Для подкрепления этого посыла можно привести слоганы, использующихся в рекламе других брендов сигарет.
В приведенных примерах мы имеем дело со ссылкой на аромат (то есть на восприятие продукта органом обоняния) но не на аромат сигарет как таковых, а на аромат некой ауры, создающейся соответствующим имиджем, или с некой "свежестью", которой обладают сигареты (Salem), тем самым избавляя потребителя от неприятных ощущений от курения, или вовсе отсутствует ссылка на какие-либо органы чувств и нам просто предлагается ощутить определенную атмосферу, соответствующую имиджу того или иного бренда (Rothmans, Marlboro). Приведем еще один пример. В одном из роликов Johnson&Johnson была использована следующая фраза "Джонсон и Джонсон и нежное прикосновение - язык любви". В данном случае представлено два посыла "нежное прикосновение" и "язык любви", которые могли бы успешно функционировать в отдельности друг от друга, однако при их совмещении в сознании потребителя возникает конфликт, т.к. прикосновение не может быть языком (если конечно слово "язык" не употреблено в значении органа как такового). Think over with your group mates and give your variants of the slogans above.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ RUSSIA The disintegration of the Soviet Union has eliminated gigantic, multicultural phenomenon constituted by the bewildering assortment of countries, races, republics, territories, autonomous regions, philosophies, religions and credos that conglomerated to form the world's vastest political union. The cultural kaleidoscope had been so rich that the mind could only boggle while contemplating it. Its collapse, however, serves to make us focus on something more simple yet unquestionably fecund per se - the culture of Russia itself. It is only too easy to lump Soviet ideology and the Russian character together, since during 70 years of strife and evolution one lived with the other. Stalin - a Georgian - was no Russian, Mikoyan was Armenian, but Lenin, Trotsky, Kerensky - the early Bolshevik thinkers - were all Great Russians, as were Kruschev, Andropov, Molotov, Bulganin, Gorbachev and Yeltsin. Yet Soviet Russians were no more than one regimented stream of Russian society - a frequently unpopular, vindictive and short-sighted breed at that, although their total grasp of power and utter ruthlessness enabled them to remain untoppled for seven decades. That same society, however, in the same period of time produced Pasternak, Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, as well as thousands of courageous individuals who supported them. A Culture that bred Chekhov, Tschaikovsky, Rachmaninov, Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy, Peter the Great and Alexander Nevsky simply does not vanish into thin air during a brief period of political oppression and drudgery. Its individuality was obliged in a sense to go underground, to mark time in order to survive, but the Russian soul is as immortal as anyone else's. Its resurrection and development in the twenty-first century is of great import to us all. Some of the less attractive features of Russian behaviour in the Soviet period exaggerated collectivism, apathy, suspicion of foreigners, pessimism, petty corruption, lack of continued endeavour, inward withdrawal - were in fact not products of the Bolshevik regime. Russia was Communist for 70 years, it had been Russian Orthodox for 1000 years. The basic traits of the Russian character were visible hundreds of years before Lenin or Karl Marx were born. Both Tsarist and Soviet rule were facilitated by the collective, submissive, self-sacrificial, enduring tendencies of the sentimental, romantic, essentially vulnerable subjects under their sway. Post-Soviet Russian society is undergoing cataclysmic evolution and change and it remains to be seen how some eventual form of democracy and the freeing of entrepreneurial spirit will affect the impact that Russians make on the rest of us. The Russian character has been determined to some extent by unrelenting autocratic rule and governance over many centuries, but the two chief factors in the formation of Russian values and core beliefs were over and above any governmental control. These prevailing determinants were the incalculable vastness of the Russian land and the unvarying harshness of its climate. The figure below shows how the boundless, often indefensible steppes bred a deep sense of vulnerability and remoteness which caused groups to band together for survival and develop hostility to outsiders.
The next figure indicates how the influence of climate (a potent factor in all cultures) was especially harsh on Russian peasants, who traditionally are forced virtually to hibernate for long periods, then struggle frantically to till, sow and harvest in the little time left. Anyone who has passed through Irkutsk or Novosibirsk in the depth of winter can appreciate the numbing effect of temperatures ranging from minus 20-40 degrees Celsius, while the high winter suicide rate in slightly warmer countries such as Sweden and Finland suggests that Russians are not the only ones to wallow in bleakness for a considerable portion of their days.
The long-suffering Russian peasants, ill favoured by cruel geography and denied (by immense distances and difficult terrain) chances of adequate communication among themselves, were easy meat for those with ambitions to rule. Small, uneducated groups, lacking in resources and cut off from potential allies, are easy to manipulate. The Orthodox Church, the Tsars, the Soviets, all exploited these hundreds of thousands of pathetic clusters of backward rustics. Open to various forms of indoctrination, the peasants were bullied, deceived, cruelly taxed and, whenever necessary, called to arms. In the sixteenth century military service could be 25 years;
in 1861 when serfdom was 'abolished' it was reduced to 16 years! Russians have lived with secret police not just in KGB times, but since the days of Ivan the Terrible, in the sixteenth century. The figure below shows how oppressive, cynical governance over many centuries developed further characteristics - pervasive suspicion, secrecy, apparent passivity, readiness to practise petty corruption, disrespect for edicts - as added ingredients to the traditional Russian pessimism and stoicism in adversity. If all this sounds rather negative, there is good news to come. Although resorting to expediency for survival, Russians are essentially warm, emotional, caring people, eagerly responding to kindness and love, once they perceive that they are not being 'taken in' one more time. Finns - victims of Russian expansionism on more than one occasion - readily acknowledge the warmth and innate friendliness of the individual Russian. Even Americans, once they give themselves time to reflect, find a surprising amount of common ground. Rough Russian hospitality is reminiscent of the cosy ambience of the Wild West (or perhaps the deep South) and the Russians, like the Americans, tried to tame a continent. Both peoples distrust aristocrats and are uncomfortable, even today, with the smooth talking of some Europeans. Bluntness wins friends both in Wichita and Sverdlovsk. Both nations, like the French, think big and consider they have an important role to play - a 'mission' in world affairs. Our familiar 'horizon' comparison shows that while Russians and Americans are destined by history and location to see the world in a very different manner, there is sufficient commonality of thinking to provide a basis for fruitful cooperation. Their common dislikes are as important in this respect as some of their mutual ambitions.
As far as their attitudes to the world in general are concerned, how do Russians see the rest of us and - importantly - how do they deal? While it is clear that they are a society in transition, certain features of their business culture inevitably reflect the style of the command economy which organised their approach to meetings over a period of several decades. Russian negotiating characteristics, therefore, not only exhibit traditional peasant traits of caution, tenacity and reticence, but indicate a depth of experience born of thorough training and cunning organisation. They may be listed as follows. Russian negotiating characteristics • Russian negotiating teams are often composed of veterans or experts,consequently they are very experienced.
• • some level. • • • • out'. • • • • • They negotiate as they play chess, i.e. they plan several moves ahead. Russians often represent not themselves, but part of their government Sudden changes or new ideas cause discomfort, as they have to seek Negotiations often relate the subject under discussion to other issues in Russians regard willingness to compromise as a sign of weakness. Their preferred tactic in case of deadlock is to display patience and 'sit it They will only abandon this tactic if the other side shows great firmness. The general tendency is to push forward vigorously as the other side Delivery style is often theatrical and emotional, intended to convey Like Americans, they can use 'tough talk' if they think they are in a They maintain discipline in the meeting and speak with one voice. When Opponents should think of the consequences of each move before making it.
consensus from higher up. which they are involved. This may not be clear to the other side.
seems to retreat, to pull back when meeting stiff resistance. clearly their intent and requests. stronger position. Americans or Italians speak with several voices, the Russians become confused about who has real authority. • • • • position. Russians often present an initial draft outlining all their objectives. This They will, however, concede points only in return for concessions made They often make minor concessions and ask for major ones in return. They may build into their initial draft several 'throw-aways’ - things of is only their starting position and far from what they expect to achieve. by the other side.
little importance which they can concede freely, without damaging their own • • • • • • • beneficial.
They usually ask the other side to speak first, so they may reflect on the They are sensitive and status conscious and must be treated as equals Their approach to an agreement is conceptual and all-embracing, as Acceptance of their conceptual approach often leads to difficulties in They are suspicious of anything which is conceded easily. In the Soviet Personal relationships between the negotiating teams can often achieve Contracts are not so binding in the Russian mind as in the western. Like position given. and not 'talked down to'. opposed to American or German step-by-step settlement. working out details later and eventual implementation. Union days, verything was complex. miracles in cases of apparent official deadlock. Orientals, Russians see a contract as binding only if it continues to be mutually A study of the above leads one to the conclusion that Russian negotiators are not easy people to deal with. There" is no reason to believe that the development of entrepreneurism in Russia, giving added opportunities and greater breadth Of vision to those who travel in the West, will make Russians any less effective round the negotiating table. Westerners may hold strong cards and may be able to dictate conditions for some length of time, but the ultimate mutual goal of win-win negotiations will only be, achieved through adaptation to current Russian mentality and world attitudes. The following hints might be of help. How to empathise with Russians • • • them. If you have strong cards, do not overplay them. Russians are proud They are not as interested in money as you are, therefore they are more You may base your decisions on facts which are cold to you, emotive to people and must not be humiliated. prepared to walk away from a deal than you.
• • • • • • through. • They are people rather than deal oriented. Try to make them like you. If you succeed, they will conspire with you 'to beat the system'. They '--Indicate your own distrust of blind authority or excessive bureaucracy as Do them a favour early on, but indicate it is not out of weakness. The You need not be unduly impacted by their theatrical and emotional disWhen you show your own firmness, let some glimmer of kindness shine They will generally behave collectively, so do not single out any one dislike stringent regulations more than you do. They are very Italian in this respect. often as you can. favour should be person directed, rather than relating to the business being discussed. plays, but you should show sympathy with the human aspects involved.
individual for special attention. Envy of another's success is also a Russian characteristic. • • • • Drink with them between meetings if you are able to. It is one of the They prefer to drink sitting down with time to make frequent toasts and They like praise, especially related to Russian advances on technology, They are sensitive about war talk, considering most Russian wars as easiest ways to build bridges. short speeches. but also about their considerable artistic achievements. defensive ones against aggressive neighbours. They have not been given your version of history. • admiration. • They love children more than most of us;
exchange of photographs of your children is an excellent manner to build bridges. Their attitude towards America is one of suspicion, tinged with outright • They respect old people and scorn Americans' treatment of the elderly.
In the cruel Russian environment, family love was often the only enduring form of riches. Display your own family closeness, if appropriate. • • • • due course. • They have, in their history, never experienced democracy, therefore do not expect them to be automatically egalitarian, fair, even-handed and open to straight debate. • • In this respect, it is advisable to show them clearly how you think about Terms such as 'democratic', 'fair play’, 'profit', 'turnover', 'cash flow', such matters and how you are basically motivated by these factors. 'public relations', 'goodwill' have little meaning for them in any language, therefore use such words cautiously. • They like to say they understand when in fact they don't, and also have the tendency to say things they think you want to hear (an Oriental trait), so do not take what is said and heard for granted. • • • Anything you introduce as an official directive or regulation they will Russians are basically conservative and do not accept change easily. Russians often push you and understand being pushed, but they rebel if distrust. Something you indicate as a personal recommendation, they will embrace. Introduce new ideas slowly and keep them low key at first. they feel the pressure is intolerable. Try to gauge how far you can go with them. Indicate your human side - emotions, hopes, aspirations etc. They are During your business discussions, their priorities will be personal relaThey often appear excitable, but are skilled at keeping their temper. The eastern and western elements in their make-up often make them much more interested in your personal goals than in your commercial objectives. tionships, form and appearance, opportunity for financial gain - in that order.
appear schizophrenic. Do not let this faze you - the other face will always reappear in • Dissidence in general is not popular with them, as security has histori cally been found in group, conformist behaviour. Do not try to separate a Russian from his or her 'group', whatever that may be. • • • • Right and wrong, in most Russians' eyes, is decided by the feelings of Russians are essentially nostalgic - the present does not dominate their They love conversation. Do not hesitate to unburden yourself in front of They achieve what they do in their own country largely through an the majority, not by law. thinking as it might with many Americans and Australians, for instance. them. Like Germans, they are fond of soul searching. intricate network of personal relationships. Favour is repaid by favour. They expect no help from officials. • • confidence. Russians' values are essentially human, their heroes universally authentic, their manifestations and symbols richly artistic and aesthetic. To succeed with Russians, one must maintain these qualities in clear focus as opposed to paying too much attention to the enigmatic and often paradoxical aspects of their behaviour and current attitudes. Like Germans, they enter meetings unsmiling. Like Germans, they can When they touch another person during conversation, it is a sign of be quickly melted with a show of understanding and sincerity.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA The United States of America has the world's biggest economy - four times greater than anyone else's (with the exception of Japan) and ten times bigger than that of Russia. America is first in volume of trade, first in industry, first in food output and first in aid to others. They spend, too, being the top consumers of energy, oil, oil seeds, grain, rubber, copper, lead, zinc, aluminium, tin, coffee and cocoa. They have the four busiest airports in the world and fly three times more passenger miles than anyone else. They have the world's longest road network and longest rail network. They own more cars, telephones, refrigerators, television sets, VCRs, dishwashers and microwave ovens than any other people. They are the top tourist spenders and also gross the biggest tourist receipts (twice as much as popular France, in second place). The USA leads the rest of us as water users, polluters and consumers of newsprint. They also have the highest rates of divorce and murder. Breakneck pace The pace of American life is different from that of other countries. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries vast tracts of open, unclaimed land to the west beckoned with some urgency to poorer settlers and new arrivals. For decades it was first come, first served - you staked your claim, cleared the land, tilled, planted and defended it. They were days of land grab and gold rush. There was no time to lose as immigrants poured in;
out west there were no ruling classes or aristocrats, royal claims or decrees, no constraining ideologies or regulations - only practicality;
if it worked, you did it before anyone else did. One might have assumed that with the majority of goals attained and the visible advent of the affluent society, this frenzied tempo of life would have slackened. It has not. Modern Americans continue at the headlong pace of their nineteenth-century forbears. Work equates with success, time is money. They have to get there first. The chief difference is that in the nineteenth century, everybody knew where 'there' was. Today's Americans, unrelentingly driven by the traditional national habit of pressing forward, conquering the environment, effecting change and reaching their destination, are no longer sure what that destination is. The rest of the world looks on in awe, for none of us are in the same grip of this achievement fever. It can be argued that Germans and Japanese share the same work tempo as Americans, but the Germans, with their long holidays, social welfare and impressive culture, value quality of life much more. The Japanese, with no more leisure than the Americans, nevertheless achieve what they do at a much more relaxed pace and have created a calm, relatively crime-free society where moral and spiritual values take priority over materialistic goals. The four 'Asian tigers' Singapore, Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan, breakneck export powerhouses all - most closely resemble the USA in unrelenting effort, although their eastern philosophies incline them to view success as collectivist as opposed to the American view that the individual must triumph. In America you start at the very bottom, give it all you've got, pull yourself up by your own boot straps, guts it out and get to the very top. It's rags to riches, in a land where everybody is equal. It's a daunting task, but fortunately Americans are unfailing optimists (see human mental programming) and future-oriented. Americans are not afraid of challenge or competition, although the strain is beginning to tell. Up to the 1970s the economic and political development of the United States had been an undoubted success story. Other nations had had their ups and downs, peaks and valleys, successes and reverses. Only in America had progress been invariably forward, up and one-way. Then came Vietnam, mounting trade balance deficits and the slowing of the economy. Even so, no one in their right mind writes off the Americans. Their industrial, commercial, financial and military assets are of a muscular nature not yet approached by their rivals for twenty-first-century dominance. A greater problem for the American people is not so much the maintenance of their material strengths as the attainment of inner harmony. How should wise Asians, or Europeans with their variety of ideals, handle this time-keeping, media-driven, dollar-minded phenomenon? Hitch one's star to their wagon and make a fast buck? Or tough it out with them?
How to empathise with Americans American businesspeople have the reputation of being the toughest in the world, but they are, in many respects, the easiest to deal with. That is because their business philosophy is uncomplicated. Their aim is to make as much money as they can as quickly as they can, using hard work, speed, opportunism, power (also of money itself) as the means towards this end. Their business decisions are usually not affected by sentiment and the dollar, if not God, is considered at least almighty. This single-minded pursuit of profit results in their often being described as ruthless. Northern Europeans are well placed to deal with Americans successfully. Their reputation as straightforward managers is well-received by the open, frank Americans, who often get seriously irritated by what they see as the 'devious' manners of Latins and Orientals. At meetings, Americans show the following tendencies: • • first • names, discuss personal details, e.g. family. 4 They give the impression of being naive by not speaking anything but English and by showing immediate trust through ultra-friendliness. • • They use humour whenever they can, even though their partner They put their cards on the table right from the start, then proceed fails to understand it or regards it as out of place. on an offer and counter-offer basis. They often have difficulty when the other side doesn't reveal what they want. • They take risks, but make a definite (financial) plan which must be adhered to. They are individualistic, they like to go it alone without checking They introduce informality immediately: take their jacket off, use with head office. Anything goes unless it has been restricted.
• • • They consider most proposals on an investment/return or Time is always money. 'Let's get to the point.' They try to extract an oral agreement at the first meeting. 'Have investment/timescale basis.
we got a deal?' They want to shake hands on it. The other party often feels the matter is far too complex to agree on the spot. • They want ‘yes' in principle and will work out details later. But they can be very tough in the details and check on everything in spite of apparent trust. Germans, French and others prefer to settle details first. • • • possible. • • • • They often lack patience, and will say irritating or provoking They are persistent. There is always a solution. They will explore They are consistent. When they say 'You gotta deal' they rarely They put everything in words. But when they use words like 'fair', things ('Look at our generous offer') to get things moving. all options when deadlocked. change their mind. 'democratic', 'honest', 'good deal', 'value', 'assume', they think the other party understands the same as they do. This is because US subcultures, e.g. Czechs, Germans, Poles, do understand. • They are blunt, they will disagree and say so. This causes embarrassment to Japanese, Arabs, Italians and other Latins. They don't like lulls or silence during negotiations. They are used They are opportunistic - quick to take chances. The history of the Opportunism and risk taking often result in Americans going for to making up their minds fast (quick on the draw). USA presented many golden opportunities to those who grabbed fastest. the biggest possible slice of the business ('piece of the action'), 100 per cent if • They often reveal brute force as argument, e.g. their financial strength or unassailable position. They will use a majority vote unhesitatingly if they have it and will not spend (waste) much time striving for consensus. They are happy to fire anyone standing in the way of the deal. • They assume all negotiators are technically competent and expect to win on their own technical knowledge. They forget the other side may see it as a matter of the status of the chief negotiator. How can a Mexican company president lose to an American engineer? • They regard negotiating as problem solving through give and take based on respective strengths. They do not appreciate that the other side may have only one position. • Uncle Sam is best. But successful negotiating must enter the cultural world of the other party. Many Americans see the USA as the most successful economic and democratic power, therefore assume that American norms are the correct ones. • This leads to lack of interest in or knowledge of the foreign culture. Americans often know little of such matters as saving face, correct dress, use of business cards, social niceties and formalities important to Arabs, Greeks, Spaniards etc. • In the USA, the dollar is almighty and will win most arguments. Americans don't always realise that Mexicans, Arabs, Japanese and others will rarely, if ever, sacrifice status, protocol, or national honour for financial gain. Calm, pragmatic northerners can live with most of these characteristics. They, too, are used to informality, first names, humour, persistence, blunt-ness, technical competence, give-and-take bargaining and general consistency in sticking to what has been agreed. They also wish to conclude the deal without unnecessary time wasting procedures. Yet care must be exercised. Americans are fast talking and if the language is English, there may be certain traps. With Americans one always has to read the 'fine print', for their apparent openness and trust in the other party are usually underpinned by tight legal control in their contract, and they will not hesitate to sue you later if you do not comply with every clause you have put your name to. American law is also quite different from many other legal systems. You should always attempt to appear straightforward, honest, but quite tough in your dealings with Americans, who will respect resilience, open disagreement, alertness and strong cards. You don't have to 'beat about the bush' as you would have to with the Japanese or Italians. 'Yes, but what happens if...?' is a good question with Americans. If you appear tough often enough, Americans will argue, provoke, certainly push brute strength, but it is all part of their game. They, too, want the deal. They will use far more words than you are comfortable with, but your relative quietness will cause them discomfiture and eventually gain you points. You will only irritate Latins with reticence, but Americans will respect it. The answer to the oft-repeated 'Have we gotta a deal?' should be 'Maybe'. Don't be rushed. They, too, are taking risks, but more likely than not, they can afford to lose more than you can. They are looking at this particular deal more than the long-term relationship. They have quarterly forecasts to satisfy. They want profit now, as opposed to the Japanese, who want your market Realisation of such American aims helps you in dealing with them. Their friendliness means nothing, although it is pleasant while it lasts. They will forget your name the day after the deal is made. You have a lot of cards up your sleeve. You know a lot more about Americans and their country than they know about you and yours. Many Americans think Finland is in Canada and confuse Lapps with Eskimos. You can enter their cultural world without difficulty - you have seen hundreds of American films, read many US books and journals. "Vbu speak their language and therefore have insight into their thought processes. They will find many Europeans disarming, but also deep. British people deal with Americans by occasionally using Americanisms in their speech, then retreating into British vagueness or semi-incoherence when they wish to confuse. Americans are tough, cunning, but also naive. You should blow hot and cold with them, appearing half the time to be on the American wavelength and the other half of the time your own person. Americans find this disconcerting;
they want to follow the script, or 'scenario' as they often call it. This is never more apparent than when the Americans are buying - they want to hear your sales pitch. Soft sell is not necessary in the US. Any American walking into a car showroom expects the salesperson to attack him from the word go. He wishes to be told every good point about the car, the true and the peripheral, the fine discount and the personal concession, he then wants to hit back hard with his own demands, finally after much tough talk arriving at the 'deal' neither of them trusts, but both want and fully accept. You can improve on this dialogue by showing all your toughness, but slipping in a quiet injection of 'niceness', even humility. A certain amount of modesty scores points with Americans. If you are too modest with Latins, you run the risk of their believing you ('They have a lot to be modest about'), but the Americans, as native English speakers, will hear the linguistic nuances and respect your reserve. They, for their part, are incapable of being modest in speech, as American English is irrevocably tough, clever and tending towards the exaggerated and sensational. Learn how to translate your natural modesty into suitable British English:
US Jack'll blow his top You're talking bullshit You gotta be kidding That's a beautiful scenario I tell you, I can walk away from this deal You're going to get hurt Bean-counters drive me mad It's the only game in town We had sticker-shocked the consumers right off their feet Go for broke He'll do his best to make it fly If they ever come back from the grave When you scramble, you scramble like a son-of-a-bitch British Our chairman might tend to disagree I'm not quite with you on that one Hm, that's an interesting idea (disagreement) We might find a way of making that work We'll have to do our homework I'm not sure this is advantageous for you Accountants can be frustrating I have no other choice We had overpriced the product Stake everything on one venture He'll do all he can to ensure success If they are ever a force in business again Speed of action is advisable Finally, when dealing with Americans, it is advisable to have on your team someone who knows their country well. This applies when dealing with any nationality, but at least many Europeans have spent years in the USA and such 'experts' are readily available. Northern Europeans, with their language abilities and wide knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon world, are today quite close culturally to the British, but often assume that Americans are similar, because they speak the same tongue. But Americans live in a different hemisphere and a different world. They do things their way and people who have lived in the USA know the short cuts in doing business with them.
BRITAIN ONE EVENING, SWEDISH CUSTOMS OFFICIALS AT ARLANDA AIRPORT WERE puzzled by the behaviour of an elderly gentleman who, long after his cotravellers had passed through the immigration channels, paced up and down with a bewildered look on his face. Finally, one of the Swedes went up to him and asked why he had not come through passport control. 'I don't know where my channel is,' replied the old gentleman. 'There it says "Swedes" and there it says "Foreigners". But I am neither a Swede nor a foreigner, I'm an Englishman.' The Swedes, like others in Europe as well as Americans and Asians, are well informed as to what Englishmen are like. For decades the British film industry, enriched by the talents of such actors as Alec Guinness, Peter O’Toole, John Gielgud, Ralph Richardson, Alastair Sim, George Cole and Charles Laughton, have put him on the screen for the world to see. The BBC, in such admirable programmes as Upstairs Downstairs and Yes, Minister, has reinforced the image. The Englishman dresses in tweeds or a three-piece pin-striped suit and a Burberry mackintosh on rainy days. He wears a bowler hat, carries a tightly furled, black umbrella with a cane handle, has a pink newspaper tucked under his left armpit. He goes to church on Sunday mornings and eats roast beef with Yorkshire pudding for Sunday lunch.
Узнайте, что такое Саентология...
Ваша жизнь поменяется...
He is a man of principle, insists on fair play for underdogs, does things in a proper manner and shows more affection for horses, cats and dogs than for children, foxes and grouse. He probably went to Eton and Oxford (Cambridge?) and frequents Ascot, Wimbledon, Twickenham, Lord's and Wentworth. He believes in the Monarchy, the Empire and the Conservative Party. When not in his Club (no ladies allowed) he sits in the local (pub) with gardeners and game wardens, with whom he sips warm beer called 'real ale'. Often he has tea with the vicar, with whom he discusses the Church of England, farming, poaching, the village fete and his years with the Guards. Englishmen are fond of cricket, croquet, rugby, sheepdog trials, detective stories and queuing. When queues are slow, one does not complain, as English people must never make a scene, not even if they have a double-barrelled name. The same applies to poor service in restaurants, railway stations and that place where you get your passport. The antidote to such frustrating situations is the stiff upper lip. When queuing or sitting in a train one does not enter into conversation with others - that is the reason fqr carrying a newspaper everywhere. When a train was derailed in a tunnel in the London Underground a few years ago, an elderly City gentleman walked half a mile down the line to the next station, where he proclaimed: 'It's horrible down there in the dark. People are talking to each other!' This powerful stereotype of the British character has been etched on other nations' minds by several generations of British films. Huge populations abroad, including the Japanese, Indians, South-East Asians and Africans, still subscribe to it and send their children to Britain to be educated along the same lines. The majority of British people bear little resemblence to the stereotype. Not only is the image one of an upper class personage of a former era, but it does not take into account regional differences, which in the UK are extremely marked. If you draw a latitudinal line through the city of Oxford, it is questionable if you will find anyone north of it who behaves in the manner of the stereotype. In the first place, nearly 10 million Britons are Celts (Scots, Welsh, Irish, Cornish and Manx). These people are essentially romantic, poetic and emotional. They, like millions of midland and northern English people in the 'wilds' beyond Oxford, are extremely critical of the archetypal Englishman existing in foreign minds. There is a type of English person who roughly corresponds to the projected image, but he is southern, upper class and almost extinct! Even in the south, we are talking about a tiny, although often highly visible (and audible) fraction of society. Foreigners, often laughing at the eccentric English stereotype, are unaware that 50-odd million Britons laugh at him too. Northern, midland and Celtic Britons feel much more affinity with some Europeans (Norwegians, Danes, Swedes, Finns, Dutch, Belgians, Germans, Swiss) than they do with the braying figure in tweeds. Britons are supposed to be poor at learning languages - this is a myth. Scots, Welsh, Irish and most people north of Watford learn foreign languages well and often with a good accent. What are real English people like? The 'world image' bears some resemblance to the reality, but not much. The class system is still in evidence in Britain - an unfortunate anachronism which North America and most of Europe have dispensed with - but in fact most British people could be called middle class. They do not have a strong political party to represent them, although both Conservatives and Labour eagerly pretend to do so. The absence of a moderate centrist party contributes, sadly, to the continuing polarisation of British society. Polarised or not, how do British people behave? Whatever the status, a pattern can be observed. Yes, we are a nation of queuers and probably the only time British people complain vociferously is when someone jumps the queue. But the stiff upper lip can move - British people today hold nothing sacred. While royalty is respected, the Royal Family is often ridiculed, both in the press and on TV. If the British can laugh at themselves, so can the monarchs - what could be more democratic than that? Humour is a saving factor in British life - some say it is a product of a fickle climate - and many English people feel that as long as there is humour, there can never be utter despair. It is no accident that the BBC -the most humorous television service in the world - is highly popular in most countries fortunate enough to be able to receive it. It is true that British people love detective stories. Agatha Christie is the world's most translated novelist and the British easily lead the world in library book loans. Sherlock Holmes is one of the most famous and popular Englishmen of all time. The fact is, the British have a strong conspiratorial streak - they love plotting. The most beloved characters in the extensive British theatrical literature are villains. Guy Fawkes, who was hanged after failing to blow up Parliament, became an instant hero and the nation still celebrates his anniversary every 5 November. The biggest heroes of British naval history were Francis Drake and John Hawkins - both pirates. Apparently polished and sophisticated in diplomacy, the British are masters of intelligence gathering and political blackmail. And yet British people regard themselves as honest, reasonable, caring and considerate. Their originality often borders on the eccentric, but it is true that throughout history, they have been lateral thinkers with great powers of invention. Often academic and woolly, they can excel in science and technology. Portrayed as a nation of amateurs who 'muddle through' crises, they have shown their visceral strength in the worst adversity. Their insularity is incurable. Each evening on television British weather forecasters routinely end their message with the prognosis of the next day's temperature: 'The high will be 22 degrees Celsius - that is 72 degrees Fahrenheit.' That after two decades of metric systems! Don't ask the British to change their double-decker buses or red post boxes, or to drive on the right. Even when they venture abroad, they take their cocoon of insularity with them. It used to be 5 o'clock tea in long dress in the heat of the African jungle;
now it's fish and chips and bacon and eggs eagerly provided by Spanish hoteliers on the Costa del Sol. Fixed habits, fixed ideas, slow to change, unprofessional. How do these characteristics apply to the British way of doing business? How should these eccentrics be handled? How to empathise with the British The British feel at home with other English-speaking nationalities, with whom they have little difficulty in establishing an easy-going but effective relationship. They also feel comfortable with Nordics, Dutch and (when they get to know them) Japanese. They think that they strike the golden mean between excessive formality (French, German tendencies) and premature familiarity (American, Australian traits).
Britons, of course, belong to different classes, and foreign people should always bear this in mind. When dealing with the wealthier, more class-conscious southern English, one should stress one's civilised, educated side;
when dealing with the more hard-headed northern English, Scots or Welsh, one should lay more emphasis on sincerity and straight, uncomplicated dealing. At business meetings, the British are rather formal at first, using first names only after two or three encounters. After that they become very informal (jackets off, sleeves rolled up) and first names will be used and maintained from then on. British people like to show themselves as family oriented (though less than the Latins) and it is normal for you to discuss children, holidays, reminiscences during and between meetings. Humour is important in business sessions in the UK and it is advisable for you to arrive well stocked with jokes and anecdotes. People who are good at this should use their talent to the full. British people expect you to match story with story and an atmosphere conducive to doing business will result. A word of warning: British executives can use humour (especially irony or sarcasm) as a weapon in ridiculing an opponent or showing disagreement or even contempt. Sarcasm is rarely used against Nordics, however, since their modesty and restraint hardly ever deserve it. The British can use humour cruelly against some Latins and overdemonstrative people. One can learn a lot about the British by observing how they use humour against themselves or their own colleagues. The following uses are common: • self-deprecation • to break up tension in a situation which is developing intransigence • to speed up discussion when excessive formality is slowing it down • to direct criticism towards a superior without getting fired • to introduce a new, possibly wild idea to unimaginative colleagues (the 'trial balloon') • to introduce the unexpected in over-rigid negotiation • to laugh at overelaborate or 'mysterious' management priorities and perspective in solemn corporate planning In short, humour is regarded as one of the most effective weapons in the British manager's arsenal and some people can gain the confidence of the British by showing that they can be a match for them in this area. (A Swiss, Austrian, Turk or German has difficulty in doing this.) British executives try to show during meetings that they are guided by reasonableness, compromise and common sense. One may find, however, that the British, even in the absence of disagreement, will rarely make a final decision at the first meeting. They do not like to be hurried. Americans like to make on-the-spot decisions when they can, using instinct. The British, more tradition bound, prefer using instinct to logic, but exercise more caution. With them one should suggest, 'Could we have a final decision at our next meeting?' British rarely disagree openly with proposals from the other side. They agree whenever possible, but qualify their agreement ('Hm, that's a very interesting idea'). Other nationals are more open in this respect. They must watch for hidden signs of disagreement, e.g.: • 'Well, we quite like that, however...' • vagueness in reply • understatement showing, in fact, opposition ('That might be a bit tricky') • humour Some nationalities understand the use of understatement and humour well, but can be irritated by British vagueness. They use it to stall, confuse opponents, or delay the business. Ask them for a decision and they are likely to reply, 'Let me tell you a story'. You listen to the story with interest, for it will probably be a good one. When it ends you will say 'Fine, but what about a decision?' 'I already told you,' the Briton will say. You would do well to show you understand the relevance of the story, or tell one back. Using charm, vagueness, humour, understatement and apparent reasonableness, British negotiators can be smiling but quite tough for lengthy periods. They always have a fallback position which they disguise as long as possible. You should attempt to discover this position by being equally reasonable, smiling, modest and tenacious. In the end you may find it is similar to your own fallback in most circumstances. The area for bargaining may be somewhat greater with the British (remember they have hundreds of years of experience with India, the Middle and Far East). Representatives of a British company will make normal use of their firm's reputation, size and wealth in their negotiating hand, and you can do likewise in dealing with them. What they do not reveal so readily is the strength of their behindthe-scenes connections. The 'old school tie', or the 'old boy network', is very much a reality in British executive life and should not be underestimated. It is particularly active in the City, the Ministries and in legal circles, and nationals from a small country should always bear in mind that they may be dealing with greater influences than are apparent on the surface. The British are generally interested in long-term relationships rather than quick deals. This is a factor you can reckon with and use to your advantage, even though sometimes you may wish to conclude arrangements rather faster. A lot of business is done in some countries on the telephone. The British are also capable of discussing terms at length, but nearly always ask you to put it in writing immediately afterwards. They keep thick files. Finally, there is the question of British insularity. Brits generally have a feeling that 'foreigners' intend to outsmart them.
ITALY The Italians are charming, intelligent people to whom Europe owes a great cultural debt. They are excellent communicators and combine ultra-keen perception with ever-present flexibility. Their continuous exuberance and loquacious persuasiveness often produce an adverse reaction with reserved Britons, factual Germans and taciturn Scandinavians. Yet such northerners have everything to gain by adapting to Italians' outgoing nature, meeting them halfway in their taste for dialogue. There is plenty of business to be done with the Italians, who export vigorously in order to survive. The following remarks attempt to give the northerner a few clues on how some concessions towards extroversion can reap rewards. Italians like to share details of families, holidays, hopes, aspirations, disappointments, preferences. Show photographs of children, etc. Reveal some of your political or religious opinions - this is normal in Italy, you need not be an island unto yourself. Discuss beliefs and values. Do not be afraid to appear talkative. No matter how hard you try the Italian will always consider you reserved (and talk ten times as much as you). One characteristic of Italians is that they are relatively non-chauvinistic and do not automatically believe that Italian must be best. This national modesty is rarely seen outside Finland and Italy. Capitalise on this trait by discussing Italy in a frank manner. Italians, unlike Spaniards, Germans or French, are not particularly sensitive or touchy. They accept criticism and are very flexible. You may speak much more freely with them than with most Europeans, but do not exaggerate directness or bluntness. They are flexible, but also delicate. Remember that the communication style is eloquent, wordy, demonstrative and apparently emotional. This is normal for them, over-dramatic for you. Do not be led into the belief that waving arms and talking with the hands denotes instability or unreliability. They think you, by contrast, are rather wooden and distant. Make them feel comfortable by showing more facial expression and body language. Italians have a different concept of time from that of northerners and Americans. They do not arrive for appointments on time. Punctuality in Milan means they are 20 minutes late, in Rome half an hour and in the South 45 minutes. You will not be able to change this, except in a fixed-hours factory or office environment. "You must therefore adapt. Be prepared to wait 15-45 minutes before your Italian counterpart appears or lets you into his office. Take a good book or magazine. Alternatively you can deliberately show up half an hour late, but in fact few northerners are able to do this. There is also a variance in the concept of space. Italians are used to being crowded and working in close proximity to each other. This creates an atmosphere of teamwork approximating to that of the Japanese. A Briton, American or German needs more space or 'elbow room' to work effectively and this shows itself in such matters as office layout and use of space both in factories and in administrative areas. Be prepared to 'rub shoulders' with Italians. The 'distance of comfort' is greater for northerners than Italians. The English like to keep a minimum of 1.2 metres between themselves and their interlocutor. Italians are quite comfortable at 80 centimetres. If you retreat from such a position, they will think you are avoiding them or that you find their physical presence distasteful. Make them feel more welcome by 'standing your ground'. Italians may touch your arm or shoulder or perhaps hug you if they are feeling friendly. After some months' acquaintance, they may kiss you on both cheeks when greeting you or departing. They are showing affection and you must find some way of reciprocating. At least smile occasionally;
your face will not break (in a southern climate). Italian flexibility in business often leads you to think they are 'dishonest'. They frequently bend rules, break or 'get round' some laws and put a very flexible interpretation on certain agreements, controls and regulations. Remember that this is the way they do business and you may well be able to benefit from this 'flexibility'. They will regard your rather rigid, law-abiding approach as somewhat old-fashioned, short-sighted or even blind. In this respect they probably are closer to reality than you are and less ideal bound. They do not consider their approach to be in any way corrupt, immoral or misleading. They will happily take you into their 'conspiracy'. They will share the 'benefits' with you, if you accept. If you stick to the letter of the law, they will go on without you. We are not talking about clear illegalities. There are many grey areas where short cuts are, in Italian eyes, a matter of common sense. Italians are less private persons than linear-active people and they will borrow your property (or time) with freedom. Eventually they will repay or return your property (calculator, car, report, etc.) so do not be unduly stuffy about it. Remember you can borrow from them whenever you like. Italians often 'borrow' your money in the sense that they pay late. This is another area where change of habit is very difficult to bring about. The best you can do is try to arrange satisfactory payment schedules in advance and/or take the probability of delayed payments strongly into consideration. Remember the Italians will allow you similar latitude (if they can afford it). At meetings, Italians do not follow agendas as strictly as do northerners. They will jump ahead to later points or will rediscuss points you think have already been settled. They will talk loudly, excitedly and at length. Often several people will speak at once, and you may find two or three more micro-meetings going on simultaneously. They do not like silences of more than 5 seconds. If you are not running the meeting, there is nothing you can do except sit back and enjoy. If you are in the chair, you have to create some kind of order, but you can only do this by establishing firm rules in advance. One German I know used yellow, red and green cards to discipline people at South American meetings. This humorous but firm approach achieved the desired result. Italian wordiness v northern succinctness is a constant pain in internal company communication, as both sides wish to achieve clarity, one through many words and the other through short messages and memos. A compromise must be reached. Northerners must teach themselves to be more explicit and explanatory, but also encourage their Italian colleagues to be more concise, economical with words and ideas, and whenever practical to put them in writing. The invention of the fax has been a valuable weapon for Scandinavians and other concise peoples. Italians are much more polite, on the surface, than northerners, so you will often appear overfrank, blunt and even rude, although you do not intend this. Try to adopt a certain Italian smoothness or delicacy and use flattery more than you normally would. They like it. Open doors for women and stand up and sit down at the right times. You probably do this anyway, but notice how the Italians do it with charm and style. When leaving a room an Italian often says 'Conpermesso'. Try a few tricks like that. If you still feel a bit awkward, console yourself by remembering that to a Japanese an Italian looks clumsy, emotional and often rude. You will often find it difficult to rid yourself of the impression that the Italians are an unruly, disorganised bunch. They do not seem to plan methodically like you do. Do not forget they are the fifth industrial nation in the world and have outperformed even the Germans and Americans in such areas as domestic appliances and some categories of cars. On top of that they have an enormous hidden or 'black' economy, the extent of which is unknown. Therefore they must be doing something right. Your task should be to discover where they act in a superior manner to you and whether you can learn to do the same. Their efficiency is not as 'obvious' as yours, but it may have something to do with their gregariousness, flexibility, working hours, people orientation, teamwork, quickness and opportunism. Try to get into their shoes. Italian negotiators are friendly, talkative, and ultimately flexible. They are less direct than northerners and often seem to proceed in a roundabout manner. Italians will discuss things from a personal or semi-emotional angle ('Look at the good relations between our presidents'), while northerners try to concentrate on the benefit for their company and stick to the facts of the particular deal. Northerners should approach negotiation with Italians with adequate time for the exercise and a large store of patience. They must be prepared to discuss at length and maintain calm. An Italian may get overheated on some point, but changes a moment later into the friendliest of negotiators. Italians may quarrel among themselves at the table, but are solid colleagues minutes later. Their starting price may be high, but they are prepared for a lot of negotiating down. The Scandinavian or Briton selling to them must show a first price which allows some room for a reduction later. They will expect it. They must come away from the deal showing they have won or gained something. Each member of their team must be granted something. Northerners will be at their best if they regard the negotiation as a kind of interesting game which must be played with many Italian rules, but which leads to a serious and beneficial result (for both).
POLAND Poland should not be underestimated. Bigger than Italy or the UK, its land area equals that of the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Austria, Switzerland and the Czech Republic combined. In terms of population, there are as many Poles as Spaniards - only Germany, France, Italy and Britain in the EU have more citizens. Its GDP is not small either;
its economy is as big as the combined output of Hungary, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Croatia. If Poland were to develop into a pivotal national of considerable political, cultural and economic influence in Central Europe, it would not be for the first time. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, it was the largest state on the continent. Indeed, the celebrated Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, founded in 1386, had encompassed Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus and large parts of Russia and stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Mediaeval Poland saw itself as having a historic mission, that of the defender of Catholicism and the Christian West against the barbarous hordes spilling over the Russian Steppes and attempting to subjugate Europe. As early as 1240, Poland had faced a massive Mongol-Tartar invasion from the East that threatened to overrun the entire continent. In later years Polish armies were called upon to break the Turkish siege of Vienna. In modern times, one could say that Lech Walesa's Solidarity broke the Communist siege of Central Europe and produced a domino effect in Hungary, the former Czechoslovakia, Slovenia, Croatia and elsewhere. Poles, destined to an historical buffer role between expansionist Russian and German empires, have shown themselves to be the plus ultra fighters down the centuries. Their deep sense of vulnerability has engendered an unquenchable thirst for survival. Their stoicism in adversity, their shining courage and their enthusiasm for battle reached new heights during the Second World War. Polish pilots in the squadron fighting with the British Royal Air Force frequently lost planes through chasing enemy aircraft so far out over the North Sea that they ran out of fuel and were unable to return to their base. Such spirit, bordering on fanaticism, is the key to this vital, proud, sensitive, brave people, the most vigorous and westernised of the Slavs, now turning their face to the West more consistently than at any other time in their turbulent, tragic history. Culture Religion Slavs are divided by religion: Serbia, Bulgaria, Belarus, Eastern Ukraine and Russia are by tradition Orthodox;
Bosnia largerly Muslim;
Croatia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Western Ukraine and Poland Roman Catholic. Among Catholic Slavs, however, it is in Poland that the faith assumes disproportionate importance. At the centre of the problem of convergence of cultures, victimised repeatedly by invasion, mass deportations and even genocide, Poles have developed strong feelings of defensive nationalism and determination to survive no matter how devastating an oppression they face. In this defiance, they have consistently benefited from the power of Roman Catholic belief and have unhesitatingly used their religion as a source of identity to protect themselves against non-Roman Catholic enemies. The fierce adherence of Poles to Roman Catholicism does not mean mat they all go to church. They are less enthusiastic churchgoers than, for instance, Americans. But the refusal to separate church and state strengthened both the ecclesiastical and secular sides of Polish nationalism. Neither are Poles intolerant of other religions. There are Jewish, Orthodox, Lutheran, Calvinist and Muslim minorities. Religious tolerance has (like in the Netherlands) been part of the tradition of intellectual freedom down the centuries. Values Poles, romantic idealists that they are, believe that they are imbued with so many virtues that it is quite impossible to make a short list. Polish literature is rich and original;
Polish film and theatre directors have achieved fame through their avant-gardism, perceptiveness and resistance to totalitarian systems. Their famous 'cultural underground' performances were staged at major Polish theatres during the communist years. Polish poets, writers, playwrights and musicians are upholding intellectual and cultural traditions going back to Copernicus, Chopin, Paderewski, Joseph Conrad, Rubenstein and Mickiewicz, among many others. The brilliance of Polish intellectual activity has always been underpinned by another endearing cultural trait - a type of rustic simplicity that derives its strength from a firm attachment to family values, inherent generosity and hospitality. The Pole - a fierce crusader in public - is a soft touch at home and in private. This hearton-the-sleeve attitude is extended not only to family members, but to strangers and foreigners who give proof of their friendliness and (especially) loyalty. The proud, obstinate Poles show themselves flexible and humble when approached with understanding and open-mindedness. This applies not only to their social interactions, but also to the way they conduct their business. The family is the basic unit of Polish life, more important than other groupings, church or even feeling for their country. Polish parents keep their children in the sense that they pay for their education, share their lives as much as possible and feed, clothe and house them until they get married. Concepts Leadership and status In Polish history, royals and nobles have figured largely as leaders and organisers. Gentry comprised a high percentage of feudal society and established a chivalrous, romanticist lifestyle. Honour and revenge are living concepts in the Polish mind, as are grace, nobleness of bearing, personal integrity, fearlessness and gallantry towards women, who still get their hands kissed in Poland. In more recent years, Nazi suppression and 45 years of communism diminished the influence of the leading Polish families. Lech Walesa eventually emerged as a working-class leader of deeply nationalistic convictions. Meritocracy now dominates advancement in Polish society, although nationally the Polish Pope has wielded enormous influence. Status is accorded unreservedly to great intellectuals and artists, both past and present, Chopin and Marie Curie being outstanding examples.
Space and time The Polish sense of space is typically Slav, inasmuch as they stand or sit closer to each other than Anglo-Saxons or Nordics in conversation and often touch each other to give reassurance. Parents kiss their children well into their teens, often also as fully grown adults. Men kiss women on the hands and frequently male acquaintances on both cheeks. As far as possession of space is concerned, territory has always been a major issue in Poland, in view of the acquisitive tendencies of her big neighbours. Poles are relaxed about time, but not necessarily unpunctual. One should not steal others' time, but Polish society is not time dominated in the German sense. Poles tend to turn up a little late, but they have an ambivalent attitude to the sequence of events, seeing ultimate reality as not being closely connected with present activity. They are definitely past oriented - the length and significance of their history and heritage provide an indispensable background and launching pad for current action. There is a certain fatalism about their conduct, although they also possess drive and objectivity. Cultural factors in communication Communication patterns and use of language The Polish communication style is enigmatic. They can ring all the changes between a matter-of-fact pragmatic style and a wordy, sentimental, romantic approach to a given subject. When in the latter mode, they are fond of metaphor and their speech is rich in implied meaning, allusions, images and ambiguity. Irony and even satire are used to great effect. Listening habits Poles are courteous and rarely interrupt, but listen with calm scepticism and distrust to official announcements. They are quick to detect minor slights. Behaviour at meetings and negotiations As with their speech style, in behaviour Poles fluctuate between pragmatism and sentiment. Generally they seem to want a little of both. They are friendly and flexible when well treated, but react strongly if they suspect injustice. Not afraid to confront, they can be quite fiery when under pressure. A particular national characteristic is that they consider aggressive behaviour on their part to be justified when they are severely criticised or insulted. If they are handled with a combination of frankness and delicacy they try quickly to establish close personal relationships. They have a basic shyness and nonassertiveness born of centuries of not questioning teachers or those in positions of influence and power. Modern businesses are quickly growing in confidence, but one is still aware of a disarming simplicity in their behaviour towards others. Though personal, Polish negotiations are not particularly informal. A discreet distance is maintained between conversation partners. Often the third person (he or she) is used for direct address. Ideas are often introduced in a roundabout manner and one has to read between the lines. Manners and taboos • widespread. • • hostess. • Body language is generally restricted, but shrugging of shoulders and slapping of one's forehead to indicate stupidity are fairly frequent. How to empathise with Poles Treat such concepts as honour, chivalry and old-fashioned gallantry as meaningful qualities in a Polish context. Show interest in their old culture and considerable artistic achievement. Admire their religious tolerance and general tendency to accommodate the views of others. Show that you perceive their nationalism as a necessary survival mechanism. Appreciate Polish food and learn some expressions in their language. Don't try to address them in Russian. First names are for close friends only. An odd number of flowers (unwrapped) is a suitable present for a Toasting is common and consumption of hard liquor (vodka, cognac) is TURKEY Turkey, an applicant for EU memebership, would make quite an impact if it were to enter. To begin with, it would be by for the biggest country, being approximately three times the size of UK and Italy and out-sizing France, Spain and Germany by more than 50 per cent. It would be second in population after Germany. It is the leader of a Turkic-speaking trading bloc of six former Russian-dominated Central Asian republics, and most of the country is not in Europe. Furthermore, Turkey has not fully satisfied European standards on human rights. It is no wonder that EU members want to take a deep breath before approving entry. Yet where else can Kemal Ataturk's modern, industrialising, secular NATO nation (which, remember, joined the West during the Korean and Gulf wars) go? Kemal Ataturk Anyone who has been to Turkey could hardly to fail to notice how dissimilar it is from other Muslim states. The nation's modern character is largely the result of the influence of its founder, Kemal Ataturk. The future first president of Turkey was born in 1881 in Salonica, then an Ottoman city. In 1905 Mustafa Kemal, as he was then known, graduated from the War Academy in Istanbul. In 1915, when the Dardanelles campaign was launched, he had reached the rank of colonel. The War of Independence from the Ottomans began in 1919 when Kemal, then a general, rallied a liberation army in Anatolia and convened a congress. This was forerunner of the Grand National Assembly, which was inaugurated in April 1920 with Mustafa Kemal elected president. He set about transforming his country with unabated zeal, creating a new political and legal system, abolishing the Caliphate and making both government and education secular. The Islamic calendar was replaced by the western calendar, western hats were worn instead of the fez and women stopped wearing the veil.
In 1934 the Turkish parliament gave Kemal the name Ataturk, which means 'father of the Turks'. His emphasis on secularism continues today. 'Turkey is not a land of Sheikhs, dervishes, disciples and lay brothers,' he declared, having developed a lasting hatred for religious fundamentalism. He saw Westernisation and return to Turkish roots as being entirely compatible, inasmuch as Islam was tolerated as a religion but banned as a lifestyle. Culture Values Belief in one's own honesty and Reliability Modified Islamic tenets Fierceness, tenacity Concepts Leadership and status In the Ottoman Empire and for most of Turkish history, power has been concentrated in few hands. Sultans and Caliphs were all powerful and autocratic leadership was a fact of life. Kemal Ataturk changed all that and founded a democratic republic which, in spite of many troubled periods, has worked as well as many other theoretical democracies. It is true that the Army has acted undemocratically on some occasions, seeing itself as 'the guardian of the nation', but after each coup it has handed control back to civilians. Ataturk gave women the vote in 1934 and there has been one female prime minister, but they still have a long way to go to achieve parity and their position is often under threat from Islamic fundamentalists. Things take time in Turkey and people turn up late for appointments. Istanbul the largest urban sprawl in Europe - is not easy to move around in and many delays originate from traffic problems. Turkey is a large country with a low population density. There is generally a 'distance of respect' of more than one metre between speakers. Having said that, Hospitality, gallantry Warmth, likeability Preservation of heritage Male dominance Mediterranean Turks are somewhat tactile among friends (this usually confined to one's own sex). In many towns and villages men dancing with men is a common spectacle. Foreigners are often invited to participate - don't be shy! Cultural factors in communication Communication pattern and use of language The Turkish communication style derives from its three main roots, Islamic, Mediterranean and Eastern (Ottoman, Seljuk). The first two are sources of their liveliness - they are in the main both multi-active and dialogue oriented. The third (Eastern) strand is, however, clearly visible -they are more reactive than any Europeans, except perhaps the Finns, and could also be classified as a listening culture, akin to several Central Asian Republics as well as some Confucian societies. Reactive cultures let the other side speak first and slowly try to modify their reply or position to fit in with their interlocutor. In business circles their style is exploratory - they are very interested in all forms of change that lead to progress. They are polite and courteous (more than Westerners), but they wish to be seen as Western and modern. They show natural exasperation at being rejected by the West, but they are patient and persistent in trying to open and maintain acceptable communication channels. Listening habits As reactives Turks are good listeners, wishing desperately to learn from Western colleagues. They control their Mediterranean ebullience and their Islamic righteousness to the extent that they normally refrain from interrupting their interlocutor. Nor do they try to speak over him/her in the French or Arab manner. They listen with some scepticism, but generally impute best motives and are rarely unreasonable unless they feel that they are being duped. Behaviour at meetings and negotiations Meetings are usually conducted in a friendly, semi-formal atmosphere. As hosts, Turks are extremely polite and solicitous. They are by no means inexperienced at negotiating, given their immense exposure to trading in the vast, enduring Ottoman Empire. Haggling is normal for them and they are disappointed if it does not ensue. Starting prices bear little relation to the intrinsic value of items. The Turkish salesman who is beaten down, or simply rejected, keeps his cool, showing no sign of anger or annoyance. Doors are kept open for future deals. Turks are willing to take risks in business, though they exercise a natural caution when investing in new and sizeable projects. Looking at markets, they know the value of their geographic location ('the bridge between East and West'). How to empathise with Turks A golden rule would be to see them as they are, not as they are described in misleading accounts. They want respect and recognition. They want to play ball. If one refrains from attacking the current shortcomings of Turkish society, if one believes that they are doing their best to cooperate and put their house in order, if one places trust in them and exercises patience, one may end up with extremely reliable and (one day) very influential friends.
THE NETHERLANDS HEMMED IN AGAINST THE NORTH SEA BY GERMANY AND BELGIUM, THE Dutch have made the best of the most crowded piece of land in the EU, creating on it the world's largest port and expanding seawards rather than landwards. With the 14th biggest economy in the world, the Netherlands is a small nation with a big clout. Culturally, the Dutch face north and west (and a bit east) but not south. Their Latin traits are few, but there are striking commonalities with the British, Germans, Swedes and Norwegians, as if at different times they followed different models. Perhaps this partly explains the paradoxical nature of Dutch society. With the Norwegians they share the exceptional characteristic of the national moral dilemma how can a modern state embrace permissiveness, tolerance, sweeping innovation and pragmatic pursuit of wealth without losing the embedded historical values that served its strait-laced, frugal society so well in the past? The pervasive egalitarianism in both the Netherlands and Sweden has led to the creation of Europe's two most comprehensive (and expensive) welfare states, with the subsequent corollary of high taxation. In both cases the expense of this luxury has been increased by a generous immigration policy: 10 per cent of Swedes today were not born in Sweden and 15 per cent of those in the Netherlands are not of Dutch descent. In the business world, both the Netherlands and Sweden have many famous multinational conglomerates (Shell, Unilever, Philips, Volvo, Electrolux, Scania, Alfa-Laval etc.) relative to the size of their economies. This is quite different to the situation in, for instance, Denmark, Norway, Finland and Belgium, where few companies are known worldwide (Nokia and Carlsberg perhaps the only ones). The proximity of Germany makes it only natural that the Dutch share many traits with their dynamic neighbour. Dynamism, industriousness and work ethic are among the most important of these characteristics. If the Germans are known to be efficient and punctual, the Dutch would claim to be their equals in these respects. Profit orientation is strong and money must be made (but not spent too quickly!).
Dutch and Germans are equally frugal, though their governments (especially the Dutch) are less tight-fisted. Only the more conservative, older type of Dutch company resembles the German, but common management traits are frankness, a certain formality with regard to titles and the significance of education as an essential component of leadership. Education is conducted in Holland along German lines, with vocational schools, apprenticeships and on-the-job training major features. Both countries excel in the production of engineers and technicians. Dutch and Germans rival each other in being rights conscious, but compensate by also being very conscious of their duties;
rationality is another common factor. Their forthright Germanic traits notwithstanding, it is perhaps with the British that the Dutch identify most strongly. When conversing with the English they have a confiding air of kinship easily straddling the narrow stretch of water between them. The inhabitants of the Frisian islands speak a language somewhere between Dutch and English. The sea-going traditions of both countries give them a sense of sharing early internationalism, exciting eras of exploration and entrepreneurialism, and huge, rambling empires where durability, administrative skills and religious tolerance were notable features. The Dutch and the English cling to their royals and basic conservatism, but soften this with democratic parliamentary government, love of debate and a quiet, roll-up-your-sleeves self-determinism. Love of home, gardens and flowers are similar in both countries. In business, Dutch and English people resemble each other in dress, exploratory discussion, profit orientation and pragmatism. A surfeit of protocol is frowned on, food is not central to either culture (no three-hour lunches) and internal competitiveness, while keen, must remain covert. Culture Values Dutch economic and geographic paradoxes are comprehensively matched by those of their values:
Conservative Tolerant International Materialist Puritanical Opinionated Rights conscious Consultative Royalist Informal Entrepreneurial Frugal Self-determined Frank, open Innovative Dogmatic Parochial Moralist Permissive Consensual Dutiful Competitive Egalitarian Proper Competitive Profligate (government) Cooperative Jealous of privacy The hierarchical pyramid in Dutch firms is decidedly flat: managers sit with other executives and decisions are made after lengthy consultation and consensus. As in Japan one diligently avoids the 'tyranny of the majority' and unanimity of decision is sought on most occasions. Individuals may stick to their opinions and cannot be steamrollered, but a great deal of pressure may be brought to bear on persistent lone dissenters. Cultural factors in communication Communication pattern and use of language Listening habits The Dutch are cautious, sceptical listeners, who prefer cut-and-thrust dialogue to any form of lecturing. Behaviour at meetings and negotiations Meetings are based on factual information and shows of emotion or ebullience are generally frowned on. Mutual help and dependence are general goals;
confrontation is rare and not desirable. How to empathise with the Dutch • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Know their history, involvement in former colonies and achievements. Congratulate them on their impressive linguistic abilities, but speak a Show that you are punctual, honest, dependable, rational and egalitarian. Back up all you say with facts. Focus on mutual profit. Be willing to brainstorm and endure long debates. Expect and practise verbal agility. Drive a hard bargain, but keep your promises. Be informative, informed and well prepared. Engage in moderate Smalltalk before getting down to business. Schedule meetings well in advance. Always appear bold and firm, yet not aggressive. You may be argumentative and sceptical without causing offence. Remember that ideas are objective and independent of the person Once a decision has been reached, proceed quickly to implementation. Stick to the agenda. You can offer further opposition if you are outvoted. You can defend your sphere of responsibility. Don't be pretentious - the Dutch dislike the grandiose. Don't be devious. Dutch people are not good at keeping secrets. Don't engage in too much physical contact - about a metre is the normal few words of Dutch now and then.
• • • reliability. • • • • • • • about them.
Don't be late for appointments or waste time. Don't exaggerate overt friendliness (American style) early on. Dutch Don't bargain too much - they are more concerned with quality and Don't make quick concessions when you meet resistance. The Dutch Don't rush negotiations. Don't exert pressure or use hard-sell tactics. Don't talk about religion (on which the Dutch are divided). Don't pry into family matters. Take flowers to Dutch homes. Don't be ironic or sarcastic, although jocular humour is popular.
people consider this an imposition.
Don't forget that they probably know a lot more about you than you know ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ EFFECTIVE PRESENTATIONS An Overview of Presentations A. Why do we make them? 1 2 3 4 5 6 B. Inform Entertain Persuade Inspire Motivate Teach What makes an effective speech? 1 2 3 4 Attention-getting Meaningful Memorable Activating Preparing well A. Preparing for the audience: How will this particular audience receive this particular speech? 1 2 3 How many will be present? What is their position, title, occupation? What is their background, education, culture, race?
4 5 6 7 How much do they already know about the topic? How much do they think they know? How much do they want to know? How much do they need to know so that they can achieve your Is your audience there because they want to be or because they objective? have to be? B. Keeping the audience awake 1 2 Keep it orderly and logical Some general rules of thumb to keep in interesting: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Narrow from general to specific Establish yourself as an authority Use comparison and contrast Use details and specifics Quote an authority Use anecdotes Define your terminology Use examples C. Where to start in organizing a speech 1. Outline your presentation in this order: a. b. c. d. e. Your objective The body (key points, supporting material, transitions) Introductory preview and closing summary Attention-getting opener Activating "to do" 2. Deliver your presentation in this order: a. Introduction b. Body c. (Opener, objective, preview) (Key point 1, supporting material, transition) (Key point 2, supporting material, transition) Closing (Summary and "to do") D. Personalize your presentation 1. Know your audience 2. Elicit audience participation 3. Relate what your message means to them 4. Appear personable- agreeable, pleasant, approachable 5. Self-disclose information about yourself 6. Use personal anecdotes Introductions A. Goals of the introduction 1. Getting attention 2. 3. B. Creating a bond of goodwill Leading into the content Types of introductions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Startling statement Questions Story Personal reference Quotation Appeal Suspense 8.
Compliment Conclusions A. Goals of the conclusion 1. Wrapping up the speech in a way that reminds of the content 2. Hitting home in a way that makes the audience remember/act B. Types of conclusions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Summary Story Humor Appeal Emotional Impact Dos and Don'ts while presenting A. When speaking 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Don't play with buttons Don't jingle coins Don't toss hair Keep your glasses on or off Don't tug at sleeve or collar Don't say "um" or "uh" Don't wave your hands Don't dance Don't rustle papers 10. Don't mumble B.
When using an overhead projector (OHP) 1. Switch on only when transparency is in place 2. Turn off be fore removing transparency 3. Allow time to read it before you start 4. Point to the transparency, not the screen 5. Use a pen to point, not your hand 6. Don't look at the transparency 7. Turn off when done with the visual 8. Don't use too many visuals (makes it hard to relate to the audience) 9. More is not always better (keep the visuals simple and necessary) 10. No more than three colors per visual When reading (can be boring and monotonous) 1 Start without reading 2 Lookup at the ends of sentences 3 Don't ramble on 4 6 7 8 Use pauses effectively Vary the pitch, speed, volume Keep your head up Use facial expressions 5 Use your full voice 9 Don't turn the pages 10 Glasses on or off D. In general 1 2. 3. Practice your presentation Make eye contact Check the setup 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Be happy (or look that way) Keep your hands empty Don't rush Don't pass out material to be read by audience Present your ideas from the listener's point of view Don't use jargon or abbreviations Checklist to evaluate your presentations A. Introduction 1 2 3 4 5 6 B. Is the first sentence attention-grabbing? Have you shown the benefit to the audience in listening to you? Have you shown why you are qualified to speak on this subject? Have you announced your structure? Have you shown that you understand the listeners* point of view Have you identified with the audience in the first minute or two?
Body of presentation 1 2 3 4 5 6 How you announced your first point clearly? Have you used facts, examples, anecdotes, comparisons, and Have you summarized regularly? Have you recapped the previous point before moving on to the Have you used rhetorical questions to guide your audience along Have you avoided jargon and abbreviations?
statistics to support your main points?
next point? your path?
7 Have you used visual aids to explain complex material or add Are the links between each point clear and logical?
Conclusion 1 2 3 4 Have you indicated that the end of your presentation is coming? Have you summarized your key points? Have you asked for action? Have you ended on a high note?
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ Assessing Your Communication Skills Evaluate how well you communicate by responding to the following statements. Mark the options that are closest to your experience. Be as honest as you can: if your answer is “ never”, mark Option1;
if it is “always”, mark option 4;
ands so on. Add your scores together, and refer to the Analyses to see how skilled you are at communicating. Use your answers to identify the areas that need improvement. Options 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. 3. it.
1 2 3 Never Occasionally Frequently Always I communicate the right message to the right person at the right time.
1 2 3 I think carefully about a message before I decide how to communicate 4.
I project self-confidence and speak confidently.
1 2 3 5.
I welcome feed back about my communication.
1 2 3 6.
I listen intently and check that I have understood before I reply.
1 2 3 7.
I try to exclude personal prejudices of all kinds when judging others.
1 2 3 8.
I am constructive and civil when I meet others.
1 2 3 9.
I take time to give people the information they need and want.
1 2 3 10.
I use on-to-one meetings for reviews of performance and coaching.
1 2 3 11. on.
I question people to find out when they think and how they are getting 1 2 3 12.
I hand out written briefs that give all permanent information on a task.
1 2 3 13.
I use professional phone techniques to improve my communication.
1 2 3 14.
I communicate via all available electronic media.
1 2 3 15.
I apply the rules of good writing to external and internal 1 2 3 communications.
I use an effective system of note-taking for minutes, interviews, and 1 2 3 17.
I test important letters and documents on reliable critics before 1 2 3 finalizing.
I use fast reading techniques to speed up my work rate.
1 2 3 19.
I prepare speeches carefully and deliver them well after rehearsal.
1 2 3 20.
I take an active and highly visible role in internal training.
1 2 3 21. standards.
I plan important events, such as conferences, to high professional 1 2 3 22.
I apply the rules of soft and hard selling to put across my points of view.
1 2 3 23.
I enter negotiations fully primed on issues and on the other side’s needs.
1 2 3 24.
I make my reports accurate, concise, clear, and well structured.
1 2 3 25.
I research thoroughly before putting forward a written proposal.
1 2 3 26.
I try to understand how all relevant audiences react to the organization.
1 2 3 27.
I consider how skilled advisers can help on public relations issues.
1 2 3 28.
I make useful contact with journalists and other media people.
1 2 3 29.
I make sure specialist work such as design is done by qualified 1 2 3 professionals.
My briefs to advertising agencies and based on clearly defined business 1 2 3 31.
I give priority to communicating regularly with employees.
1 2 3 32.
I receive and react positively to feedback from employees and others.
1 2 3 33. plan.
I have a strategy for communication and check activities against this 1 2 3 Analyses Now that you have completed the self-assessment, add up your total score and check your performance by reading the corresponding evaluation. Whatever lever of success you have achieved when communicating, it is important to remember that there is always room for improvement. 32-64: You are not communicating effectively or enough. Listen to feedback, and try to learn from your mistakes.
65-95: Your communications performance is pitchy. Plan to improve your weaknesses. 96-128: You communicate extremely well. But remember that you can never communicate too much. Assessing Your Ability Everyone is frequently involved in negotiation at work and at home, but in order to be truly successful at it you need to assess your skills. Evaluate your performance by responding to the following statements, then mark the options that are closest top your experience. Be as honest as you can: if your answer is “ never”, mark Option1;
if it is “always”, mark option 4;
ands so on. Add your scores together, and refer to the Analyses to see how skilled you are at communicating. Use your answers to identify which areas need improving. Options: 1 Never 2 Occasionally 3 Frequently 4 Always 1. 2. I research the other partly before I enter into negotiations.
1 2 3 I read background material before I devise my strategy.
1 2 3 3.
I am clear about the main objectives of the negotiation.
1 2 3 4.
I choose negotiating tactics that are appropriate to my objectives.
My negotiating strategies enable me to achieve my main objectives.
1 2 3 6.
When I use agents, I brief them thoroughly.
1 2 3 7.
When I use agents, I aim to give them as much authority as they need 1 2 3 8.
I have a flexible attitude toward negotiations.
1 2 3 9.
I believe negotiations to be an opportunity for both parties to benefit.
1 2 3 10.
I enter into negotiations determined to reach a satisfactory agreement 1 2 3 11.
I communicate my points in plain language.
1 2 3 12. 13.
I communicate my points logically and clearly.
1 2 3 I consciously use body language to communicate with the other party.
1 2 3 14.
I avoid exposing the other party’s weaknesses.
1 2 3 15.
I am polite at all possible times during the negotiation.
I create deadlines that are realistic and determined by the negotiation.
1 2 3 17.
17. I use my instincts to help me understand the other party’s tactics.
1 2 3 18.
I have enough power to make decisions when necessary.
1 2 3 19.
I am sensitive to any cultural differences of the other party.
1 2 3 20.
I work well as a member of a negotiating team, 1 2 3 21. party.
I am able to be objective and put myself in the position of the other 1 2 3 22.
I know how to guide the other party into making an offer.
1 2 3 23.
I avoid making the opening offer.
1 2 3 24.
I make progress toward agreement via a series of conditional offers.
1 2 3 25.
I approach my final objectives step by step.
I show emotion only as part of a tactical move.
1 2 3 27.
I regularly summarize the progress that has been made during 1 2 3 negotiations.
I use adjournments tactically to give me time to think.
1 2 3 29.
I introduce third parties when the negotiations break down.
1 2 3 30.
I employ a mediator as an effective way of breaking a stalemate.
1 2 3 31.
I ensure that my agreement is signed by each party.
1 2 3 32.
I prefer to negotiate a win/win situation whenever possible.
1 2 3 Analyses: 32-64: Your negotiating skills are weak. Learn to use and recognize the strategies and tactics essential to successful negotiation. 65-95: You have reasonable negotiating skills, but certain areas need further improvement. 96-128: Your negotiations are successful. Continue to prepare thoroughly for every future negotiation.
Материалы этого сайта размещены для ознакомления, все права принадлежат их авторам.
Если Вы не согласны с тем, что Ваш материал размещён на этом сайте, пожалуйста, напишите нам, мы в течении 1-2 рабочих дней удалим его.