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HBEPCTET POCCCO AAEM OPAOBAH eoe ocoe o peaue . M. ypea, E. M. opucoo Moca aeco PAO 1997 1.4 86 cxooeca aoca: ...

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aoca eocx ooe a ocoe cyex peoe. Tpaoa eoa o py cooepec ec, peoe . Mopeo (1934). Ocoa cy o eo cyee oce peoe (op) eo py o opeee cepa (apep, paoa, ox ..). Ha ocoe oyeoo eo py ca cyex opo opeeec ya cayc a (ep, opoa, oepe), cpyypa eocx ooe, coeoc py .. a eoa poo pecaea oeeceo epaype (B..

Oac, 1981;

.. Boo, 1970;

. ooc, 1976;

B.. aoo, 1975 p.).

Cyecye p oa cooepecoo eca. Oac o coe cpyype c ayocooepece eo, o oop oac ae cpeca ye aoooe pyax x ocoa o, oopx oceyee ca ep ae ooe e py pyy cee (.E.

a, 1981) pee pax aa, acoc oppeox, p coa yco pa oc, a ae yooo oa poe opao cxooecoo cayca cceoae eoxoo e opa o cyeo opae o eocx ooe, ce x, o eo epeax cxooeco cce opeeeoo cocoa peapoa cyea. Meo, apaee a cxoaocecoe yee x cxooecx eoeo, o a opao a oe a apoc pax oace cxoo yao ceeo cxooecx ocya cxoepa, oopx oce paecx ee eoxoo oae cyeoo pa a. oco x eo poee Oa aoee ecx eo oo acca eoa eaecoo aepeoo eca (TAT) Oa peec ce ex ocoeoce oc, oope poc coao cpee coax ooex. o:

a) ocoeoc o oc;

) ocoeoc epepcoax ce (ca, aa, paoc);

) peoaae ee;

) coco ec a pye;

) aeca copoa oc (p ee eeoc, peaoc, ooaa aoc).

o ec pecae coo aop ecox (o 6 o 30) apoe cyaooo a, oope ooepeo pec cyeoy. eca oopa ceae ap, e opaee cya oea y oco peoa. p ocaoo ex px opaex peeo ecyx ca o cee oo x cya c o e pe oeo eopeee, e oyca ooaoo ooa. p ocp ax ap y cyeoo coaec coeopaa coepeo coc ap:

ee opae cpay opee cepy ec cyeoo, eo cpey apaee pea, o o e pe eopeeeoc oo (caa ooaoe oaooe peee) acae eo ooa apy o-coey.

cye aoe ooae aae co a, o, coco ec oe o ao peex ap cooo paccae o oe' 1) oca o, o, o eo e, pocxo a ape (.e. a oe);

2) paccaa, o, o eo e, cococoao ooe ao cya (o ee opoo);

3) pecaa, o pooe aee;

4) paccaa o ycax epeax opaex ;

5) peca c e a ce poee ec, a poepye oc, TAT opaae ocoeoc oc ee oeax Oao oe o pyx eco TAT epeae x, ooo oy, .e ae paepyy apy ocoeoce oee oc ao pax ex cyax.

O pyx eco TAT oaec ae e, o ocoaec a poex yax ocoeoce aecoo cpo oc , e aece oco ocaoo opeeee cy, ae o e pe eopaey cooy opa apae ec. Cxey TAT oo pa a eopeee cy coo oe. Oe o o eoe eceo cooe e cece a opae' c c caoo aaa opa ae e e opaey e accoa ec, poe oo, po pecaec o cpy xo pya opaa ap, ece c opao yp opaa. B cxoo ycaoeo, o aoe cooo apaeoe acco-poae ay opao e ocoeoc oee, ccey ocyo, o oop oo ae ceo cy o xapaepx ( ocoo oyax aecx) epax oc, oee cocax ocoeocx.

Oo ocox aeop aaa (pao oaaee) TAT ec aeop o epcoae Ta a ea o (ecea, coepaea, cpaaea, apecca) o pe eca oo oo epcoaa a ape x oecex ooex, ooecee ce c opae o. o ec opao oo pee ex aa oo. Ta, apaeoc a eee cya, a a xo ee, a ee pae peypeee pa aaec p eceo o. aoopo, accoc eece, peocaee ecoa py p cpaaeo o.

Copee co copo aece peeo a, e yacyeo cya, o aaeo paeo pao cee ce cxo, xapaepo coepaeo o. Hapaeoc a yoee, papyee, xoee o paee apecco o.

Bce o c p oaae cooecyx ee oc. Bce o a aepa pee opoco o cocoax ec oc.

O paa, ceecy o o, o eoeo pa aa-o o, ec paccyee cyeoo oo o a ooo epcoae ( apax c eco ecy a), a ae coa cee ooaoc caa.

paa eceo o ec op aoo peyeceo acoe pee, opaax cpeee ee ooe ye yeac cocex oooce e apye o ec epeco pyoo eoea.

Xapaepa ae aepoaoc a peee (xopo poo).

paa cpaaeo o c caa o ooy oec. Paccyee eec oo o e a, a oopoe oecy.

Bae cpyec a ae peceoa, a ecpaeoc oe, ae. Boece ocyaec. Moo a yeeo pa, coa ao cya, oy, o peo e (xopoe a coo).

paa apecco o (oo coepaeo copo) ec peoaaee oeco epax ocpy peoe oca.

Aepyec oece a pyy oc. B oe o eceo o aaec ocyce oceoaeoc aepex, cce ao ecx.

paa coepaeo o c paccye, ae oe ooao opaeoo peoepca 6. OPOCH POETBHE METO o oc opoc, a pao, coep opeee epee opoco, a oope cye oe a oe.

oe o o opypye ca (op apa), o pae o peaaex oeo (ap apa) Haoee ec pepo ocoo opoca ec Mooca oc opoc aa Mecoa (MMPI). o ec e oo o cax yopeex ocx opoco, o co opoo ooa cceoa Ha ceo e o MMPI oyoao ce 3500 pao, aea ac oopx ocea aopoy aay a MMPI c oeo a ecoe oaae.

Coepae aa (opoco) opoca MMPI poo oxaae ae oac, a opoe, cecyae, peoe, oece coae ooe, opoc opaoa, pao, ce paa, a ae aoee ece epoece cxoece oee, ae, a aaae coco, aa, o, a ae cacce aoxcce aooc.

MMPI coco 550 yepex caa, a oope cye ae oe epo, eepo e oy caa.

p yao poee eca caa pec a oex apoax, cye pacpeee x cooeceo pe a oeo. oee a coaa opa opoca pyooo ecpoa, caa ca pec ecoo epa, a cyee ca aca oe a ceao ae Haop aa opoca pacpeec o oc aa epoaao a MMPI peaaac pae op (opox cyex) eoopx ox cxecx aoea. Ho p oceye cooa a ce oe paoac a ee ep coc oc coca ooaac cooec c opee epa yaeo op cyex ycope aaa oaaee, oyaex c oo MMPI, papaoa cce cooo opoa poe oc B ax ax oceoaeoc pacooee oepo a cpay e oaae, o a a ee coe, a o a e peya. acoey pee pya aepacx cceoaee papaoa poo pec oco opeee aoa o po oaaee MMPI- Aac ecoo cooa MMPI (C. Xaa-e . M, 1951). Ee o Aac c opoa a 4000 cyeo papaoa cxooo-ocyao (1959) Ec Aac, peaae cooa p oceoa capeacco (1961) Cocae B acpoo cpao o MMPI (1971) ae cecopo oop eppeaox ax o oco cpyypa poe.

Ee o pepo ocx opoco ec caoayapoa ec (CAT), papaoa M poo o pyooco . oaa. B aece eo aeop p papaoe eca peaaec aeop caoayaa oc, oopa, o e aopa eca, cyae oepao aaoo oco peoc aoe ocoe aeco ec ooeo xapaepco cxecoo opo oc. Ha cee caoayaa ceecye o cyecex eeax ocoo pa, o cae pa aox aoee coao ax opeoce oc, o cooc oc epoec paccpoca, pa opa apoa B cxooo-eaoeco ae a cee caoayaa oc ec cece po aopapo pa oye oca, cooc oooec opa oe, aypoa c oo ecx oeo ca, eoep ye yaeyc caoy cee, poc oee, o ceoc py , o peaoc, epaoc oaaex opeoce CAT coco epe, coepaeo 126 yo, a oopx ae a aepax cye eocoo oeeecoo xapaepa, ocax pae ycao ocoeoc ooe eoea py, py caoy cee aaa cyeoo coco o, o pa yx cye o, oopoe oe cee oeae eo pecae poy cocoy oee B xoe opao oyex ax ec acc oeo pacpeeec o aa, oca ceye ocoe cocae oco caoayaa oeeoc o pee, oepa, eoce opea, oc oee, ceB)1c (yceoc) cee, coaoc (cocooc coooy pae cox yc oee), caoyaee, caope, pecae o ppoe eoea, cep (cyea oooc copyeca c opya po), pe coceo apecc, oaoc, oaaee opeoc, peaoc Ta opao, a cye, yacy oceoa, ee oe 14 oaaee caoayaa oc ae oaae aocc a cea a, a oopo o cooocc c oo acao ce. Caec, o cye oc oaoo ypo caoayaa oc, ec eo ae oaa oy ceaoo paa, pacooey aaoe 5556%.

o aocec eo, o cy pee ocaeo cepeao aa, oe oece ocoepoc oyaeo opa, ee aeoc aoc. p ocpypoa pee opoco cceoae cxoo-aoc epeo caac c opeee pyoc. ec oo e e poe: oppoae opoco eppea oeo, a oopx oe oec ca c ocoo poeo oceoa. opypoa opoco cyeceo e a coepae oeo. ooy ocooe peoae, peeoe opypoe opoco, coc ooc. Tec opoco oe poc, o cex opaaex. Coe pye oa coa, a ae ooae coa o cac. a opoc oe coepa oo oy c.

Mooaa eppea opoca ee oy, o oe yy coepa paoaooc oa e yy po aaa ooao oe.

Oac aoe opoc, yae opeee oe. Bopoc o copypoa a, o x coepae o ecpcpac , acoo o ooo, coao epa.

o ope opoc oy yx o: ope ape. Ope opoc peoaa oe coce coa cyeoo. Ho aa opa oeo pya p opaoe opoc-a. ape opoc yaa ooe apa oeo a ecox o. Bopoc xooecoo a peoaa a oox apaa oea. Aepa opoco peoaae op ooo oea ecox apao. poe oo, cyecy opoc, opaoae o py yeoo opa oeo cye.

a oe y aoo opoca ae ce a ecoo yepe, oopx cye ye pa o oe, oee ceo cooecy eo oe pe.

pya poea opoco eppea oeo. Oa poec ee opa cye coao eaeo aepa p oeax a opoc. a ee, o e ox cceoaee, oe yaa a o, o eocaoo xopoo ae ce, cpec e ye (e acaa) ..

pye cceoae peoaa, o ca coao eaeoo oea caa c oee oe opeoc a caoae, coao coac oope, ea ea p. C pyo copo, , oop pae eaope oe, oe ca opeoc e-o a, ca oo.

epecee ocoeoc ocx opoco a cpyea cxooeco aoc eoxoo ya xopoo peca x oooc, poe opae.

aa ocoeoc poex eo o, o o peca coo ooceo ecpyyppoae aa, . e. aa, oycae o eopaeoe paoopae oox oeo. oo o aa a oa poc cooo, ac oo pae, oe cpy. o o e pe ecoe aa (cy) oo paca eooa. oea, a oopo cpoc ooe aa, coco o, o coco ocp eppea o ecooo aepaa oe opaa yaeae ace yopoa eo cx. py coa, peoaaec, o eco aepa oe cpaoa a eoopoo poa pa, a oopo oea poepye xapaepe eo cee poecc, opeoc, peooc, o ..

Oo poee eo c ae eoa aacpoaoo ecpoa, ocoy oceye peo oopeae o e cxooeco eppea, oopa ye aa eo oea. poex eo xapaepe oee o (oa) oxo oee oc. Bae oycpyec a oe ape oc a aoo, a e a epe oex ee coc. Haoe, poee eo paccapac x copoa a aoee ee poeyp oapye cpx, ayapoax eocoaaex copo oc. o ceye peooe, o e eee ooa opeee cy, e eee epoo, o o oy y cyeoo ae pea.

Oa cax oypx poex eo cceoa oc caa c cooae epx e Popaxa. Papaoaa eapc cxapo epao Popa-xo, a eoa epe a ocaa 1921 . Xo caappoae cep epx e cooac cxooa pae ye oopae pyx cxecx y,. Popax ep, o pe epe a aocecoo cceoa oc eo.

Paa o eo,. Popax cepepoa c o oeco e, oope o pe pa pya cxec ox. B peyae oox ecx ae e xapaepc oeo, oope oo o cooec c pa cxec aoea, oceeo oec ccey oaaee. Meo opeee oaaee ae opaaac c oo ooeoo ecpoa yceo ocax opax e, xyoo, yex pyx c ec cxooec xapaepca.

B ece Popaxa coyc 10 apoe, a ao oopx oeaao yxcopoee cepoe o. e oeo oo cepo-epx oax, a coepa ooee px po-pacoo ea, a ocae p peca coo coeae eo acex oo. o epe oo a cyeoy oaa aoe o, eo poc paccaa, o o , o oo opaa o. oo ocoo ac oeo cyeoo o ao apoe, cepeaop oeae pe oea, ooee ooe, oopx epac apo, epooe pe, ooae poe pye ee oee cyeoo o pe ceaca ecpoa. oce pee cex apoe cepeaop o opeeeo ccee opaae cyeoo ooceo ace ocoeoce aoo e, o oop o accoa. Bo pe oo opoca cye oe ae yo oo pee co oe.

eec ecoo cce ocea eppea oaaee eca Popaxa. cy aoee ox aex oaae aeop oo oec oaa, eepa, coepae.

oaa yaae a ac a, c oopo cye accopye co oe: coyec p oeax ce o, aa-o oa ea, eoa ea, ea ac apo aa-o oa eoo eoo yaco.

eepa oea a opy, e, oeo ee. Xo, oeo, epo e cao o cee e aoo e, ce e ocpe cye a a yeoc oea oocc o aeop. Byp x aeop pooc oee opoa epea. Hapep, ee eoea, ee ooo, a ae acpaoe eoyeeoe ee ocaec oeo. Too a e oeo oe ocpac a peca yy, ecypy, eopeeey opy, cae, oao cepo eoe ocpoeee ea Coepae. Tpaoa coepa eec acoc o cce opeee oaaee, o eoope ocoe aeop coyc ocoo.

a cpe x c eoeece yp x ea ( pae eoeecoo ea), yp ox x ea, aaoecoe cpoee. py poo pee aeop oaaee oo oec eoyeee oe, pace, eopaece ap, oaa, a po, peeoce c, cecyae oe, co. oaae oypoc aco opeeec a ocoe ooceo aco pax oeo cpe e ooe.

Oco aopo, apy eppea oaaee eca Popaxa, ec cyapoe co oeo, ecoe a poyoc oeo. pec oaao, o poyoc oeo eocpeceo caa c opaco, eeya ypoe opaoae a Xo caec, o ec Popaxa pe opace o oooo o pocoo, opae ae aao o oe ac oye pyax pocx ac pacp opace pa eppea eca Popaxa, c eo oe copa oyoa op eca Popaxa ee opace o 2 o 10 e, opoco o 10 o 16 e, ox e opace o 70 e e. Haoee oe ooee cee o oyoa opa a ee opoco oooe eo A Tpyyaa poe eca epx e. Popaxa, eaecoo eca a aepe TAT, oop paccope e, oo pae poex eoax aa eo epae, oope coy coa a aece cyoo aepaa, a oeax.

Meoo, peocxe oo poex eco oee e a oea, Tec a coece accoa. Meoa a cceapoaa . aoo. B.

By . ee ocec cooa o ec cox ecx cxooecx cceoax, pcoco eo pee ox aa.

poeypa poee eca coco pee cyeoy cep e cax ey coo co, a aoe oopx o oeae ep pe ooy coo Aop p coa eca peceoa oy e' oy cpeco e apye cex poeccax paccope oac ax ypex oo Oo aapyec o px pacpocpaex oeo, pe pea, apyee accoax ce, yxyee ocpoee p oopo ecpoa Moo yoy o cooa eo coecx accoa eeopa Ee oo epao poeo eoo ec Tec a aepee peoe, poo pee a cceoaeco, a aoceco eco paax. Oo aae coa, pae eaoee peoe oyca o eopaeoe paoopae oox aepe, apep:

Moe cpeee..., e..., Me ecoo..., Mo aa....

Heaoee peoe aco opypyc a, o cpoopoa cyeoo a oe, oocec cceye coca oc. Heoope op o eo pec oe aoc, o aoy oypoc o cca cepax cceoa eco pa.

Ee oa pya poex eo o eo opaee. B poex eoax opae aepa coyec ca pa opao: peee apo cy cooo p oopae poopoa cox epax oeo, a TAT, cooae ycox pcyo ye pycpa, a ece Poeea, pye. Xo aece aocecx cpec cooa o ce cycca, ex pye eoeeco eeoc, ocooe ae o yeeo pcoa eoeeco yp. B aece pepa oo aa ec Maxoepa Hapcy eoea. B o ece cye oyae apaa yay c aae apcoa eoea. oce oo a cye aaae pcyo, eo poc apcoa eoea poooooo oa. oa pcye, cepeaop oeae eo pe, oceoaeoc, oopo pcyc pae ac, pye opooc poecca pcoa. a pcoae oe oceoa ecea, oopo cyeoo poc pya pacca o ao apcoax e, a ec o epcoae ec poaa. cyeoy aaec cep opoco o opace, e opaoa, poecc, cee pyx aax opaaex epcoae. ec ae, o oe cyee oe oee ae a, e oe o ope ea pcyo. Oao oe opaee aeca pcya o oe ac opaa yae pa cocooc pcoa, e o oo ocec apaoc oox ox oeo.

oco poex eo eca e aece cpeca p epx oaax aoca c cye. aaa a o-acoey epeca yeaea. Ee e oe ae a o caoo ce e ca c eo cyee acopoeoc. o, o peaaec y, o coce e aeae eo cao, ocoy o aae oe pae.

Heoope poee eo ocoeo oe p paoe c ae e, epao , cpaa pee eocaa.

poee eo eee oepe aca, e opoc, o o e pe oco poex eoo eocaoo caappoa ooo co eppea, o peye ocooo oa, coo aa aoca.

7. EHE HOCT B BOPACTHOM AHE yee oc opaco ae opeeec e ocoeca, o ee cpyypa caaec oceeo, xoe ee cocae oo epe opee ycex pyoc peea oye, ocoeoc eo oee. Ta, ycex peea oe, pe pyx cyax ooa ey coaa aeaoe pecaee o cao cee, o, co oepe, e a oceyee oee eeoc, peaa cox oeax oooce. B o cce pecaee o cee ec paooc yao ocyeceoc pecaa, oopoe po e a oy aeo pa peea.

oy pecaee o cee pax pyoce yea oye ae ceo ceo oo o ye ooo cxooa. oa oa y ac cpae o ce co apaepa opeeac ocyapce opa aa apo eooe, opeoc papaoe pee oe ocx aocecx eo e oaa. Bece c e cxooo eaoeco pae Aep pyx cpa ocoe ecpoae pao oe poo. B o pae apaoa oocee oxo pe ocoo ecpoa. pa oopo aeo oeca pea poo oo c eeoc oca opoc o pee ocoo ecpoa yac. a opeoc ae ceo oae p oope ee o pao aeop (a, e, ace pye ceae o), p oope aypeo ce, cpee ceae yee aee, p pee aa poopea pooopa. Moo c oo yepeoc peoaa, o opeoc ye ocx ocoeoce ocoo pa opaco ae ye y ac cpae c a oo opaca. o ce cyecyx eco, papaoax pocx, e co aao ee pax opacx py ao coyc opaoa ox cpa. Tec eea, ycex cocooce, oece aape cocooce oce o e ec, oop oo oyc ocya o opoca opaoa oe cxoo ax cpaax, a Aepa, A, pa, o pye.

e caa oooc peea oye oe oaae, cyoc, e oo aee opeee a ye, o ae y eo cocooce oye, oaaeo oa pa pyx oeeecx ocx xapaepc, eoxox oaoo ocoe oo popa. o ocoaec ceac ae oeeceo opaoa.

o e oaae ocoe ecpoae peea, a oo eoxoo ye, ooy cxooy, poe? p aoce yceo cep peea, oa eo cxoooecx ocoeoce aae oyaex p o oecex oaaee cceoae, o cxoo, ye oy opa cepy coeo epeca. Ho a oo o opaac aeceoy aay oyex p oceoa eea cocooce ax oaac ye pea aay e p pyoce peea oye, oee, a c eeoc oaac ye opac oco cepe yea ca oe ee ocoeocx.

Paccop eoope opoc ec, oope ae ceo pec ye ocx ocoeoce ocoo pa opaco ae. Opa ae, a ee ao cxeco peaoc apae ae ec opoc.

O pepo copeeoo ocoo opoca, ao peeoo opaoa, ec opo epee poe My. O peaae a opao opeee poe p pyoo ocye p yao ocypoa. a eoa coppoaa a ocoe aaa cex oe poe o 4000 capeacco, cop oee, ece p ocypoa pyx coo. Meoa ee epe op, peaaee cooeceo yeo cpex acco, capeacco, cyeo oee pocx. B op capeacco cyeo oee e ae poe, a opoe ecoe pae, oxo yco , oecea eeoc aoc, coao-cxooece oce ooe, paee, yxaae, cec, ea, o, ce, opa pe, ooee yee oe, yyee (paoa pooee opaoa), popa a eoa oye. Oyoae ae o peyaax cooa o eo oop o ee eoc. ae oaa, o c oo o eo yaec o.20 o 30 poe, xc pa, coa apye y yaxc oye oee.

Ee o opoco aoo a, po aoc oo 911 acco, ec opo epee poe oo cy ecpoa CA. O coco 167 aa, oope cpypoa ceye pae: a) o oa;

) oce ooa o;

) o cee;

) xopoe ooe c py ;

) oe e B opoce cooa epec pe ca oeo: a oe cae pao e apaa, paep oopx cooecye cee aoc ao poe cyeoo.

aoe caae (apep, Xoe a, a ye yc B oecex eax e a epo ece) aaaec pe apaa pyo, oope oy oaa, a oocec yepaeoy.

Ec paccapaee eo a oy cax cepex ax poe, oee oo apa.

Ec paccapaee eo a ay ac poey, oee cpe apa Ec paccapaee eo a eaey ac, cyay poey, oee ae apa Ec caee, o caae e ee a aoo ooe, oee pyo.

o aoy paeo pyooce opocy poc ae poee oeo eca opox poe, o oop oe cocae ya po oaaee yaxc.

Ee oo eoo, peeo p cxoaoceco oceoa ee ooo opaca, ec ye yoac e ( 4) aopc cxooec opoc (CPI).

Ha ocoe aopx cceoa P. eea eo oe coa p ocx opoco, oopx aoee ece 16-aop oc opoc (16 PF). Bapa oo opoca papaoa oo o o 18 e (oc opoc cpex capx acco), o 8 o 12 e (oc opoc aao o). cxoa opa oo opoca ae oaaee ax coc oc, a ayoc opoc, cpooc caoyepeoc, pooc pepoc, oepoc oopeoc.

B oco oac, oay, ca c cyo papao ceecoo ecpoa, aoee aeaoo pee apoo opaoa, ca eo, ooaaee a coaoe ayee, epa oee, oa oee Moo pec ec ec cceoa oca xapaepa ec caaa papaaac a cceoaeca eoa, o ae pcocoe paeco cxoaoc. B eoax oo a coyc aoe e oe cya oceeo oo.

Tec oy pooc e peypo aaaex opox pao, a ac oaeo aa yea, xoe a yypo pyox pax.

Tec peaaac epe ax oeeecx xapaepc, a ecoc, caooaae apy. oco eco CFI, a oaaoc, oaa xopoe paeo cocooc, po aaoo yax pa oaaex. x aeoc oe yoeopea Co e ao, a oce opoc, opaoa coyc poee eo, apep cpecca eoa. poa pacaa aeop poex eo ae ce ooo oo op ooceo coooo caopae. Caec, o aoap oyeo oooc pa ce peeo e oo oapyae co yee, oeeece ooae apye, o ae ocooaec o x B x cyax ae ceo pec pcoae eapaoe pecaee p oo pye.

pepo ee ooo oxoa opaco cxoaoce ec Tec oa oce Paee ox, opepoa a cya oye oe. Tec Paee ox (aa aopa oeo poeo eoo coco aa, ao oopx pecaea apa ex ox Peey oopc, o y eo ec ooe, oopoe o , o ooe eae ce o, o eae ca peeo. ae cepeaop o oepe yaae a ay apy ox, oca x oeee, poc peea caa, aoe ox pae ey. Boee aa e peye epax oeo. Peeo yaae a oo yx ox (yaoe peee), aepae cooecy pyoe (pyooe peee).

Meoa coco 60 aa, o 12 epe aoo ceyx ooeo, opepoax a oce oo oee 1 ooce o oye oe- peeo e px epea o ycexo oe.

2 Caoaeoc- peeo ce a eceoo, o oe ycea oe 3 eeycpeeoc- peeo oe ca cee e aa pyoocoac coe oee.

4 Opya eeoc: peeo ae, a oc x ee, oaea cooecy cpeca.

5. Caooea: peeo oe oe co paoy oe. Xo ec ocpoe o y yeoo opa yx aepa, cocae oaae e oc ocoo xapaepa, ocoy capee oe o aoy aa oocc oo o e epe xapaepa.

poee op ee ecoo caa epoacco oye a pepeeao ope, cocoe oee 5000 ee oyee op a paeoe opaeoe ceee pacpeee oaaee, ocoeo opo epoacco, o acae peoo eaeaoc ooox ae oaaee eca. B ao e ec, o-oy, oe poe ee c o oae. Paee ooo, oopx ec epoaao peaaac, o cey aaoy oaaee o ye.

Haeoc eca, cea o opye epaPapcoa, paa 0,90 eca eo, o oeec o 0,69 o 0,92 oex oaaee.

8. HOBOE HAPABEHE B PAPAOTE HOCTHX METO Ho apaee papaoe ocx eo oe pao coae eoo aoc, opepoax a cxooec opa B aax aoo oco ( acoc, o opo) opoo ocaec coepae oo o poe aoce oo cep eoea.

B cxooeco cye PAO a pepa oa coa oco eo a ocoe po opao aoc (EM opcoa, P. Baee, M ype, 1993) Papaoa o eo peaae ye paceo cxooecx ocoeoce pyx opoco 1416 e (THO). o opac, o e ox cxooo, ec e oo aoee poe, o o e pe o aope poaecx ep oec, oppe pa oc peopae pecyoo oee.

a o opa ec, o peycapae oy aaecy paoy o e ex ocx ocoeoce, oope oo ca pepa aoc paceo-cxooecoo cayca opoca.

Cpe x ee ceye ep: ecooc, opoco, caoyepee, cooc o , coaa eoeceoc, oceca ecpoc, aopao-ocecoe ooee a pyoo oa, apeccoc, ycoc.

aoc x aec papaoa: cea opoc, pcyo ec ec eaoex peoe.

Apoa ecoo aape pooac a opax oo oo cpee o, pyx opocax (yaxc T), ocaax ocaeo pyoo oo. oye yoeopee oaae aeoc aoc cex eo. o eo ooe opoco o pca, .e ex, o oe poeocppoa poopaoe oeee coep paoapyee poeo cya.

epaypa Aacmau A cxooecoe ecpoae. M, 1982 2 epe P Pae oe ocae. M., 1986. C 3067 ouoa . Opoc cxooeco aoce oc // cxooeca aoca. M., 1981. C 35101.

Maoe-uo M. cxoaoca oa // Oa cxoaoca M.. 1987 C 155 Coooa E T Coec ec Popaxa aoc apye ceeoo oe // Oa cxoaoca M, 1987 C 194 Cmau B.B. cxoaoca caocoa // Oa cxoaoca M, C 245289.

Xexaye X. Moa eeoc M., 1986. T 2 C 270 aa IX CXOAHOCTA PABT MAEHEB OOHOB 1. AHOCTA PABT MAEHEB Oee oeco pao, oocxc poea aoc eco cx, eca eo. He peey a ooy oxaa cex cyecyx cxoo oxoo paccope aoc ee epoo epoa , opoye e eoope aoee ae x.

opeoc pa eoax oe cxecoo pa ea.

Paccop eoope a pa aee.

poe cep ox cceoa opaoo pa aee ooo, A. ee eo oe ooo a pa, oxaae epe ocoe cep oee: oopy, , aaoe oco-coaoe oeee. O oecea caappoay poeypy ae oe xoa pa oee peea oeo . Xo eoope paeo x a oo paccapa aece eco, ce e oco x ocoa oo a ae. B cceoax eea ae, oyee ocpeco poo ae a peapoae ee a oe py pye cye oe, ooc opae, cooaeo aep peea. A. Aaca oeae eocaoy caapoaoc x a pa, o yaae a x oeoc aece ooe ec oceoa, ocyece eapa py ec ceaca, p eopaoc oee pa epo .

peyeco pax eoo ae a e o pocoo pcopa e ax-o aeo o cpyypoo ae, opoo pacapoaoo apaee poooo c opeeeo e, oaao paoax . e, paecoo cxooa A. oo o eo ae oee aece aa opa o pa, . e o oco eoec pe coae opeeeo cxe ae aoee apoe pa. e ao apo pa, o e . e, coae eoo pecae o peee a a opeo pee. pooa epe ec aee o aao cxee, oo cy o xoe pa aea.

Coepae apoe pa ae ceye copo: a) ecoe pae (peeo oe epeopaac co c a o, oae ooy, e po opeyy, oe ce e oep opooe pe ..);

) oee pae pe (oae opaey ey pe, pcyaec, axae ..);

) coaoe pae pa (aec oee co poc, y, oapye, oae pyy pocoy ..);

) caocoeoc eacoc (coo pee peeo epo opcoa oe aa ca ce);

) oeee (eoce, oeppyec a 12 y, aec peooe pyoc, eo aec py ..).

Bopa eoeca ocoeoc poecca ae aaa . e eoo opeex po, ooaa peypoc ae o apaee oee pee opea, paax oopx peycope coceo aee aoee apoe pa. O oo oxoo ec aee ooo peea eee ox 30 y c ac eae epe 30 ceye epa. Taa poeypa ae oooc occ o, o eae peeo, pao cpoa o.

Ec a ocox cocoa oea opa, oopy a apo pa. Bo-epx, oo cpaa oaae peea co cpe oaae ee aoo opaca. Taoe cpaee oae, ocae peeo, axoc a cpee ypoe e xopoo pa coeo opaca.

pyo coco eppea opa cpaee ee c peyaa, oye peeo oee pae opace. a cocoa cpae e ca py pya coyc e oo cxooa, o ooea, cxoepooa, eapa py ceaca.

Bpoc, paoa c e, yo ye coooc op pa c ya ocoeoc peea. Bao co peca cee aao oaaee o aoy-o cocy apaepy, xapaep ee pax opaco, o oo o cy o ope aoo pa.

. e yaae coe e Paoa c ae e, o, poe apoe pa pao co opo aea, ec oeco ax e apoe pa pao c e, e ee pa.

Ee o pepo cooa eoa ae c cceoa e ee oe. a pa aee e peycapa p cooaex cpeca oe pa peea opace o yx ece o yx c ooo e:

ay yceoo pa, ay oopoo pa, ac oee aea.

aa yceoo pa e ae y, a ocpe, a, oyaeoc, peee poe, oaa, aa coecoo oe poceee acpaoe ee.

aa oopoo pa epe apooope cocooc, ae, a yee ce, co, xo oac o cyea, a ae yee a pya aa. B aeeco opace pae aex y, aypoae c peea pa ay po pa ycex poecco.

ac oee peaae oe pax aceo pa oc peea, ax, a ooaoe coaoe oeee, oe a, acooc eeycpeeoc.

H. e yaae, o a, a ce, peaaee ecpoa aee, o cooac a opao oe eyeo ypo pa, a e pecaa oceyeo pa cocooce. Ha pae cocooce co pae opace oaae e aoe opooe co pax aopo, o pecaae a e epo pee oaaec aoe. Oao a eca oe paeo pacoaa cecopx epooecx apye, ooax paccpoc opaex opyae cpe.

Ee o apao a pa c e oxao o oee, o paccao a oee po opaco aao, c a aex ye H.. Oepeoo, oope ocy ocoo coa aee a oopoo pa, peaaaxc ye cex ocox o oopoo oee, o p o apoe ea o oopa e ae opo eo ycyayp. p o poee cepeo peyc oe poce, ocye aepa, ae, a epee ay, , yaa, epe, opo peo .

Ocoy o aoce aee aa aepace cxoo.

Macce, . oep, . aa A. Xco. B coe ocoe x aoca ec ocaeo. O aa paccapa peoc cxecoo pa aeeco pae eco opacax, pocea e ooecx coax aopo.

C o pe aepacx cceoaee, aoee ceoey apy ee, aaex epo aeeca, ae yee oaaeo cep peea. ooy, ya aee, o o e cepeaoo cceoa ox y O yepa, o oeoe a pa aee e opee yceoo pa peea aee. pecaa oea eea c oo oox a pa cpae peo 5% ee, oope aeo oca pa aco -a pyx apye oop yceo ocaoc. ooe a eoxoo cooa oe pa aea a a oe, ya p o, o pax cepax cxecoo pa aee oe axoc a pax ypox. Ta, peeo c xopoo pao aeo cepo oe ocaa peeo pa. Oca oc e pocx opox epex poeyp eco pa. e ax eco opee pae aea o epe apae: a oe, ea oop-a, pe, pae ocox e.

ec a oooc ocaae pa y aee, a cee ycex cocooce.

Aop oac oca oc p ox ee poeccax oa oae aa e epe acea ye oaaeo eeoc aee:

1) ocpe, .e. cocooc aee oya oeco pex, yox, ooex ycox eae, 2) pacoaae opa: ae ayac axo ce oee oe pa cxox ex, cooca oyey opa c popee paee a;

3) eee aeop, .e. cocooc oe acc cxoe o coca pee e;

4) pae a: ae coco o po o, a a yyaec c opaco.

ee poecco oa pocxo a ocoe ooecoo copea popee oa. Hoa ocaoa poe aoc aeeca oec cceoax . ae, cocax ey oxy pa ye o pe e peea.

ae o o eo ye pa ec, oo pacp aeceoe coeopae ecoo e. B oaaeo pa aea ae ye epoceeoe ae ec peea c peea Ocoo ee a aeece, coaco ae, ec cecooopa cxea, .e. acc oopx ec, cococyx oce e. o cxeo ae oae poecc ee oeo paccapae ec peea a ocooe coepae x cxe. Cpe ocox cecooopx cxe ceye oe xaae, cocae, e pya oa ae ca, o ae oya a o peeax poecce ec c Ta, apep, peeo yae o cox aax, epepa x acoa po B eee epx yx e , oope . ae aa cecooop epoo, pae peea poxo p ca, a ao oopx o paoy ocyecec poecc oa pa. pe a o a pa ocoaec a peecye ca ae eoope paee coppoaxc cocooce. B o epo ee peea pecae eo ecx.

Ha epo ca cecooopoo epoa peeo oaae oo poe peeca: o oe coca, a pya oa, ce a yc oea, peapoa a y.

Ha opo ca yyaec oopa, oae aoece ey pa peeca. Hapep, oo aee oe coca co ae ece, oopoe e ec poe peeco.

Ha pee ca cecooopoo epoa peeo capaec po aepecoae eo eae, opepyc p o a ee e. Peeo, apep, oe cya o opeye, o yca aaee e y.

Ha eepo ca e oy ooppoa co cecooope cxe oce ex ee. Ta, apep, oy epoo oa a capaec op py opo, o oca pyy, oopy y eo a aax ya oo B aae opoo oa peeo epexo a y ca, oopa xapaepyec ooee ox cecooopx cxe. B opace oyopa e aee, ye o poa epecy pyy, ocapaec ee oca, caaa pyo, o oepe eyay, c oo a. cooae a ec oo cecooopo cxeo, c oo oopo peeo ocae eao e.

Ha ocee, eco, ca e oy coaa oe cxe, ceo ccey oe peca cee peya cox ec. Ec peeo xoe oca o-o, o e oe cea o -a oo, o pee e coo, o pe cy, cae a eo ocae eoxoy e.

Ha o e ca peeo epexo o pee aa eoo po oo ocooy cepepoa c oeo, cceoa cpec cocoo pee aa.

Ocoa eoooeca ycaoa . ae coco o, o epo ppoo pa peea ec ype ay, pae ecx cecooopx cxeax. a ae opepoa a coepae, ocoy oecea aeceoe ocae oo, o eceoc oe ea peeo.

a . ae poo coyc opaco cxoo aece caappoax a, oopx ocee aoo-o ypo eooo e yceoo poxoe oee pax ao.

2. AHOCTA PABT OOHOB ye ocoeoce pa ooo coyc paoopae eo, o ce a pa, ocyaec e. Ta, eo ae oy pec oee cape opace. O peca coo a opa, ocoy peoaaec, o pae poxo p ceyx py a pyo ca, oope oy aeceo oca. a ae peaae a opao ye oo, a e oco cep peea oa e oee o opa apaepa o ypo ecoP^oceoae ae eec paoa o coa aocecoo oeca, ocoaoo a eo eop peaaeoo aoc cxoo pa ee paoo opaca.

Bce aocece eo, papaoae ooo, o pec yao eo pya ee, ocea ec ca e o oeo pao. a pao, ec ooo pec yco e eco coe. oa oe aa oy cooac apaa yaa (p yco pocx ec c ).

p ye ooo aocpoa oy oepac cae pae ace pa o oopoo o ocoo.

Ta, apep, cyecy ceae a, ycaaae coay peoc ee, cocooc x caocoeoy yoeope pocex opeoce, ye aapoac paoopa yco opyae cpe. ocaoo eco ec aa Bae, peaaea ye cocooce peea ocya ce pa a ce oeceoc (a aa poa ae oceoa yceo ocax ee pocx). Oa coep 117 aa, cpypoax o pa opac ypo ae 8 oace oee' oee caoocyae, caoocyae o pe e, p oea, caopey, a oe, peoaee a, ocoeoc oop, coaa. ae ceo ae, oyaee c oo o a, coyc aocpoa yceo ocaoc p pee o oee oceyeoo eee ypee epa.

oee oe o pee coa ec aa aaoo oee (ABC), papaoaa oeo aepaco accoa o ye yceo eooeoc. Oa oe pec ye ooax ax-o pyx apye cx a aa coao peoc Bae, oa ocoaa a aex a oeee oceyex oe aoc e oo cxooo, o eaoo, poe, paa ce, c e oapye peeo. aa aaoo oee coco yx ace. epa ae oace oee, ax a:

caoocyae (ea, yae, ea, e , oeae, oee caoocyae);

ecoe pae (cecopoe, oopoe);

xocea eeoc (opaee c ea, yee ea oy);

pae a (oae, oee, paeoc);

opepoa o pee (ae ca, pee cyo);

oa paoa (yopa oa, opeeee oae oaoc p.);

eeoc (poa, yea);

caopey (aa, acooc);

oeceoc;

coaa.

Bopa ac a ee ooee oo e, o eocppye ooeec, oxo aapoaoe oeee.

ye eoopx cocooce ee o 2,5 o 8,5 e papaoaa aa Maap. B ee xo 18 eco, cpypoax ec aco coaax a: epay, epeoo ec, oecey, ox oaaex cocooce, a oopy.

oe ypo yceoo pa ooo ae ceo coyc aa Cope ec Becepa (c. . IV).

Oea ocyaee e a, e e oe ocyce cpooo eopeecoo oocoa pee ao x aoc ocoeoce cxecoo ocoo pa ooo. cee coca eo ae, oope opac a coay oe pa. B oe o apyex oeecee cceoae cpec cpo ccey aoc, opac a papaoae opaco eaoeco cxoo ooe o ocoeocx, cax yx cax cxecoo ocoo pa (py .. o-o, .C. Bocoo, A.B. aopoa, .. oa p.). Ta, apep, aoee papaoa c o o pe ec oec eo aoc yceoo pa ooo, coa o pyooco .A. Beepa (aoca yceoo pa ooo. M., 1978). ceoe pae paccapaec aopa eo a poecc pcoe peeo opeeex op oeceoo oa, aepao yxoo yyp, coao eoeeco. epa eo p coa eo cao oaaeoe opepoooe ece a ocoa cpyypa ea oa. a oaa aop cceoa, eo oaee pa a oaaex opepoox ec ( epy oepe epe ce) e ocoe yceoo pa ee paeo oooo opaca Bee p ocox a epex ec, paaxc acoc o ocoeoce coooe ey coca oceyex peeo pee poecce oceoa cecop aoa. Cpe x ec ea, ppaae aoy epeoe oepoae. ec epoo a oc p oceoa coc peeo, oope ooc coaa c ec aoa. ec opoo a aecoa p eoxooc cooa opaa-aoa e coc peeo, e coaax c opao, xo x ey. Tpe ec pecae coo cooecee coca oceyeoo peea e c o aoo, a c pyo ocpoee eo aoo oe. B aece oaaee yceoo pa ec ae opaoe oecoe ee. p o aop eco pa, o papaoaa ccea e ae ax ax apaepo, a epaoe ee oa oaaeo eeoc. O oea, o oyaea ccea oaaee yceoo pa pecae coo eo oepaoao-execy xapaepcy.

aoc aoo a ec ocoeoce e peaaec ccea po, oope oee o ypo ecox eo caappoa a pyax ooo paoo opaca.

Ta, ece ea aocpyec c oo oca eooo oea, eoo opay eoo ape 49 eeo (aa a op eox oeo), ece oece aoy yaec c oo coppo peeo o ope, a epeoe oepoae ye cop paoopax yp, cocox eae eoepeco op, o opay (pecaey coo ey ypy). Ceae aocece pe papaoa ye ocoeoce opaoo oecoo e.

Hapy c oca e peaae ye pax aceo pa ooo eoa ocaoo oo x papaoao aocpoa oooc ee oye oe. ec oo oe, o cceoae pacxoc o e o popeoc ex x aceo pa ocaa oo peoc. O cxoo cocpeooa ocooe ae a oo cepe ypoe oy-eoc, pye ca oee a ocoeoc oee peea eo.

ae ceo aapyc p acea oo peoc eeya, coa ooa. Aepace cxoo ye aoee ae aoce eeyax ooeo oo peoc. ae ceo yac ae y, a pee cyxoe pae (apep, oae a cyx), coap aac, oa oceoeoc, ypoe pa cecooop, oae oecex ooe p. Haoee oyp CA caec aoa ec oooc (MRT), peaae ae cpee py ecoo caa (ep ypoe) cape py epoacco (opo ypoe).

Paccop aece pepa aa opoo ypo eca (A. Aaca . 2. C.

62) 1. Haae coace. Peey pe 4 ap (apep, opaee o, oa, oya . ) aa aoe x. ae poc oopa e ap, oope aac c opeeeoo ya (apep, ).

2. yo-yee cooec. aoe aae coco ap 4 y oce oo a poc aae apy, peeo pae yy, cooecyy yy, c oopoo aaec aae ap 3. peoe cooece: peyec oopa opae, aaey p, oo oceyx opae. o oy coea y, coa, ca, yoopae yp (cyccee y).

4. oc opao. peaae oe cocooc ye aoe coeae y, co, p yoopax yp oee pyx x pypoax.

5. o . poepec cocooc oa peeo ocox poox paaecx cpyyp o, yaex oe.

6. Cyae. poepec oae cca co, eco, peex yco.

7. oecee o. poepec ae ax o aea, a paep, opa, oeco p.

8. oecee ec (e oaeo). Oeaec aee peeo ceo poc aeaec ec.

o oxo pecae ecax pa ea. Copy cya ea ocoo yop p papaoe aoc pa ooo cea e a eeyao ooee, a a oee ypo pa oee peea (cecooopoe, ecoe pae, yee oea a opoc p.).

Cyecy pye cep eco, ae aocy ypo oyeoc ooo, aee poce aeaec o ec, yee a, oa cc yco epeaaeo opa .. ocaoo oyp ae cpae ca ec oo peoc epapacea, a p aa: pcoae yco yp, cpcoae cex y cpcoae py oe. Bce o aocpy epy oepe cee pa oo oop py peo oopa e py. Aop oaa, o eo ec oaae coo pooceco aoc oe pecaa yyy yceoc oye peea oe.

Oao e, oxo oe ec, oy ae eocppoa xopoy yceaeoc, c c e aop oepae, o peaaea eoa eocaoa ocaa oo epeoc, a aocpye ae oo peoc.

B oeeceo cxoo ae oeaec paoopae oxoo eoa opeee cxooeco oooc oe. Pae cceoae a a ep a eoaoe ace pa aece ocox pepe oooc ooy oye. Ta, apep, .. o ca ca a aocpoae ypo coppoaoc peoco yeo eeoc (yee paoa o opay, yee o yaa pocoo, opepoac a ccey opeeex pa p oe eeoc p.). pyo ec cxoo . oo ocooe ae yea ocoy pa ooa, coppoaoc eo oaoo-opeoco cep (opo aa pax oxoo oa aoce cxooeco oooc oe pecae e H.. yo. cxooeca oooc oe. M., 1993).

Paccop pao popay aoc cxooeco oooc oe, peoey apopoay H.. yo (oa pecaea aao e e oo aopa).

aoceca popaa ae p eo:

1 Meoa o opeee opoa oaaeoo pooo oo aeo-opeoco cepe peea ( aa ooaea e eo);

2 Meoa e coppoaoc ypee o oa (ceao ocpoea ecea c ooo);

3 Meoa o, aa aae o cpcoa opaa ooa aocpoa ocoeoc poooo a, cecooop, ye paoa o opay;

4 Meoa a e, peac aoc ye peea ecoa o pay pecaa coo oa eco p a e e oope, epoo c e e oce;

5 Meoa cao, apaea a aocy ye ooac pao pee aa ocoeoce pa poecca ooe;

6 Meoa oceoaeoc co, peaaea ye ocoeoce pa oecoo e, pe cocooc ooe;

7 Meoa yoe p, peaaea poep oeaecoo cyxa.

Ha ocoe oceoa peea o ao aoceco popae cocaec ceaa cxooeca apa.

8 peyae oceoa c e, yaec oppeoo paae paoe, ooe coppoa eoxo ypoe oooc oe. B xoe oceoa c ae e c oepea pae, ooe oopx cxooo o copypoa peoea o yaoy oxoy .

epaypa Aacmau A cxooecoe ecpoae. M, 1982 T 12 ymua H cxooeca oooc oe M, 1993. aoca yceoo pa ooo / o pe. .A. Beepa B B Xooco. M, aa X CXOOECA AHOCTA B HO-OHCTAOHHO PAOTE 1. CTOP BOHHOBEH HECO CXOAHOCT oco a eeoc paecoo cxooa oocc cxooecoe ocypoae, e oopoo ec oaae oo pee o o poe. p o paec cxoo oe cooa ae eoece cpeca, oope aa ey aoee oy apy yax ocoeoce eoea.

Oe aco e cxooecoo ocypoa coco e p opeoo cxooecoo e ( eo apye) oaa cooecye oo. ooy cooae eco aoc, apaeo a aa eoo cya, pecaec aoee yec.

eco, o coae eoo oceoa eoea oae a ce c e, cxap, cxoo, cxoepa.

B oe XIX ea Byo a papaoaa eooo cxooecoo cepea. Bcox ocoax oa a ye, e cyecoaa ccea exa cxooecx oeo, a a opaac a aoee pecae o cxecx poeccax pax x cceoa.

Meooo Bya xapaepoaac peoae eoo ooo cepea, apaeoo a yee oeo cxeco y. e oe opoaoc cceoa cxeco y yaaoc oc, e e oeaoc aeco cepea.

B o e epo y pae oep o ecy aocy cxooec cepe, oop ycaaae, o cceoae opeeex cxecx y ooo aeo cee oeae ocaoy aoa aoea.

cxooece cepeae eo Bya eo yeo aa cooac cxapecx ax Pocc o pyooco BM exepea Ca-eepype, C C opcaoa Moce poooc ooe oeco cepeao-cxooecx cceoa. eo c oo epoa aa papaaac ocoe p eco aoc.

eca aoca Pocc ea co cop. B.M exepe ca oae, o eo, peec e, peapeo ca a oo oece cxec opax paoo opaca ypo opaoa. o aao oooc opac aece ocoeoc ee cxecx poecco ooo poo cpaee coocae peyao opox cyex e c pa cxec apye (B.M. exepe, 1907).

A. aypc e ecy aocy o eoec pe (ecece cepe), p oopo cye e oopeae, o a e poo o, aapye cxec poecc peayec ececeo ope oceeo cepeae ay ca xo a pa ye oex cxecx y ee x aa opaac ocoeoc oc, aa ee oy xapaepcy oea oee copo.

, Bpeep p. y o oxo cepeao cxoaoo. e, oopa poac aoec eco e cepeao cxoo, cocoa eoxooc ye eoco oc, oa ee opooo a oee y.

oc eo oeo-cepeao oe oc, ae, a a e, po Poccoo, eo A. aypcoo, A.H. epea.

a, , o ee cocoax ayoo e, ocox pax, oope oa cxoo o e ee, o e cxooeco c, oceeo ooop.

B capo acceco cxoo, aaec ea yee oex, opoao paccapaex y, eco ee, epee epo, oa oa ea oe oe co, e ooo, aa oc oe ee paccope eoco oc.

cxoo-cepeaop ca aea, o yaee oee poecc axoc ecee acoc o ycaoo oc, ee epeco, ooao cep, xapaepa.

Bee opao c eo oac pao pee-pa, aypcoo, a, pea, Aepa oca cxoo oy epe aaa ye oc eo, ee ocpy, eepaea, xapaepa aoap oo eooo cxeco aoc coepeo ececeo oec o oxo: cxoo aa epecoac e oo oece oaae, o aece aooepoc yaex e Opao cxooecoo cceoa, ocpoeoo o y ecoo aocpoa, c cceoa . ae, apaee a yee ocoeoce ecoo e. ae oca epe coo aay ca e oecee ee o poecce, a aecee ocoeoc e aeoo peea, eo o, pe, ocp eeo pa. Oca o ecoo e, ae poaapoa oee aecee ca paaeoc ycoeoc ecoo e.

A.H. eoe cxooecoe cceoae e ppaae yoao poe eoy, poo coyeoy eco pae cocoey ca eeoc aoo-y opaa (1967) o e A.H eoea, eco aoce cxooec cepe oe peca ecy oe eo cya, cocoy ayapoa e oo oee ec, o ooe, ycao, apaeoc eoea, oope oy a opeee o ec. coa, cya cepea oa peoca oooc cceoa eeoc eoea Ta opao, cxoo cyecye oae eco aoc a ecoo ye oeoo cya p o oa pea e oo ecx ypeex, o paoe cxooecx ocyaox epo, yex aeex, a poex pepx.

eca aoca cyeceo oaec o caappoax eco o pyx eoo c opa oaae. ae ceo peyae ecpoa oo oy po pa, ecoe e paccopee ooe oy opooe ocae cya, aecey xapaepcy ocoeoce cxeco eeoc Oea peyao cxooecoo cceoa eco aoce oo pooc e cacecx poeyp, a opao a ocoe yaoo poeccoaoo oa cxooa, eo y.

Cyeoc cye p o oo ea coae ceax yco ecoo aocpoa poeee oopx cceoa cooae pooo cepa aocecx eoo Ocoe y ecoo aoca coco cope, aae ooe ooo ca eoxox ax Cee o ea, eoope a opa ooa a ocoy eo oa po oe peyaoc cxooeco aoc, pacp oooc oaa oo cxooa caac oeece pecae o ape yaeoo e, ooee ae o ee o oepa pecae, o po x epecopy oay o x.

Baa y ecoo aoca coco pao ooe oyex ax, oop ooe oee oo cecopoe cceoa ae o poe cxeco eeoc. Paccopee peyao ecpoa, aa cop oe, oa c eo a oooc copypoa peooe e ae, poopoa aeee pae a.

2. METO HECO AHOCT eca aoca oaec o ooo cxooecoo cepeaoo cceoa ooopae, o oeco peex eo paccope eoo cya.

Ocoa eco aoc o paepa e o pee, oo oec eoecx peo ooe o cea.

eca aoca, a opao, cpoc a ooe pax cxox ax ecoo oceoa eoo cya, a caa aoca cxo pa aeceoo aaa ocoeoce cxecoo e poooooc aae oeceoo epe.

eoc pao ecoo aoca opeeec eo cocooc a oe, peooe aea ooe eo x poep.

aoee pacpocpae ec aocec eoa oocc eo ece.

ecea eo oye opa a ocoe epao (coeco) oya. ecea a aocec eo ooe oy opa o ypex poeccax, cyex epeax ocoeocx oee eoea, oope e oy oapye c oo oex eoo. ecea cy oco cpeco ycaoe ecoo oo oaa c coeceo aco coyec e oo a aocec eo, o a cxoepaeec pe.

caoee ox x ooe ey yaca ece peye ceao exoo ee poee, oopy xo opaa eca, opo a cocoe caoo aoca yee pacoo cee coecea, coy pe -oco-opepoao cxoepa (. Poepc, B.H.

Mce, .. apacapc). Peyaoc ece a eoa eco aoc ac o ypo poeccoao oee paecoo cxooa, a ae o eo ocx coc, ax, a oyaeoc, apaeoc a pyoo, a-, aoc. Heoxo ae aaeoc ocaoo co ypoe peec, ooe ye opepoac cya oe ooae ao opeo cyae yec yae ocoeoc coecea pa oay ay aoec c (E.E. aoa, 1990).

Meo ae a o ocox eco aoce coco peaepeo, opaoao, cceaeco eeapaeo ocp, ye cxecx e c e oca x cca, ec eo eooo ocp eocpeceo.

Haee oe copooa o pyo aocec eo:

aee o pe ecpoa, poecce ee ece ..

a caocoe aocec ec eo aee ae ccey ceax peo, oeceax aoy opaoc ooc ae.

Meo ae ye coepae, ec o opayec a eeoe aee. Hae e cyae oe ae, o ooae cceapoa aaee aop. eo copypoaa e ooe oepoa yaee e.

ooeo copoo ae ec o, o oo ooe y cxece e x ececeo ooe, ee, ee, .e. o e, a o pocxo eceoc, oceeo . o ec epeeoe eoecoe ycoe eo pao opaa.

oo o cooa ce peyeca oo eoa, ec aoc oe cceapoa poecc ae c oo pax cxe, ap, opao.

B aece pepa oo pec apy ae . Co-a, oopa coyec paoe paecx cxooo. B ocoe o eo e ca op eaapoaoo oee oo a ocoe eoo ae.

Haee a ec eo peoaae co ypoe eopeecx a oo o paeco eeoc ecoo cxooa, oope ooa ea eoopo cyeoc yxe oa aae p eppea ao.

Coa oee oo ap yax ocoeoce cococye cooae cee o cop eoea, a aae aae.

ae o eo oo aa opaec, .e. peycapa cop ax o opa eoea. Pae coco o, o o aaee aoc oop c c paoo poa aoea, ca aa e x coo.

opaec eo ae cy aae oca p oo oo cxecoo ee. ae ceo opaec eo oo cooa paoe co oa e coe a aay ey, ope cxooecx caooca (o ?). opaec eo coyec a ooe p pyoo cxoepa, ooa c ppoy exa cxoex paccpoc.

eoca eoa eco pae eo aaa poyo eeoc eoea'. o eo ae oa cxooec aepa, xo aacy eo cooae ocoeo cece eopayeoc oaaee cyeoc eppea peyao.

B eco aoce coyec ecpoae. Caa poeypa ecpoa aaae caappoaoe epee o yao xapaepc. Tecpoae ooe c eco epooc oy oee oaae oo cxecoo poecca. paa, ceye e y, o ae cae aee ec, aoc oopx oaaa, e a ox ax aoc oex cyae. Oao oooc oopoo pee ecpoa ooe oapya pae poe ee ee oe.

Ocoeoc pee eco eco aoce coco o, o cao ecpoae pooc yao apae. o co oepe oae opoc o poeype poee caoo eca o oooc coocae peyao.

B aocxoo ecpoae aco coyec oo, o oapy e oo cpyypy eex, o ocaxc coxpa cxecx xapaepc poe.

poy pya, opeca c oe a coa oa caoo eoea. p ye ocoeoce eco cx coyc pcy, ece oe , ya, epea p. Aa ox coe, peepao a aay ey ooae cceoa ocoeoc ycoe yeoo aepaa, ypoe pa cocooce.

Aa xyoecex poee y pocx e ae ae xapaepcy ocoeoce x cx, oc.

B eco aoce pec ocaoo paoopae ec.

ooo aco coyc ae yae ec eea, a ec Becepa, ec e, po peea, a ye, eo cceoa aa . oea p.

oce ec, coyee eco aoce, oce coe paea y poex ec Popaxa, Tec eaeco aepe (TAT), ec ec a aepe (CAT), ec Poeea, Tec a aepee eaoex peoe p.

cxoo-c coy peya ecpoa coocae co caap oaae, o ycao cee x pacxoe. o oo cxooa-ca oooc ce eca yxye, oyaeoo e pa ey cpaae ea.

paa cooa oeca eoecx peo eco aoce ee co cc coe oocoae. eca aoca cpoc a oepaa, cpa aoca , a pao, aepaec acae ecoo ae.

poea coe pa opao c aoce o oaa poea, oocc oa e oo ecoy aocpoa. B ao cyae a poea cyae a aaea.

Oepaoc eaeca e cya peye ocoo cpoo yopoa peyao oceoa yoe cocex pecae o eo aeceo coeopa. oa aee oe pecaeo yco ope p aepae paoope c eo. Ho ae o cxooo-co peyec ceoe aee. ceoe aee pecae coo oe a ooax aocecx ec ca. B coepae ae eoxoo a ce ocye cxooy-aocy ae a ecoe, a e.

Moocee cxooece pao coepa oeco paecx coeo o aca ae oo copypoa eoope ae p. (A. Aaca).

1. Coepae c ae ac o eopeecx ycaoo ceaa aoca-ca. ooy o e e eo caapo op paa aca. Bao, o aee cooecoao opeoc, epeca ypo ooo ex, o eo oy. Hapep, ye peoa ae c ope peoea, a cxapa pac ae c ocee ocox ax, o e opex peoea.

B aex, paccax a a ceaco, a a e eceyx, oa aac paa aoa coepaeoo xapaepa, a ce a poc oee opooe ocae opex ax.

2. B coepa ae oaeo oa ooaea e aocecoo cceoa: xoo aay a ae-o opee peoea e peoaac poca ocya.

3. aee oo opepyec a ece, .e. e aec peoea ooceo popa oye, a ee, opa poecc ..

4. aee eo, ec e opae oee coca opeoo a, .e. ep, peya oceoa oopx aeo e, aeo e cpex oaaee. To ec aee oo oocc oo aoy y, a e , e opac, o, opaoae, coao-ooec ypoe pye aop aao a oceyeoo.

5. Coepae ae coco eppea oyex ax oo (ac eco pye ae oy paac oeo cpa oce oxoa).

6. Bca ocaea oea ec a caa ccea oeo o e. B ae eoxoo oe, ocoac cye o e a pepao-opepoao oee a opao opepoao, oaeo yaa, c a opa cpaac oaae a.

aepa paccopee ocox ooe eco aoc, xoec ee pa ao o o, o peya ecx ca oy cooa pax ex peaaac pa ceaca caoy ey eo po.

Apecaa peyao eco aoc oy pa, eeoo, poe ca e.

B acoc o ee peya eco aoc oopc e ae, peoea cya ocoo ocpoe ocypoa.

epaypa Aacmau A. cxooecoe ecpoae M, 1982. T. 2. C. 97121.

Bopoc paeco cxoaoc cxooecoo ocypoa ye / o pe HH Oooa , auoa E.E ecea a o eoo pao ooo cxooa // Ae eo paoe ooo cxooa M, eapu BBeee aocxoo M, apacapcu cxoepa M, aa XI PTEPAHO-OPEHTPOBAHHOE TECTPOBAHE (OPT) pepao-opepoaoe ecpoae ooe apaee aoce yceoo pa yaxc. Ocoae a ocox cocoax ocpypoa opao eo OPT popea ce oee aee copeeo oe.

ocpoe aa OPT coyec aepa yex popa eo opac yee aa, oeae opeee peoa: aa o pepeepoa ypee aepey oac aoo-o yeoo peea. aee eoxoo, o aae oo pecaeo a oeca oceoaeoc ycex ec, pox eo oe. o aae p eo oe oo o ee yaxc oe ep, o, cya cococoa ycaoe ce ooe ey e, o ye o ycoeo paee. Tae aa aa e Oaee coepae eoo aa cyae OPT aece pep yceoo pa yaxc o ceeco oac, oopo pae o aae;

ypoe pa e e, e oee oaea yaec eo coepae. Coc a a pepe.

ep pep a oaae yex oce. O ooae ee aa ex paeo yex popa, yee oopx ye aepeo.

Cpaa peya, oyee p ca eoa OPT, c pepe, ycaaa ypoe yceoo pa oeoo yaeoc py yaxc Payeec, o o ypoe pa oocc o ceeco oac, oopy pecae pep.

Bopo pep a oaae oo-cxooeco oooeoc yaeoc oe ex aa cocaa paeo popa, oope peco ya. pep oo a peaae oo, o ycao, cooecye yceoe pae yaeoc peoa, pee o popa aepao.

1 PAPAOTA METO OPT, AHOCTPX MATEMATECOE MEHE oya pae CA pyx cpaax paa papao eo OPT, paoo opepyc a oe pep a opeeeoo oyya a, ao, ceecx oepa, ocaa e ooo a yee cxooecx peoco, oeceax oee pepaoo aa peooee o ee ao eoxooc cceoa oe papao eo OPT, oopx ooeo cxooecoe coepae, ee ocoe peoa yceoy pa yaxc cxooecoe coepae eo OPT opeeec e oo x ocoo apaeoc opaeoc eca a opo oey yceoo pa.

Meo OPT ccey ycee ec, oocpeye oee yac yex aa aa a o, o o a ec, eoeco epaype, a pao, ocycy, a ec ec, o pcy ca o xapaep o cc a eoxooc aaa, cea, cpae, ooe, e opeee coepaex oaaee x oe a aepae c opeo peeo ceo. ec o e a ye oo cxooecoo aaa aa, a xoe ceao opaoax ae a yac, oa o o aae. cxooecoe coepae aaaec ec c oo eoecx peo, cax c oopo coepa ecox aa, a ae aao cocoo opea peeo aepae, a oopx oycoe cyeo oo yaxc, oaeax peye yce ec.

Bce o yaec xoe cocae cea eca Oca pep, a oop a ec opepoa, cea ece c e opeee pa o oac coepa, oopo ec oocc.

oo o oaa, a pooc cea, opac ye eeyc oy papao eo OPT. Tec, o oopo oe pe aee, papaoa a aepae aea (6 acc oeopaoaeo o) apae a ee ycex ec, oocpeyx yee coca ypae o yco ecox aa. ocpypy eoy OPT, aop cea cxo oo, o pecaeoe ece aae ec e. B ao cyae peoaaoc, o yee coca ypae ec ao py aeaecx a ye B 56 accax o yee oo oppyec, ec aaaec eo cxooecoe coepae, .e ycee ec, oycoae yopoae ye Ha aex aax po oo ye opacae.

ooaa cea eca, pee ceo yo pacp pepaoe aee cceyeoo coepa. yaaoo eca oo aoo: cea ye aea eco caa c ayaae ycex ec, oppoae peo e oo. pe cya a ycoe cceoa pee ecox aa. B ao cyae cea oeaec, o cyece pee ecox aa ec ocpoee oceoaeoc oee aa, oe eo oopo ec aeaeca oe (ypaee). Moepoae ooe ey ea ec ocypye xapaepco aeaecoo e, a aoe oe x pacopa cya aece coepaeo oco ycex ec. Opea a aoy oe, oopa ec peyao ceoo peopaoa ecoo aeaeco aa, cyae, a opao, a pep oppoa ycex ec O aaaec a ec. Cocaee ypae o yco ecox aa peoaae, o yac aee a yce ec:

1) aapye cya aa, .e. e ycoe, cyeceoe cocae ypae o ecy aa (ocoae ypaa);

2) ycaaae oeco ey ao oe pao cee ooeoc eco-ocae;

3) paae aa a acc o cyeceoy ocoa y ooe ey ea;

4) ycapae ooe aaax cxo aaooo xapaepa oepoa acoc ey ea.

Bea cooyoc ycex ec cocae ocoy ocpypoa eo OPT. Coppo-aoc aoo ec poepec oe cyeco. B ece, o oopo e pe, ax cyeco epe (o cy ooaex ec): Beee cyeceoo, eep , Ha ooy, caoee oeca.

Papao eca oe yepe, o ec oe aepa, oop pepeeae cceyeoo yeoo coepa. C o e a poeea aaoa ecox aa. Oa aa ce cee o ceax, ocoeocx aa, x peeo coepa (.e. ae e pecae aae: aocae pae ae oo o e e), ax aoo oe ooe ey ea, xo ycoe aa. aee opeec pep ye ec ao aa, .e. o eco, oopoe ooc aae aoo a oo yee aea. Ta opao, aa cyeco e ce ocoe aa, pecaee yeo popae. p papaoe eo OPT ec oopax aa oepy eoop ee, ca c ee yco cyoo aepaa.

Hapep, aa eo OPT cy aepao c ae ee coepa cpyyp aa, oope o oy yaxc cooa coec y x coco opea aepae cyee o. B yco aa oc oaoe coe ae, cxoa eca .. Bce ecyecee, ee o ooe coceo aeaecoy coepa aa ae ocyec y ya, peaaeoo acpoa ca, .e ooe ey ea, cpyee aoo oe opeeeoo a Becee aa cyoo aepaa ooe opee, acoo cooecye cee coppoaoc yceoo ec ycaoeoy pep. Ec ye a e oae peye yce ece, o e cyee peooe eaeae coco opea yeo aepae Bce o co poeocppye eoa OPT.

pee opa aa cex epex cyeco paccapaeoo OPT c yaae coepaex oaaee x oe Cyec Beee cyeceoo. B eo xo aa ceyeo a.

cao, aoe eex (A, , B, ) yco ec cyece opeee xapaepa ypae, oopoe ceye coca^ ao aae.

aa o ycy a ao oe o a 15 e (A), o ye a a o cpoa () ao e oo o a, o yc cepx aa ee a (B), a a eeeo yca o 2 a cepx aa (). Coo a oe yc ao o ay?

paoe oee aa peoaae, o yac opepyec a ycoe, yaaee a ooee ey ea (ycoe B): Oe yeo cepx aa poy a 6 a.oe aooo oea. aoe ycoe ec e e xapaepa ypae, oa a yco A, ,, o coepa cee opeeey aeaecy -opa, opee oex aepaecx pae, o e ypae eo.

Cyec eep . B eo e aa a: a epe aa;

p ooo a, oa pyoo, .e. , oocc aaa pyoo a. Opee, aa aa (A, , B, ) ec e.

A. paa paopco aeaa eeeo caxa o 60 a. Oao a ca epeoc eeeo a 25%, a ooy axoa a aoea a e o cpoa. Opeee, a coo e o caxao oe.

. o ay oxo oe acea o 25 a e. Ho oxo co ye ey opy a 5 a ao ce a p pae cpoa. aoa oa o?

B. Paccoe ey y ca epooe poxo a 1,2 aca. -a peoa y oe ye co copoc a 20% poe o paccoe a 1, aca. Hae epoaay copoc oea.

. a ea copa co cox yaco 8840 yypy, pe epoe eo oyo cpee c a o 150 , a opoe o 108 . aco opoo ea a 35% oe yaca epoo ea. Opeee oa yaca epoo ea.

p oe aa cyece ec o, o yac coocae oee aa a ocoe ooc a ooe ey ea ( py aa aaa ). Ooc cea (paoa oxoe aa A, , ), cxoco oex eae (acoc ey ae e aaec ope poeoo coooe aa A, , ) e -' c ocao ocoa ae oo, o aa oocc ooy oy e y.

Cyec Ha ooy. B eo xo aa aoo a: a aay, ooy ao: a p oceoaex eex ca, cya oopx paa 81.

A. yp papea a p ac, pe epa ac 2 paa oe opo pee oeoc. ey paa a ao pex ace, ec eco, o opa ac ee epo a 81 c?

. Cya yx ce paa 81. Ec oo x ye a paa, o cya oyex ce ye paa 136. ey pao aoe yx ce?

B. Cya yo peyoa paa 180 payca. Be yo oocc a ca 3, 4 5, a y peyoa.

. Hae a ca, cya oopx paa 132, ec 1/5 ooo ca paec 1/ pyoo.

Cyece p ayaa ec axoe aao ec opea a ooe aox oee paccapaex aa (aaa B).

Haxoee aao a ocoe cxoca cox ax (A), oex ececx e yco a-ao cya (), aaox cacecx opaa () ceecy o o, o yac pecae cyece yce ece e aee.

Cyec caoee oeca. Beo xo aa aoo a: aa cocaex aa cooecye ypae a 6x - x = 25?

A. B aya a ca. x acoe pao 6, a paoc 25. ae ca aya B?

. Maa cea 25 poo c ao oa. C ao poo o pa oe. Coo poo o c oa?

B. B oo oae 6 pa oe e, e o opo. oce oo a epo oa 25 eoe epe o opy, oex oaax e cao opoy.

Coo e o ao oae epoaao?

. oce oo a epy ee pacxooa ecy ac ceo eeoc y, a cae ocaoc 25 y. Coo ceo y o a cae?

oaaee oo, o ye aee pecae cyece yce ece, ec coocaee ypae yco aao cya a ocoe aaoo ece-oca cpyeoo ypaee a ooe ey ea (aaa A).

ceoc oe aoo aa oeaec o oo ccee: cooecye paoy oe, 0 epaoy oay o pee.

Heaco o oo, a ao peeo coepa papaaac eo OPT ae ace p ooe ocoy x ocpypoa, cea eca cea ae ce paoe ocae o oac coepa, ye oopo peaae ec, opa aa, cy-pa pep, e oe, oope oy a cyee cya ecpoa.

Cea eca aae ocoy ycaoe coepaeoo cooec ecox aa peax yex aa. e ao, opoo pao ye a cea, ee ocooe aee aaec o, o oa ooa coepaeo oepaoao aax oe, o eceo oaae oee eca o ooe pepao oac oee.

oa cea cocaea, oooee eo OPT oea poepe.

pee ceo papaoy eca eoxoo yec, o eo peape aa ycex ec, oocpeyx oee yex aa, epe aoe ycex ec ee coe coceoe oecoe coepae. a aaa peaec ye cocae peyao o oe cyeca OPT'. Ec aoe aapyex ycex ec pae co ocoy po oocpeoa ye, o p oo ye oa, o ey yceoc oe oex cyeco ye ea eca c.

Moe ycex ec, pecaea eoax OPT, oa cceoaa c o pe ee coepaeoo cooec peaoy oe yac yex aa. o ocaec ye coocae peyao OPT pecaex opo yex opox aa (copaeo ). o e cae coocae ax ecpoa c yeo yceaeoc, c peyaa aeaox poepo ..

Ec aa oecoo cocaa ye epe aee cooyoc ycex ec, ayapyex eoo OPT, eceo cao c pea oee yex aa, o ceye oa, o yaec, oope ae ce yce ec o eoe OPT, yceo o .

Cooeceo e yaec, oope e ae o ycex ec, aax OPT, c e cpac. poepa oo peooe ocyecec ye ycaoe acoc ey oee eo OPT .

' p coocae oe cyeco OPT, a ae eo OPT eo c py eoa oo coy -oe (oe pcoa xooecx ax) a oa eo aaa cepeax ax oooo xapaepa (c. ay XIV).

Coocaee eo OPT e oe opaac paccopee oeo oppe, ocoy o oe e oop o pax coae pacxoe. Boae eoxooc aeceoo aaa paccoacoa. o peoaae opaee xapaep ocoeoc oe eo OPT oe yac x pya.

Ceaoy aay oea ae ae yaxc, oope, ae eoop pecaex eoax OPT yce ec, ce e o c co peyao. ye paoep peoo, o ycex oe aa () ec oe eocpeceo ace o oo, yaec ae o yceoe ece, oop o e ae, py ec x coea. oeca yceoo ec ao cyae caa c epeopypoae yco aa, c epecpoo ycex ec pee aa. B cceoa aeaecoo OPT, apep, e poaapoa cya, oopo oe pe o oeca.

o peyaa eo aeaecoo OPT yac aee y ycex ec eee cyeceoo ycaoee oeca. Ey peaa ycao, aoe pex ypae aae cocaeo pao.

ac oe aae cey opao. O ee yco ao ey aa ocoae ypaa cocae ypaee (eee cyeceoo), ae oceoaeo coocae oyeoe ypaee c pe peoe apaa (ycaoee oeca) e ca pao oe opooe aae.

Bece c e ayaa x ycex ec o ooe aoy aa pecae coo eoo oeco ae coco pee.

Opea a aa xapaepy eo ypae ooa copa oy oca. Ho oo ceoao cooa ycee ec axoe aao opeee acca, a -o yac e aee.

oeca ec aaac o, o yac aee e ec, oop o e aee, py, oo cpac c aae.

Aa paccoacoa oe eo OPT ooe cceoae pcye yac coco oe aa oe, acoo coco oea aaa yceoo pa oac aea.

op co coepae cpyyp xapaepca cooecye opeo cya oye ooy oe cy oepa cpeco opo oe peyao oye. Papaoa cceoae ax eco cea ca c peee ayax yeo-opaoaex aa. C oo eo OPT ye cxoo oy oee oaae yceoo pa ooe ex paeo oye, oope coooc c e, ey peoa oo popa. Aa oe eca ooe oaoa pacp eoca poe oo-cxooeco yeo oooe oo, x yceo pa, opee apaee coepae oppeox oec. pepao-opepoaoe ecpoae oe cy a o ooeo opao c yopoa cce opaoa. peee eo OPT ooe , cooecy ocyecee yac ycee ec oe peeoo aepaa, caaec y yaxc peea opea e. e cyao ep o papao eo OPT a eoxooc yyeoo cxooecoo aaa pyoce eocao yceoo pa yaxc, cax c ycoee aox yex ye peo ceo eeoc opex oacx peeoo coepa.

2. AHOCTA PABT ECTECTBEHHOHAHOO MEH Copeea cxooeca aoca pacoaae ocaoo o apceao eo oe coppoaoc aeaecoo e, o e a pe peye apapae, a ae cecoo execoo e. o cao c ocaoo cceoaoc poe coepa cpyyp ax o e.

Ocyce o eaeo pee eo, ocex aoce coppoaoc ececeoayoo e, o cao, a oeaec epaype, c epapaoaoc ce o poe (.A. epyaa, 1991).

Bpaoa ex cocoo ececeoayoo e y yaxc caa c opeae e a ece aop ceo eeoc, a a peca aopecoo pcecoo o. Bc c aoc coppoaoc poecca eopeecoo ececeoayoo e o cooac aa aeceoo xapaepa, peee oopx eooo oec o ec aop. aece aa ececoa ( oe o pacex, cepeax paecx aa) aac aa, oope peac oec cocoo p pee aoo a aa e peyec ax ce, opeec oo aecee acoc ey oea Cyeceo o, o aecea opa poeo cya aoe cee cooecye peao cya ayoo oca eco, o yee, pecae ececex ay, p pee cox ayx poe ea opaa cya oca Bcece oo coyee cceoa ececeoayoo e aecee aa peeao opaa cey ececeoayoo e, eo ae aa oo aocpoa a ypo pa e yaxc. B c c eoxoo oe, o paox eoax aoc e coyc peyeceo aa aopecoo xapaepa p o oea coppoaoc y yaxc oex ycex ec, pee ceo ec ooe, ocoaec a peooe o o, o, yco opeeeoe pao, opeee aop, yac oe eooo pe aay. Cooeceo ooe aocece eo aec aocpy cey aeaecoo e oe cee coppoaoc y a opeeex ye.

B poooooc oy cooae ecaapx aecex aa opepoao a aocy coppoaoc poyoo, opecoo e epea ca coppoaoc ececeoayoo e oa ocyecc acoc o coppoaoc ec eopeecoo ooe Ocooe coepae eopeecoo ooe opeee poecc cea, ocyecee a epexo c o eco aooepoc pee ee opex ycox.

Cpyypa eca oa caa c aoco pa ececeoayoo e a poecca. p o ec aoca poecca e a poypoe apaea a cceoae coppoaoc oex opax cocax cex poecco (pee ceo aaa cea) ee e ca peaoo poecca e eo yao apae, o aoca ceoo poecca a apoypoe peoaae aa coppoaoc eo oex ca opeee, a opao, yax oee pa e a pya aoca p o ca c oeo poeyox peyao pa e, o eocpeceo eppoax c poecco e cece oo xapaepyx eo aocpy ee a poecc, cpye eo oee peya opeeex oax peeo a oae e a poecca e oe acpapoac o cocax eo ec oepa, coppoaoc oopx a ao peeo ae cyae a opeee poeyo peya Coppoaoc eopeecoo ooe opeeec aeco eo oe (paoc oe aa) eo ycooc (epexo o acpaoo opeoy oec pax o ce) o oaae, o peeo oe ycoo e oee ocoeoe pax cyax B oeceo acee oe coppoaoc ec eopeecoo ooe (Kg) a ao ca oe opeec a ooee oeca peex aa (O) oey oecy (S), e Kg = 0/S Cyeceo, o opeeee oea coppoaoc ec eopeecoo ooe e peoaae cypoa pao peex aa o oe ca, ocoy aa x ye caa co co acao pa p o ocoac a oe oo aea C Bocoo o o, o e oe cyecoa pax e epe cex cyee pa eea, aa aeceo oa cye peye coe ocoo ep (1984 T 4 C 56) Boae poea oe ooo epaoo cocoa e, xapaepoo e copeex yex-ececocaee Moy ee e ca coppoaoc eopeecoo ececeoayoo e' epeao-ceeca ( ocoe oopo ea epeee eopeece ooe) ca ceeca ( ocoe oopo epeee eopeece ooe) Pae eex ca oycoeo aece coeopae cea ececeoayx a Paccopee ca paac o ypo eopeecoo ooe, oao o pae cao e poco c oeo aepaa, a ae oopoo ocyecec ooee (ec poo oxaa), o c aece coeopae aoo ooe , acoc, c opeae a ceoee, a e a ocoeoe ooee B o e pe copeeoe ececeoayoe opaoae e opepoao a oppoae y yaxc epaoo cocoa e Teopeecoe ececeoayoe ee oppyec a epeao-ceecoe (ecoe, xecoe, ooecoe) a ocoe yppeex ooe c opeae a ocoee ao ececeo ay cyoc o o oo oycoeo e, o aece oco epeex ce yaac pae accoa, p o paec oppyec ocoooaaa po eopeecx ooe a cxooeco a ycaoe c ey ay o B paax pecoo a e oy ee pec oa pec-aya ca pec-ooo cocoa e xapaepa ae yaxc co oay pecae, cpeee pe aay a oo ypoe Oe oeo ocoeoc aoo cocoa e ec o, o peeo e y pee aa oac ox pecae o e eae ao-o o ayoo aaa yco aa pec-ay coco e xapaepyec e, o peeo eae oy ayoo aaa pee aa, o opepyec a opee yco aoec aepax oeo. B poecce pee o coye e e ececeoaye ao, o ocoy x oc oc pec xapaep, o oe, a pao, eepe O aoo oxoa ec opea a opee yco aa, xo eaec oa x ayoo aaa pecoo a e cyeceo o, o yaec, a ececeoaye ao, eae ocoe pee aa, e oy ye x peoex opex ycox Cooeceo e oe cea o oo, o ce cae coppoaoc ececeoayoo e ec ceeca ca, caa co coppoaoc y yaxc epaoo cocoa e, ocoaoo a epeex eopeecx ooex a ce caoe oee coo op eopeecoo cea eeo (ecapoo), cyaeo a cxecoe ooopaoae opocooo opaca ceo caaoo co, o eo aoc ececeoayoo e epeeo o ya eo cey, cay pee ceo c ocoeoc poecca eopeecoo ececeoayoo ooe ca pa aoo a e Paccapa pae e, ceye ya, o oo ocyecec pee ceo paax opaoaoo oye;

coae peoa pa ececeoayoo e oaeo ope ye pacoppoac opeeeo ccee oye ocoy poecc oye peayec epe ccey yex peeo, peeax oco a eeoc, o peoa pa opeoo a e peayc epe opeee poecc oye, cooyoc coca eo coepae, eo cpeca oye.

Ec y yaxc ocpeco opeeeo cce oye oppyec o ypoe e (apep, oe c yye yee ececeoayx c o ypoe opepoa a eeoc yeoo-cceoae), o cooecy oe pep eo coppoaoc.

3 PTEPAHO-OPEHTPOBAHHE TECT AHOCT COPMPOBAHHOCT ECTECTBEHHOHAHOO MEH B paax pepao aoc papaoa ec aoc ececeoayoo e (.A. epyaa, 1992). Tec ececeoayoo e yaxc 7 (TEM-7) 8 acca (TEM-8) a ce ccey aa, xc oe oo opaa peeo oac ececoa. a ec coep pooe aa, ao oopx cooecye eoop acc yax aa.

B ec e aa aeceoo xapaepa. B ececeoayx peeax poe aa, peaex o ecoy aopy, oe eaee. o cao c e, o aoece oeo, eax ocoe o ececeoayo aa, aeo cee opeeec yco aoec ya coca oeo aoec, oe, apep, o aea, e ae aop e e ae.

p opeee coepaeo aoc ec oe opepoac a ee coao oycoee eaoec aapoae peoa.

Oao ca eopeec pep aoc oe cxooec. p o cyeceo, o o oe pa epepoax oee oye, peayex paax o pax o.

Papaoae ec c opa yaxc o c yye yee ececeoayx peeo. Bce aa oc aece xapaep.

p o cea opa aa, e a x ycox ax-o acpax coo ao, e ooe accopoa x c ao-o acpao eope.

a ec aoc coppoaoc y yaxc ececeoayoo e coep 30 aa, ocoe oopx e ececeoayx aoo, xc ycoe yeoo aepaa 7 accax ocoooaa. aoy aoy cooecy ec aa, p oopx cocae a aepae , paax oopoo yac ae ao, p a epeeo aepae (oo 7 acce, oo, x 8). a ec coep a cyeca, o oopx aocpye coppoaoc epeao-ceeco ca ececeoayoo e, a opo ceeco po pep aa epeao-ceecoo cyeca eca ececeoayoo e acca (TEM-7) aae. oey e y op epoc, aa eo oo^ a) oa ye capc c oepxoc opeo epoca;

) oa ye ceac c epoco cece e y, ) ooc o oe ooc epoca, ooy oa ye oycac , a epoc ye ca aepx e apoe ocy oyxa, eoxooo ope epoca Bapa oeo aa cyeca (x o p ao aae) oo aocpoa peyece coco e yaeoc' pec oo (ey ao aa cooecye 1- apa oea), pec ay (ey cooecye 2- apa oea) epeao-ceec (3- apa oea), oop xapaepye ye eopeec e Aaoy cpyypy e aa ceecoo cyeca.

aae. oey , oaac a e, oae?

a) ca pe, eac a epo oe, eae ey opac o o, ) axaec o oyxa, ) cece aoa Apxea ec a oaaec eae;

a cye aaa ca ocycye, oae o ece coceoo eca B ocoe pee ao aa e ao Apxea, o e pe 'oa ocpoea a exapaepo ypca ooeco aepae. pec ooy cocoy e ao cyae cooecye 2- apa oea, pec-ayoy 1- apa, eopeecoy (epeao ceecoy) cocoy e cooecye 3- apa oea p papaoe cpyyp eca ececeoayoo e 8 acca (TEM-8) cooa o e p ocpoe, o ao, eae eo ocoe, c ye pepeea ececeoayoo oa yaxc 8 acca.

aa epeao-ceecoo cyeca TEM-8 e cpyypy, aaoy aa epeao-ceecoo cyeca TEM-7.

aae. oey pepy cey poy eo y aoa, ec oepe eo opo cyxo po yao?

a) p apa opa y coepaec exaeca paoa, aoap ey yeaec ype ep opa, oo apeaec pacpec;

) -a oea opa y poa pacaaec, ee ee y y;

) peyae c pe opo pacaaec, ooy poy ee y y.

Bapa oea p o cooecye pec-ooy cocoy e, pec-ayoy. ep apa oea xapaepye eopeec coco e ( ao cyae eo epeao-ceecy ca). B ocoe pee peoeo aa e ao coxpae ep. B paax epeao-ceecoo cyeca ey cooecy e aa, ocpoee a xapaepo ypca aepae. B ceeco cyece a ao peec ycox, aeax aepay, coyeoy ypcax oo x.

aae. oey opaee oo e opa oa?

a) ooy o o yae e x opao;

) p poxoe oa o ea oo opaa epeca ep pepaaec o ype ep, cece eo apeaec aa eo;

) ooy o p poxoe oa eax x opao pocxo eopae xece pea.

C cooae peeoo aepaa ypca x ao coxpae pepae ep peaoa, apep, aae ceyeo coepa.

aae. oey eec eoa p aoec a c paaeo cepo coo?

a) ooy o y cepo co oea eepaypa, oa cae ce eeca;

) poecce xeco pea c cepo coo yeaec ype ep cce, cece eo eec eoa;

) eee eo poecce yaao pea pocxo peyae aoec epecx apo a cepo co.

Cpyypa eca ooe oe coppoaoc poecca eopeecoo ooe, oaeoo a ocxoee o acpaoo opeoy. o oeceaec e, o aoy ececeoayoy aoy cooecye cep aa oaoo oeo cooc, oopx appyc opee yco pee aoa.

Cooc aa opeeac o oe pep cep ye c oo aopecoo eoa, p o yaoc o, o eca caceca oea pyoc aa pepax cceoa epeea.

Tec po opay poepy a aeoc aoc. Peecoa aeoc opeeac oop ecpoae epe 3,5 eca (cyeceo, o a epa pxoc a ee ay yaxc). oe paoo oppe TEM-7 pac epeao-ceecoo eca 0,93, ceecoo 0,92. TEM-8 ae cooeceo epeao ceecoo cyeca 0,89, ceecoo cyeca 0,91. aoc a ypoe 0,01.

cooa ao eo e aeoc eca, a opeeee eo ooeoc. C o e a cyec paee a p ac (o 5 aa ao). Haeoc oeaac ocpeco ce epoppe eex ace c peee opy epaPapcoa. p o oe oppe pacoaac peeax o 0,95 o 0,98.

Baoc eco opeeac cpaee yceoc oe x aa co o oea a caocoee pao o pee ececeoayx aa. p o opeee aoc epeao-ceecoo cyeca cooac oe a peee ecx aa. Baoc ceecoo cyeca oeaac o peyaa oe aa epeeoo xapaepa.

oe oppe TEM-7 pacpeec cey opao: epeao-ceecoo 0,72;

ceecoo 0,70;

TEM-8 0,74;

epeao-ceecoo 0,74;

ceecoo 0,69.

aoc a ypoe 0,99.

oppe TEM-7 c cyeco Ooee eca TP cocaa 0,69 epeao-ceecoo cyeca 0,67 ceecoo.

TEM-8 ae pacpeec cey opao: epeao-ceecoo 0,68;

ceecoo 0,65 (o ooe ecy TP).

oyee ae oo cea o o o, o papaoae ec yoeop eoxo cacec pep.

aoca coppoaoc ececeoayoo e c oo papaoax eco coae oooc e oo opee ececeoayoo e (pec eopeec), o ca x coppoaoc. B paax pecoo a o pec-oa pec-aya ca.

aoy ececeoayoy aoy cooecye cep aa oaooo ypo cooc, oopx appy opee yco pee aoa.

Papaoa ec ec pyo. Bpe pee ceo eca 40 y (1 ypo). Tec peec ce yac acca oopeeo, p o ce po ye ea pae cyec. aoe epo oeoe aae oeaec o ao.

aecea opaoa peyao ooe ae cea o, ae ce (aoo) a apyee y yaxc, poec o apae eeapaey oppe.

poepa eco, aocpyx eoope ceae e yaxc (aeaecoe ececeoayoe), oaaa, o o oaa coo paeco eoc. B o ae oca a apaa papao eo pepao-opepoaoo ecpoa. B o pyo apae aocpoae cao coe e , acoo yceoe pae yaxc paec e peoa, oope pec ye popaa. B aocpoa ececeoayoo e ecoe aa oo epepoa pae ca pa oo a e.

aa XII OCHOBHE TEHEH PABT CXOAHOCT o o co ox ee pa cxoaoc (), ceye pao ocaoc a ocox apaex p ao opac cxooeco ay ee pa. o cao c e, o epecop ox o ecoo a oeo a e pee, oope pec e o ey cxooa.

Ooee eca ae cpae 2030-e . (a cxoaoca o epo paaac a opao a ecoo-) o aeo e ooa. C oo copo, epec aoce oe e, cxoo c yao ac o poeao, c pyo copo, oe ooe oxo a pecoe ooee Ta, apep, .C. Boc oep pe ec a x apaeoc a aocy ayaoo pa, oea eoeoc caoo o ee. O yaa ae a eoxooc aoc aecex ee cx, ooopaoa, o eooo o cea c oo ex e a e (Bomcu .C. eaoeca cxoo. M., 1990).

C.. Pye oea, o ec ca ca ec poecc ooy oey pee aa, ypoao cex cyex, o e a oooc ye poecc, oepa ee epepoao poea (Pyume. C.. Oco cxoo M., 1935 C 88).

poac ec a ocyce eopeeco oocoaoc ooo x coepa. Ta, e eeyaa ooc epce ee epe .P. yaec ca o o, o coca aa eco o-peey opeeec e a-o coopae eopeec, a oee eee cya pooo ocpyopco y aopo eca.

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