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HBEPCTET POCCCO AAEM OPAOBAH eoe ocoe o peaue . M. ypea, E. M. opucoo Moca aeco PAO 1997 1.4 86 cxooeca aoca: ...

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Coce pyoe peoae peec oey caoc, ec aop eo cae, o epeoe coco ye coppoao oo ocaoo yco. oe caoc o cyae oe ocaoo co (e e 0,80).

Ta opao, opoc o caoc epeoo coca peaec e cea ooao. Peee ac o cyoc caoo aocpyeoo coca.

3. Opeeee ocaoc, e ooceo eacoc peyao o oc cepeaopa. ocoy eoa, papaoaa aocecx ee, e peaaea oo, o eo ocaac pyax cox coaee, pae ao a, ao epe ee peya oac oc cepeaopa. Xo aoceca eoa cea caaec opo cpy o ee pee, paa pepa, yaa, a poo cepe, peaepoa aepy oee cepeaopa, copoc eo pe, o ooca, ay, paee a oe pyo. cye coe ooe oy cea opa o, a ca cepeaop oy oy oocc (oycae epeoc ecye oo cooec c peoa poeyp, poe peoaeoc, acooc ecopooc . ).

Ocoeo cyecey po oc cepeaopa pae p poee a aaex eeeppoax eo (apep, poex ecax).

Xo ecooeco pae pepe ocaoc oyc eaco, oao, o e M ypea (1969), o e oe cy ocoae eo eooe. Ec y aopo eo oa oope o ooy oooo oc cepeaopa a cxo aoceco poeyp, o eecoopao poep eoy o oy pep. p o ao e y cey oe. Ec o oece ooo cepeaopa ce cyee oaoo cee ca paoa eoo ye eoo xye, o ca o cee o a (xo acyae a) a aeoc eo e oae .

Haeoc ec oa, oa oece cepeaopa a cyex pao: o ca paoa ye, pye xye, a pe a e, a p epo cepeaope. py coa, ec cyee p oo cepeaope e co opoe eca ope.

oe ocaoc opeeec ye oppe peyao yx oo, poeex ooceo oaox ycox a oo o e ope cyex, o pa cepeaopa. oe oppe e oe e 0,80.

a, paccope p oaae aeoc cxoaocecx eo. Moe oy opoc, yo p coa cxoaocecx eo ocyec poepy aoo x? B apyeo epaype e cycc o oy ooy. O cceoae ca, o ce coco opeee aeoc eca ao-o epe e ooy ocaoo poep aeoc eo a-y o x. Hapep, aop eoopao epeaaec CA o cace cxooo eaoo. ppe (1962) e axo pax pa ey cocoa poep aeoc.

o eo e, ce coco oaa ocpoooc ecox oaaee.

oa o, oa pyo oeceae y pep. pye cceoae pepac o o pe. Ta, aop Caapx peoa eaoec cxooec eca (1974) ae Haeoc oea, o oe aeoc copeeo oa o poooe oe, aee ce ecoo o, a ee co oco cc. Paee y oy pe .M. ype (1975). o eo e, oa oop o pax cocoax opeee aeoc, o e eo e c ye xye epo, a c epa pao o cyecy aeoc. B cao ee, eo co eoa, ec e co, aea oa caa o cee a epe cpye e ycaoea caoc epeoo coca? eo co aoceca eoa, ec eeco, oy ec peya acoc o oo, o ee cepe? a oeoc oaae a e ae pyx cocoo poep , ceoaeo, e oe paccapac aece eoxoo ocaoo xapaepc aeoc. Too eoa, pacoaaa oo xapaepco aeoc, aoee poa aoco-paecoo pee.

BAHOCT py oce aeoc e pepe oe aeca eo ec aoc. Bopoc o aoc eo peaec oce oo, a ycaoea ocaoa ee aeoc, ocoy eaea eoa e a ee aoc ec paec ecoeo.

Ceye ae, o opoc o aoc o oceeo pee pecaec o cax cox. Haoee yopec opeeee oo o ec o, oopoe peeo e A. Aaca: Baoc eca oe, yaaee a, o ec epe acoo xopoo o o eae (1982. C. 126).

Baoc o coe cy o oeca xapaepca, aa, c oo copo, cee o o, poa eoa epe oo, eo oa a coaa, a c pyo copo, aoa ee eceoc, eoc. o o pe e cyecye aoo-o eoo yepcaoo oxoa opeee aoc. B acoc o oo, ay copoy aoc xoe paccope cceoae, coyc pae coco oaaeca. py coa, oe aoc ae ce pae ee , ee co oco cc. poepa aoc eo aaec aae.

Baoc epo ee oa ee ooee cao eoe, .e o aoc epeoo cpyea. Taa poepa aaec eopeeco aae. Baoc o opo oa ye oocc e coo eoe, coo e ee cooa. o paaeca aa.

a, p eopeeco aa cceoae epecye cao coco, epeoe eoo. o, o cyecy, oaae, o pooc coceo cxooeca aa. p paaeco aa cy peea epe (cxooecoo coca) oaaec e o pe. a ae cea a o, o oaa, o eo, epeoe eoo, ee c c opeee oac pa.

poec eopeecy aa, oe o paaeco, opo oaaec aeo pyee. He aac oa opee ea, ocaoc ox epax a o, a poepec paaeca aoc: paec ao y eac o eo e pep, opee ycex o o eeoc (yeo, poeccoao ..), c cpaac peya aoceco eo. Ec c ey paec yoeopeo, o eaec o o paeco eoc, eceoc aoceco eo.

opeee eopeeco aoc a ao-o eac pep, ea e eo, opao pyee. ooy a pax cax pa ecoo, oa oe aoc oo caaac, oao yoe pecaee oo, o ec epe:

1) eoa paaac ao, a a o, o oa epe, poco oeo;

2) oaaeco aoc ocoaoc a yepeoc cceoae o, o eo eo ooe o cyeoo;

3) eoa paccapaac a aa (.e. paoc yepee, o ao-o ec epe aoe-o aeco) oo ooy, o eop, a ocoa oopo cpoac eoa, oe xopoa.

pe a epy oocox yepe o aoc eo e oo pooac eoe pe. epe poe eceo ayo p paea ao oxo: aac oc ayo oocoax oaaec.

a ye oopoc, poec eopeecy aa eo o oaa, eceo eoa epe eo o coco, aeco, oopoe oa, o acy cceoae, oa ep. Ta, apep, ec ao-o ec papaaac oo, o aocpoa yceoe pae oo, ao poaapoa, eceo o epe eo o pae, a e ae-o pye ocoeoc (apep, oc, xapaep ..). Ta opao, eopeeco a-a apao poeo ec ooee ey cxec e x oaae, ocpeco oopx cxece e ac oa. Oa oaae, o ace aopa peya eo coaa.

He co coo ocyec eopeecy aa oo eo, ec epe aoo coca ye eec eoa c eco, oaao aoc. Hae oppe ey oo aaoo capo eoa yaae a o, o papaoaa eoa epe o e cxooecoe aeco, o aoa. ec o eo oopeeo oaaec oee oa oo poee opaoe peyao, o cxoaoc oya oooc cooa o cpye eco capoo. Tao pe ocoeo aco coyec epeao cxooo p coa eo aoc ocox coc epo cce eoea (c. . VII).

Ho eopeeca aoc oaaec e oo ye coocae c poce oaae, a ae c e, e cxo oe ax ce e oo . Ta opao, poep eopeeco aoc ao, c oo copo, ycao cee c c poceo eoo (oepea aoc) ocyce o c c eoa, e pyoe eopeecoe ocoae (cpaa aoc).

opao pyee poec eopeecy aa eo oa, oa ao y eooe. ae ceo eo c ao cyae caaec cceoae. B ax ocoecax oo oceeoe aoee paoopao opa o yaeo coce, aa eopeecx peoco cepeax ax, ae o pao c eoo ooe pacp ee cxooec cc.

Bay po oa oo, o eoa epe, pae coocaee ee oaaee c paec opa eeoc. Ho ec ocoeo ao, o eoa a aeo popaoaa eopeeco ae, .e. o eac poa, oocoaa aya aa. Toa p coocae eo c oceeo pa e pepe, cooecy oy, o oa epe, oe oyea opa, opea eopeece pecae o ee cyoc.

Bao o, o ec oaaa eopeeca aoc, o eppea oyex oaaee caoc oee co ooao, a aae eo cooecye cepe ee pee.

o acaec paaeco aa, o oa opayeae poepy eo c o pe ee paeco eoc, aoc, oeoc. E pa ooe aee, ocoeo a, e cae opoc oopa. Papaoa cooae aocecx eo ee cc oo oa, oa ec oocoaoe peooee, o epeoe aeco poec opeeex ex cyax, opeeex ax eeoc.

Ec o opac cop pa ecoo (A Aaca, 1982;

B.C.

Aaeco, 1982;

.M. ype, 1970;

Oa cxoaoca, 1987;

.M Teo, 1985 p ), o oo e ao epo (2030-e ), oa ayoe coepae eco x eopeec aa epecoa ee cee. Bao o, o ec paoa, ooa cpo opa aoee oooex e.

pec pep oe ecox aa cac eceo ep opepo pee ayx pax aa.

cooae aocecx eo c co pec oocoae, e oeo eopeeco a epeo poo ceoay oa, eopaa paec peoea. He o oo aa e cocooc, aeca, oope ec . .M. Teo, aapy ec oo epoa, aa x ce poa (1985).

Tao oxo poee aoc eco xapaepe o o aaa 50-x . e oo CA, o pyx cpaax. Teopeeca caoc pecx eoo aa e oa e a p co copo ex yex, oope papaoe eco pa opac e oo a oy py pay, o a eopeecy oe. paa e eop, a eco, cea, a eop e pa epa. B acoee pe eopeo-paaeca oea aoc eo ocpaec a aoee poya.

poee paaeco aa eo, .e. oe ee eoc, eceoc, paeco aoc, oo coyec eac e pep oaae poe yaeoo coca oceeo . Ta pepe oe yceaeoc ( eco cocooce oye, eco oce, eco eea), poocee oce ( eo poeccoao apaeoc), eoc peao eeoc pcoa, oepoa .. ( eco ceax cocooce), cyee oe ( eco oc).

Aepace cceoae T Maop (1968), poe aa coyex oaaeca aoc ex pepe, e epe x a:

1) pep coe ( x co oy xo ae, a oeco oeo pao, yceaeoc, pe, apaeoe a oyee, e poca aa ..);

2) cyee pep (o a pae oeo, oope opaa ooee eoea ey-o oy-o, eo ee, , peoe;

oo cyee pep oya c oo ep, opoco, ae);

3) ooece pep (o coyc p ye opyae cpe pyx cyaox epeex a opa cxy eoea;

aepec acoa yca, aee po, epocopoee o, co yoe ..);

4) pep cyaoce (pec, oa e cceoa acaec, apep, poe oopa pao ax , oope eee oepe ecac cya).

Be pep oe oea pe oco peoa:

o oe peea, coo o oex (oaa) ae.

o peeaoc eec y ccooe cooece aocecoo cpyea eacoy eo aoy pep. py coa, oa yepeoc o, o pep aecoa eo e ocoeoc yao cx, oope epc aoceco eoo. Be pep aoceca eoa o axoc ey coo o ypee ccoo cooec, aeceo oopo o cxooeco cyoc (.M. ype, 1985). Ec, apep, ec epe yae ocoeoc e, yee o oece ec c opeee oea, o, o pep yo ca poee eo x ye.

o pao cee oocc poeccoao eeoc. Oa ee e oy, a ecoo ee, aa, aa oopx cea pee co yco oe. oo eae cyecoae ecox pepe oe poeccoao eeoc. ooy e ceye poo coocaee yceoc o aocec eoa c pooceo eoc eo. Heoxoo a ao pep, oop o xapaepy oex oepa coooc c eoo.

Ec ooceo eeo pep eeco, peeae o epeoy cocy e, o coocaee c peyao cxoaoceco eo caoc paec ecoe. Oo e ooe p a-o oa, oope o a oey aoc eo.

Tpeoa coo o oaa ac e, o, apep, yea poocea yceoc ac o yx epeex: o caoo eoea, eo yax ocoeoce, epex eoa, o cya, yco ye, pya, oope oy pec oex, ap pee pep. o ao-o epe ea oo, ceye opa cceoa ae py e, oope axoc oee eee oaox ycox. Moo cooa pyo eo. O coco oppepoe oex. a oppepoa oc oo cacec xapaep. Ta, apep, pooeoc ceye pa e o aco ae, a ooe cpee pooeoc paox, paoax aaox ycox.

oa oop, o pep oe e cacec ocoepy aeoc, o oaae, o o oe opaa ococo ycooc cceyeo y.

oc aeaoo eo eoo pep oocc oe a co aaa aa. B aao ecoo oo eo capoao oo ooy, o e yaoc a oxoeo pep x poep. Hapep, y oe ac ae ae o x aoc coe, a a pyo a aea e pep, oea oy, o o ep.

Oea aoc eo oe oc oece aece xapaep.

ce oeceoo oaae oea aoc coocac peya, oyee p pee aoceco eo, c a, oye o eey pep, ex e . coyc pae eo oppe (o Cpey, o pcoy).

Coo cyex eoxoo pacea aoc? paa oaaa, o x e oo ee 50, oao ye ceo oee 200 aco oae opoc, ao oa ea oea aoc, o oa caac peeo? B oe oeaec, o ocaoo oo, o oe aoc cacec a. H paec oe aoc opa 0,20 0,30, cpe 0,300,50 co ce 0,60.

Ho, a oepa A. Aaca (1982), .M. ype (1970) p, e cea ce oea aoc paoepo cooa ey oppe.

o pe opaa oa, oa oaao, o ycex ao-o eeoc po poopoae ycexy oe aoceco po. o apyex ecooo, ocoeo ex, o aaec popooc pooopo, ae ceo coc eooopooy pa oo, o poecc oe ooe o, o oe o aa ece. Ho oe a, o ycexa eeoc yo oaa coco a ypoe 40% pee eca. ae ycex ece ye e ee aoo ae poecc Ha pep oopa M ypea: oao oe ye a, o ae o c oo copoc c oe oo copoc o ye e ee poeccoaoo ae. p ao coooe oaaee eo eeo pep aoee aea cocoo ycaoe aoc oe pep pa.

Booe pyo cya: oee co ypoe coca, e o peye poecc, cy oexo poeccoaoy ycexy. Ta Teop ae, o aoee pae pao pooca e ecoy pooeoc pya. To ec co ypoe x yceoo pa eae coopooeo pyc. B o cyae ce oea aoc oee ooe cepco aa cee oppeox ooe.

a oaa o pao apyex ecooo, oa caceca poeypa e coco ooc opa ooopae yax oeo.

ooy aco oaaeca aoc eo coy pyy oe ece oe. o e o oe, a aeceoe ocae cyoc yaeoo coca. B o cyae pe e o cooa peo, e opaxc a cacecy opaoy.

Cyecye ecoo o aoc, oycoex ocoeoc aocecx eo, a ae pee cayco eeo pep Bo ox paoax (A Aaca, 1982;

. ypay, CM. Mopoo, 1989;

KM. ype, 1970;

.B ya, 1984;

Bep, 1983;

Oa cxoaoca, 1987 p ) aac ae ceo ceye:

1. Baoc o coepa. o pe coyec ocoo ecax oce. Oo ec oce aec e ec aepa, oop po yaec, a aa-o eo eoa ac (34 opoca). Moo yepe o, o pae oe a eoe opoc ceecy o ycoe ceo aepaa. Ha o oa oe poepa aoc o coepa. oo pooc coocaee yceoc o ecy c cep oea yee (o aoy aepay). Baoc o coepa ae oxo pepao-opepoa eca. oa o pe aa oeco aoc.

2. Baoc o oopeeoc, eya aoc, opeeec c oo eeo pep, o oopoy opa copaec oopeeo c cepea o poepeo eoe. py coa, copac ae, oocec acoey pee yceaeoc epo ca, pooeoc o e epo . C oppepy peya yceoc o ecy.

3. pecaaa aoc (pyoe aae pooceca aoc). Opeeec ae o ocaoo aeoy eey pep, o opa o ey copaec eoopoe pe cyc oce ca. Be pepe oo ae paea ax-y oeax cocooc eoea oy y eeoc, oopo o opac o peyaa aocecx ca. Xo o pe aoee cooecye aae aocecx eo pecaa yye yceoc, pe eo oe pyo. Tooc pooa axoc opao acoc o pee, aaoo aoo poopoa.

e oe poxo pee oce epe, e oee oeco aopo peyec ya p oee pooceco aoc eo. Oao yec ce aop, e a pecaae, paec eooo.

4. Pepocea aoc. Oa opeeec a ocoe pep, opaaeo co cocoe aeca poo. Moe cooaa cpoo oye cee o pecaaex ooocx eo. Ta, poep oo, ao epe xopoe peya eca cocooce cooecy cpoy oye, oo cooca poe oe yceaeoc, poe cepe ae .. y c co a a oe aocec oaae.

p pee ax o aoc papaoao eo ao oo yaa, ao aoc eec y (o coepa, o oopeeoc ..). eaeo ae cooa cee o ceoc ocoeocx o, a oopx pooac aa. Taa opa ooe oyeyc eoo cceoae pe, acoo ae o pe o py, oopo o copaec eo pe. a cyae c aeoc, eoxoo o, o oo ope eoa oe oaa coo aoc, a pyo o. ooy ec cceoae apye cooa eoy a ope cyex, cyeceo oaec o o, a oopo pooac poepa aoc, ey eoxoo aoo poec ay poepy. po pyooce oe aoc pe oo pya cyex, oo e, a oopx o opeec.

epaypa Aacmau A. cxooecoe ecpoae' B 2 . / o pe. .M. ype-a, B.

yocoo M., 1982. 1.

ypeu .M O aeoc cxoooecx oaaee // poe epeao cxooo M., 1969 T VI. C 266275.

ypeu .M Haeoc cxooecx eco // cxooeca aoca Ee poe eo M, 1975 C 162176.

ypeu KM Caca aapa oaaeca cxooeco aoc//poe cxooeco aoc Ta 1977. C 206 ypeu .M o aoe cxooeca aoca M., 1985.

aa IV AHOCTA MCTBEHHOO PABT OX COCOHOCTE 1. MCTBEHHOE PABTE HTEET ceoe pae xapaepyec cooyoc a, ye aopo ycex ec, oope coppoac poecce popee x a.

Taoo oepoe oeeceo cxoo oae yceoo pa. o cyecy, yceoe pae o xapaepca cocoo, op coepa e eoea.

Copeea cxoo eaoa yeeo oaa, o ypoe ceo eeoc opeeec coepae a ye, oope ye ae yac (M.H. apao, 1963, B.B. ao, 1986). Bae e oo oe, o aeco a, .e x ya, occeoc, aoc. Xapaep ycoex a opeee aeco ocoex ycex ec. poe yceoo pa ec ocoo, ao ycoe ox a ye, ooe yopoa ox ycex ec. o e .M.

ypea E.. opaeo (1991), o pao yceoo pa ceye ca pcyy ey aecey apaeoc, paeoc o ooe pa oac eop pa, o poec pa pax o e cecoo, ececeoayoo, aeaecoo. Ho aoee oe xapaepco ypo yceoo pa ec ce e oooeoc yopoa e peeax opacoo coao-cxooecoo opaa. ae oop, ypoe yceoo pa oe epy oepe opaa aoee e, oe, xapaepe opace ocoeoc ceo eeoc, acaec a oea aeca a ye, a aaca opeeex ycex ec.

B o ae poea yceoo pa caec c poeo eea, oe yceo cocooc. ee e cya a ycex oepa, a o, o cococye x yceoy ycoe. ocy o ypoe yceoo pa ac o eo eeyax cocooce. ooy e e coacc co cpae yepee H.C. eeca, o yceoe pae e ec e-o e o ooe cocooc. Bype oc yceoo pa ycex cocooce e oy a coe (H.C. eec, 1960).

Ho ecoeo pyoe: ypoe yceoo pa ac e oo o eea, o oycoe o aopa, a, a yco , ocoeoc yeoo aee, eo oye p. B oeeceo cxoo eec eoe apaee cceoa, oaax ecy c ey ypoe yceoo pa coepae oye, a ae xapaepo ocaex eoo (B.B. ao, 1972, 1986;

A.3. a, 1979, 1984). Hapep, o e e a oy oyco pa e yaeoc (pec eopeec), ce ac o opaa yeoo poecca (A.3. a, 1984).

O po eoa oye oppoa e oop cceoa, cae c eope oaoo oppoa ycex ec. B paoax, apyxc a o eop, pecae eopeec eoec papaoae coco aoepoo ypaeoo pa e (H..

Taa, 1975).

a, ec poo e e oya ea o oee eee eccoaeo, eeeapaeo, ca, o ee o ec, o eo e, a ypoe ceo eeoc e ac o oye, o ceo popecce cxoo eao oaa, o poyoy e oo ay.

B c c o poeo ececeo oae opoc o coooe yceoo pa c oe oyaeoc. ae cxooece cyoc opaa ep, oaoe pae?

poea oyaeoc oo eao yaac aopaop H.A.

Meco. .. aoa, pa aece ocooo oaae e poe, aa, o e e ypoe pa, e e e poe, .e.

oyaeoc (1968). oee aoa caa ooec ee c yce cocooc, o, a a , ec epaoep, a a oyaeoc co aca o eoo cpec oye, oc ye p. oee oo, oyaeoc e ooec c ypoe yceoo pa. H.C. eec a ocoe cocex cceoa pe oy, o ec ypoe yceoo pa oo opacae o ax acco cap, o oyaeoc e popeccpye aao opao (1971). Hapo, oyaeoc oo ax acco eoopx ooex peocxo oyaeoc oo oceyx acco. ooy e oea ypoe yceoo pa peea a ocoe eo oyaeoc, e pa o ae opace ocoeoc o.

ceo ecaaoo ceye o o epaoepoc ooece o ypoe yceoo pa, ee oyaeoc. aoca x cxooecx eoeo ae oa pao.

Ho paec aoca yceoo pa oa a ecpoae eea o pyce paaac a poe epo oo XX ea.

eeyae ec c pooee a eCoa, o oopx a pe . I.

2. AHOCTA HTEETAHOO POBH TECT BECEPA Haoee yaa ecocoa aaa eco eCoa, aaa aa Cope, eee ox e cya ece cpyeo epe eeyax cocooce, a ae cooaac aece pep aoc ox eeyax eco. aeo cee ocec o a, o IQ ca pecac coo eea, a e oaaee o opeeeoy ecy. Cpaa co po oocea caoc IQ, ycaoea p oopx cax ox ex e py o epe eoop poeyo pee, o pe eo ye caao oee.

Ocaoc a pyo e yax eco, peaaex ex e ee, o aa Cope. B 1939 . a oyoaa epa opa a a Becepa, eca a aa eea Becepae. Oa peaaaac ecpoa pocx. Oa ea p eoecx eocao (o acaoc e pepeeaoc opao op aeoc cyeco) oee a epepaoaa. B 1955 . a oyoaa oa ocex a eea pocx (WAIS). Oa coepaa 11 cyeco. cyeco coca epay ay 5 ay ec. B epay ay xo cyec a oceoeoc, oae, peee apeecx aa, axoee cxoca, aoae p opeeee coapoo aaca. aa ec cocoa cyeco poe co, aepee apo, ocpypoae oo, Pacooee apo, Copa oeo.

p caapa a Becepa opaa opa cocoa cyex c pa oeco y e. cyee opace o 16 o 64 e pacpeee o 7 opac ypo. p oeoa op cceoae opac a ae epec acee CA a 1950 . aoc poopoaoe pacpeeee acee o eopaec paoa, paeoc opocoy cecoy acee, eo eo pace, yac ae ypoe opaoa poecc. Ha ao opaco ypoe opy ee o ya oa ea, axoec ypee yceo ocax.

ox e ycaoe ooee op ye ecpoa op ooo opaca, cocoe 475 eoe opace o 60 e oo opoa cpeeo aaa. aoo opaca ycaoe caape IQ co cpe aee 100 a, pao 15. oaae aeoc a co pacooe o 0,93 o 0,97 ( acoc o a oex cyeco). Baoc, ycaoea o oppe c eca Cope, ooo 0,87, a aoc o eey pep (c oea oee) opa 0,400,50.

oo a pocx, Becepo coa a ee (o 6,0 o e 11 ec.). oceee ae WISC o oyoao 1974 . B eo e 12 cyeco. o cpae co ao pocx ec ee ae ee o ooe cyec ap.

Caapa pooac a ope, cocoe 100 ao eoe o aoy oooy epay;

oa ceoc op paac 2200.

Oa opaac a e aeo a ocoe epec acee CA 1970 oa, a o o ceao pocx. Cpeee aee oaaee ao a ooo eca 100 = 15.

oaae aoc oe oppe, oyee peyae coocae c oaae oe eca Cope. O axoc peeax o 0,6 o 0,73. oe aeoc o eoy peeca epao a pac 0,93, a ec 0,90, oo a 0,95.

Becepo a coaa ae aa ooo ax oo ( opaca o 4 o 6,5 e). a aa a oyoaa 1967 . Oa coco cyeco, 8 oopx peca coo oeee aapoae apa aa WISC, a ocae 3 papaoa aece ae epox o e pa cyeco WISC. B epao ae a o cyeco cyec peoe (ec a aoae, oopo o peea peyec ce a cepeaopo oop aoe poocoe peoee). Ho cyec o ooo cxoe c cyeco poe co. Cyec eoepece cxe peye o peea copoa 10 pocx epee.

Caapa pooac a e aeo, a pyx ecepocx a. Paep peepeo op 1200 ee.

Bopa a cpapoaa ooceo epec CA 1960 .

Caap IQ e cpeee 100 apaoe ooee 15. oe aeoc p oopo ecpoa pac epao a 0,86, a ec 0,89, oo a 0,92. Baoc opeeac ye oppe c eco Cope;

oe oppe o epao ae pac 0,76, a ec 0,56. oe o oo ae pae 0,75.

a, acoee pe ec p op a Becepa. Bce o xapaepyc co opa oaae. O eco Cope a oac eoop a apaepa:

1) aa ooo a x ecax e cpypoa o opac ypo, a oee cyec pacooe ope opacae pyoc;

2) cyec paec a epae (oeee epay ay) ec (oeee ay ec);

ao a oeoc cec IQ.

oo cooa a Becepa epe oeo eea o pec a cooaeoe cpeco cxapecoo aoa.

Paccop ee o ec eea, ooc papy pyox.

3. TECT P. AMTXAPA O ecex pyox eco, poo coyex eeox cpaax, Tec cpyyp eea Pyoa Axaypa. O coa 1953 .

(oce pea ocyecea 1973 ) peaae epe ypo eeyaoo pa opace o 13 o 61 oa.

Tec oaec xopo eoec oaae: oe peecoo aeoc (epa 1 o) 0,830,91;

oe apaex op 0,95;

aeoc ace eca (o eoy pacee) 0,97. Baoc, opeeea o c c yceaeoc, 0,46;

c cep oea ypo eeyaoo pa 0,62.

Caapa eca pooac a ope 4076 cyex, cpe oaae o cp (ep) aa pac 82. oce caapa oa cpe paac 100, = 10.

Tec papaaac epy oepe aocpoa ypo ox cocooce c c poea poeccoao cxoaoc. p eo coa P. Axayp cxo oe, coaco oopo ee ec ceapoao ocpyypo eoco cpyype oc eco ca c py ooea oc, a, a oea ooaa cep, epec opeoc.

ee oac Axaypo a eco eoopx cxecx cocooce, poxc pax opax eeoc. B ec e aa a aocy ceyx ooeo eea: epaoo, ceo-aeaecoo, pocpaceoo, eecoo.

Tec coco e cyeco, a oopx apae a epee pax y eea. ec cyeco aocpy epay cepy, a pocpaceoe oopaee, o a. Bo cex pyax aa, a cee 46 cyeco, coyc aa apoo a Cyec 1. oec oop cceoae yoo e, y a.

aaa cyeoo aaec o, o ao peoee o peex co. pep aa: poooooc o epoc ec...

a) o;

) eac;

) pya;

) peaeco;

) paa.

Cyec 2. Opeeee ox ep: cceoae cocooc acpapoa, ooe, oeppoa epa o B aaax peaaec ,co, oopx epe oee opeeeo ccoo c, a oo ee. o coo ceye e oee.

pep: a) pcyo;

) apa;

) paa;

) cyypa;

) oc.

Cyec 3. Aao: aa oaopx cocooce. B aax peaac p coa, ey ep op cyecye opeeea c. oce peeo coa poep. paaex aa apao eoxoo pa aoe coo, oopoe o cao c pe a e opao, a epe a.

pep: epeo cpoa, eeo ?

a) ea;

) ca;

) ;

) oa;

) oa.

Cyec 4. acca: oea cocooc oc cyee, ooa cye oe ooa a coa o oe pep o ce pa oeo ye coo oca.

Cyec 5. aa a ce: oea ypo pa paecoo aeaecoo e, coppoaoc aeaecx ao. pep Coo oepo poe oap oe a 7 aco, ec eo copoc 40 /?

Cyec 6. P ce: aa yoo e, cocooc oeppoa ca. B aax peoaoc ycao aooepoc cooo pa poo eo.

pep- 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, ?

Cyec 7. Bop yp: cceoae pocpaceoo oopae, oaopx cocooce. B aax poc paeee a ac eoepece yp. p ope oea ceye a apoy c eo ypo, oopo cooecy paeee ac.

Cyec 8. aa c ya: cceyec o e, o 7- cyece. B aax pec opae yo c pao ooae pa. y opeee opao oepy epeepy pocpace, a o oa oc oe, eece cyeoy pa. Heoxoo o opee, ao yo-opao opae a ao pcye.

Cyec 9. aa a cocooc cocpeoo ae coxpa a ycoeoe. peaaec ao p co, oope oee ae o opeee aeop, apep, e: a, ac, aoyc, oa, pc;

oe: epa, y, , xope, p. Bpe aya 3 y. ae epa c aa copac, cye ac c c opoca aoo a: Cy aaoc coo:

a) pace;

) cpye;

) ;

) poee cycca;

) oe.

Oee pe oceoa (e oooex poeyp cpyaa cyex) 90 y. Bpe oe aoo cyeca opaeo oeec o 6 o 10 y.

B ae cpae aapoa apa eca Axaypa cooa p oceoa yaxc 810 acco opocx cecx o. oye ae o ocaoo coo aeoc aoc oo eca (M.. Aoa c coaopa, 1984).

P. Axayp p eppea peyao eca peoaa, o c eo oo oo cy o cpyype eea cyex (o yceoc oe aoo cyeca). pyoo aaa yceoo po o peaa oca oeo peya o ep epe o cey cyeca. Ec cyapa oea epx epex cyeco peae cyapy oey ceyx cyeco, a y cyeoo oe pa eopeece cocooc. Ec aoopo, o paece cocooc.

p eppea oyex oeecex cceoax ax peec o pep, oop peoe .M. ypee aa coao-cxooec opao (CH). Coao-cxooec opa o ccea peoa, oope ooc pee aoy cox eo oop a oe cooecoa, ec e xoe oopy coe ooc. Oea peyao ecpoa o cyae oa ocoac a cee oc CH, oop epepyec opaoaeo-opacx pyax. cooae aece pep oe CH ae a ep a aece aa ax.

4 HEOBE TECT, TECT ECTB CBOOHE OT BH TP TECT Ocoo paccop ec eea, papaoae ca e, oopx eooo aeao oe c oo epax eco. Pe e o aeax, o ex c eea pe, c eoop cxec ec eocaa, o oopx a ocpao e, epaox, a ae o ax eaopo yypo cpe eoopx pyx. cceoa x py cyex pec o ec ec, o eoe ec, o ec, cooe o yyp.

O epx eco ec, papaoax ca yceo ocax ee, ec ec ocpoee peeo opa a oce. Coa . Ceeo ee 1866 ., o peec acoee pe. Tec coco ceye. Ha oce pacooe o 2 o 5 peeo;

cepeaop cae x caae opeeeo ope. cye oe a oo cpee epy pee a peee eco. oycaec p po;

oaaee o ecy ec caoe opooe pe, eoxooe oe aa. Tec, ooe oy, o oe pyoc, pec ca ocpae. poo peec ap ec opeyca, papaoa 1914 . ycoepecoa 1959 .

O coco cep opaex apo opacae pyoc. O cyeoo peyec, e opa apaaa o ya, poec paa y o xoa o xoa apa. o ec coyec cceoa cax pax py e, a yceo ocax, paoapyee p.

ooe ec ec oee ay eco coe Apypa 1930 ., caappoay a eo ope eoopay o eoy oe aoo eca. Bopa opa o a a yea 1947 . Oa coco opoax capx eco ooo ooo, caappoaa a oo ope peec aece ae epo op p oopo ecpoa.

Hecoo co o ecpoa aee ooo (o 5 e). Tecpoae oo oea cyex poxo yao. oco eco c o eca ec, o yc eca;

eoope a eeape ec c apaaa yao;

ac eco epe cecopoe oopoe pae. Haoee aco ecpoa aee peec papaoaa P..

eeo aa eea peea, oxaaa opace ypo o 2 o ece. H. e a oooea. aa pa peea, peaaea ee o poe o 15 ece. aa coco 3 ace: cea aa apaea a oey cecopoo pa, a, cocooc aye, aao pa pe;

Moopa aa epe ypoe pa eo oopa aypoa;

ac o oee peea peaaea pecpa ooax coax poe oee, oea a, acooc .

a e oppoa a ope 1262 ee, e coe oaae aeoc aoc. o e oo ecooa A Aaca (1982), a e oo oac o pyx eo ee paeo opaca eca oe paeo pacoaa coo poa apye ooe pa peea.

Oo ec aee ooo caappoa a opax, ex o ee pepeeaoc, e opae op pyx eco.

O eee ae, e ec capx opaco. Opeeee aoc x eco apyeo -a eocaa pox pepe. Baoc eco aee opeeec, a opao, o y pep: opace pa pecaae oceyeo pa ypo eea. C o pe epoo pep ec aee eo oaa eoxy aoc. Oao x pecaaea aoc oe a: a, oppe oaaee eca eea ee opace o oa eca Cope ee pexeeo opaca 0.

Ocaoc a eoopx ax poeax, oax p ecpoa pecaee pax yypx py. aaa c ecpoa eea c yypo opeeeo coao py opaae cepy pee eco.

O oaac eaea oceoa , paeax o yype, ee a, oopo ec coaac. ooy epe cceoae caa poea coa ax eeyax eco, oope coo o yyp. p coa ax eco ac ae ceo c apaep, o oop yyp paac.

Haoee ec apaep , pyo apaep copoc oe eca, ee oo pae ae opa, ceo eoopx yyp.

pa ey yyp pya pe oy, o ec ca pecaee pax yyp ea peyeceo eo, ca e copoc oe, x e coyec opa, cea eoopx yyp.

Oao ceye c oo opeeeoc caa, o coepeo c e yypx pa a ecoe peya e pecaec oo.

a ec, o e Aaca, aope o yyp, oopo o papaoa. Bao oe, o e oo coepae eca, o ae ooae oaoe aop cya oo a coee eca. aa yypa cypye pae ox cocooce opao oee e oope, a oae pae pyx. ooy o eca, papaoa aepaco yype, aepa yy oo oac o pyx apoo, a o peyaa eco, papaoax pyo yype, e oxoe a aepacy, apo, aepa, ooo, e yy cooecoa ycaoe opa.

B ooe aoc eco, papaaaex cpaeoo ca pecaee pax yyp, cee eyee. ec oaa ao aoc o yype, a a ocpypyc eeo, pao aox (acoo ooo) o ox yypax, , ceoaeo, ep pae y. o cyecy, ycpaee yypx pa eca oaae cee eo eeyax ooeo. Cooa o yyp ec poco cooa o eea (. pyep, 1977).

ep eo pyo eco apec ec ea, papaoa epo epo poo o (1918) ca coa-ocpae epaox. B acoee pe coyec epepaoaa aoo caappoaa 1946 . opa oo eca. Oa coco 6 cyeco, ax, a ap, aepee apo, Hapcoae eeoc p.

B a aaex cx, e poyx yypo ecax cpec c eoope ae yype pa e oo e, o ax, eeyax yex. pep aoo poa eco eeya ec, coo o yyp, papaoa P.. eeo. o ec a apaayaa, oxaa 3 opacx eeyax ypo: o 4 o e yceo ocax pocx, o 8 o 13 e pocx cpex ycex cocooce, o 10 o 16 e pocx c co yce cocooc.

Cpe cyeco ec ae, a Bop o, aepae cep, ooee ao ap, ap p. ae o aeoc aoc oo eca eo oye a ex, e oo po, opax pyax.

epec pepo eca, coooo o yyp, ec ec yaXappca, oopo cyeoy (cape 5 e) aec aae apcoa yy (epa opa) apcoa ey (opa opa). Haeoc oo eca ea, opa 0,90. Baoc, aea o oppe c oaae pyx eco eea, ecoo peae 0,50. Oao aop oo eca, paccope cceoa, oocec ey, p oy, o peoe ec oe cee ac o pa yypo opye, e o epoaao oaoc. He e coacc c caa ee, o oc coooo o yyp eca eea .

aepa oop apyex eeyax eco, oe, o oca x xapaepe co eoec ypoe. B aao, a opao aepaco, cxoo coa pooa coaac coepecoac eo c coo aeoc, aoc, a ae pepeeaoc opo, a oopx oaae oye.

5 TEOPETECE BOPOC TECTPOBAH HTEETA a, a poe eoo epoa ec eea cy cpeco epe, a peoaaoc, eoopo cxooeco peaoc, o cyoc oopo ec eca cye pecae. Ceee eeyax pa oey yceoo ypo eao pecae o eee a oe poeo cocooc, eae ocoe cex ax oce epeo c oo eco pecae oepac ooceo caoc IQ, ycaoeo p oopx cax ox ex e py o epe eoop poeyo pee.

Cyecye, o pae epe, e ocoe p caoc IQ epa pa o caoc, oocea eeoc opyae cpe. B oce cyae e ocac o e cao opye, a oo o e coao-ooeco ypoe, o e yypo cpee oe o. ooy e eoca peyeca eeyaoo pa, oope cyee e a pae ca pa, coxpac epaax ey oop ecpoa.

Bopa pa ooceo caoc IQ aaec o, o ye a, oyee a pax aax pa, coxpac cya peoca oceyeo oye.

Oao oocea caoc IQ oc cacec xapaep. ae oop, pyox cceoax oy oye ocaoo coe oppe ey oop cceoa. yee e oex o oapyae oe c oaaee IQ, oyex epe peee epa.

Tecoo acoey pee aoa oeco ao, eopoepo ceecyx o eoc oo, o epec oeo IQ.

cceoa, oopx copa a, pypyc o y apae.

Oo apaee oaae acoc ecox oeo o opyae cpe, oopa ae ce oeco cax pax oaaee (aepaa oeceeoc ypoe opaoa poee, xapaep pao oa, aoc aep, paep ce, ae oae oe p ).

pyoe apaee cceoa oxaae ecpoae eea pax yypax cyyypax. B paoax oo apae eeo oapyac aee pa o peyaa ecox ca ey opa, peca pae yyp. peoaaec, o e yyp caaec a a pax ycox ecpoa, a a opao a coepaeo copoe eca, aepao aoeoc eo aa.

acoc ecox oeo IQ o opyae cpe oaae x eococo, eoc. Ceoaeo, o e popeccx aax ecooo, eeyae ec e opaa ce a cpye epe eoopo poeo cocooc, aaeo eeo. paec x pooc aocpoa eoopx ( ocoo epax cex) ao. Ta, aepac ecoo . ea cope, ao o eo peae, yepae, o IQ oaae ae ceo, acoo aeao ye ecoa oy eo eoe cyax, peoa oopx cxo c peoa eeyax eco (The Fallacy of IQ, 1973). Ta opao, ec epyc oy, o oopoc 1 acoe a o yceo pa, oo pa, o acoee pe oepo caa oa pe, coaco oopo eeyae ec ep e ee, a yceoe pae.

o e acaec eea, o coeopa pc eoa eo cceoa pe 60-e . aeo ea pcy cxooecoo o eea. paee eo poee aaec oae o caoo o eea. Ta, . ppo C. Mace, aapy copeee cceoa oac ye eea ox cocooce, oapy aco cpeaec epaype yepe, o o eea, IQ-aopa ooe c caceco acpae ae apeao, oa peyae cxoepecx oepa.

oa cpeac o ae oe eea py epa, oee opaa eoope xapaepc ' oe yypa ao oece oaae epay xapaepcy coao-cxooecx ooecx yco aepaoo yxooo , oaax poe oceoe e a cxy eeoc eoea a oppoae eo yaoc oc (M ype, 1980) oe cyyypa aa yypy ex coax ooce, apep yypy oeo coao-poeccoao py coopcocoeoo oee (aaaeoc C oa, ycea cpyypa Meepa T. eepa).

B eoopx paoax poceaec ee oee cooo ooo oa eea, e coeec poo. Ta, xapaepcy eea aec cpae c pee poe (A Aaca), oa (C..

caoa), ya oxo cya (CT. ep), oce ycao (T Co).

B oceee pe apyee cxoo coc oa opaeoc ecooo, cxoepecoo eea, e o xapaepc oc, oopa epec c oo eeyax eco B pooec cxoepecoy eey paccapac ocyac o oeeecoo ya, ypoc, paoo cca, o ceecye o opex eex -eop eoo ye eea, pooex aepaco cxoo.

6. PMEHEHE HTEETAHX TECTOB B APEHO CXOO a, oco cxooo acoee pe pae, o eeyae ec ep ypoe coppoaoc eoopx eeyax ao, oop ac a o cee oyeoc o, a o x ppox oooce. Ho oe, oo o pyoo ecox peyaax eooo.

acoc ecox oeo o opyae cpe oaae x eococo, eoc. oae oo po ee ocoo;

e ecpoa.

Ec pae epe o eeya eca ae ceo cooac pacpeee cyex o aeop oopeex pooo, o ceac cpe aax cxooo aaec oa o ee aea p.

eca, eea acca o o peyaa eeyax eco ea ee opaee ocec, a a IQ oca a peee a ea eooeoc, e ooee ey opyax e ca cococoa coxpae eaooyx yco pa. o oc ocoo po apea, aoeoo a cooae eeyax eco oax H-opa Baoa oe 60-x.

B acoee pe eeyae ec coy ocoo pooa ox oce pacpeee yaxc o pa a o Ta, o peeo oa oy oapex, ey yo oy IQ o ecy Cop e e eee 135.

Ho ae o yo oac pecaa a ocoe oeo IQ e cea oaac o. Heee cxoo, poaapoa ocee aepace cceoa oopeeo aoc eeyax eco ooe oo eyceaeoc, p oy, o a ocoe IQ oo opaeo cee pecaa oe oce, a a cpee oppe ey peyaa ecpoa ycexa oe, a pao, pacooe ooo 0,50. o oaae cooecye oey eepa, paoy 0,25, oaae, o 25% epeex ox ocex occ pa oe eco eea.

a, oea poo ox oce a ocoe eeyax eco apye -a paoopax ooex aopo, cpe oopx aoee oeo e ce aoee ao e oc yaeoc. Bce o oe oecye a aaeecy yceaeoc oe, e IQ.

Ha cee pooceco eoc IQ yaa oe cxoo. oee oo, a ocapye A. Aaca, ae oye aeao oe yceoo pa a oe ecpoa ecooo aa eocaoo. o e yo oo peya ecpoa cee pyx coo ae, a opaecoo xapaepa, aao eoo oye ..

pao eppea peyao ecpoa ceye a o cee pepoaoc cyeoo oe eco, ya oa oe eca ooaoe cocoe o pe ecpoa, e a ecoe oe oc cepeaopa, cya cepea, peecoae ecpoa eeoc cyeoo, ooe pyoe.

Be opyae cpe a peya eeyaoo ecpoa co eo, o oee eee yceoo pooa c x oo cxoo ac o ceae ec opyae cpe. ao eco, o cpe ypoe aao a aaex cocooce oye, ex cea eca, poo appy pax oeax. o e cxooo, oe paac cxooec ao, ye eco eopeeco paeco opea, cee yac cyeo o eyex, eaox eax, epeco oeceo eeoc eyapo poea o py oaae (A. Aaca, 1976). ooy aepace cxoo ac o ec, yae xapaepc yex aee.

Tae e ee oeac p yee yco ceeo cpe, acoc cooooecoo ypo yaxc. oo pec pae a cooooecx yco o cax pocx pyx, ax o oaae (apep, ae o a oa ypoe opaoa poee), o oee ox epepoax, coepax e oo xapaepc poee, o ae cee, a paep a, ae copeex yoc (eeoa, ecoca, xooa), ae , ypao, ae, op eooo oye (apep, ypo y). e x oaaee aeo oae poococ eco. Ta, o a .C. a, oppe ey oea o ecy eea opace 7 16 e oy yee o 0,58 o 0,92, ec yaec ypoe opaoa poee.

a, pa o ae cee, oyee ooex coo, ya oocee a ecoe peya, oo cooa eeyae ec xapaepc peaoo coco eoopx ye ao. oo oo, ecpoae oe oe eoo ye eoc oee, pa ye ao. ae oop, o peyaa eeyax eco oo aa c, ee yceo pa eoea ec oocee cceoa yco, cococyx oe yee IQ. Bao oe, o o oaae oe ec a cece cyax ee opyae cpe, a peyae aapoax eaec e. cxoo ycao, o aee oe ca IQ y ee oy a ee cpyype ce, yeee yeee ceeoo oxoa, epeeo a ooe eco eca, oceee ecoo caa . eee IQ oe peyao a aaex oecaopx popa oye, oope ca coaac CA c 60-x . ee cee c cooooec ypoe. B acoee pe papaoao ecoo popa, c oo oopx ac cypoa eeyaoe pae ee paeo opaca e ca opa e eaopo opyae cpe a ooe oyee. O epx peyaax pee x popa cooaoc cope Early Education (1968).

Heoope ae o o poee po . Cpe (The Fallacy of IQ, 1973) O cooae o oe oecaopoo oye, peeoo e opace 34 ece, aep oopx e oe IQ e 70 a, pooe cea ocae, oo epe 4 oa oy oe IQ y eoopx ee ooo 135 p ope 100. o cceoae epeco e, o e oceo apaaec opoc o ooceo a IQ eeecoo ooea opyae cpe. oepaec peaee aee oca oye yax pax e o peyaa eeyax eco.

Bopaac e ecpoa, oe, o popecce cxoo oaa oe ae a ec a cpye, oecea oece ec, oaae cee yypx oex, eaooyoo cooooecoo ooe. A o ep a ao cpae popa eoo oye, oopoe oo e eaopo cpe pc o oo yceaeoc e oeceex cee. oo o, ee pa oepe, o acoee pe cxooecoe ecpoae eea ee oac coeo cceoa pee. a opaeoc ecox oeo x oepeoc ooce ocopo , popecce cxoo cc ecpoa oye ocaoo ox oaaee aoo ypo a ao. C oo x oaaee ooo oe eoc pae ye ao, o, co oepe, ec peoco aoepoo oppoa x yo apae. poe cceoa eeecoo ooea eea o ae paccapac e yy.

7. EHE PEATBHOCT B APEHO CXOO Haa c 60-x . ao-aepaco cxoo oo oypoc oyec yee ocooo a ox cocooce, aaeoo peaoc.

Too ee oo a cocooce ocy cee o ocyc c ey pao eca eea yceoc pee poex cya. o pao, o oce ac o cocooc o-paoy cooa ay aaax opa cpo ee. y cocooc aa peaoc ca ya ee eaco o eea a cocooc, opaay coco a coaa oe o oppoa oe a.

peaoc ca c opec oce oc.

yee peaoc eec ocoo yx apaex. Oo cao c opoco o o, ac peaoc o eea, opepyec a epee oaaex poecco c c peaoc.

pyoe apaee aaec cee oo, ec oc c ee cxooec ocoeoc cyece aceo peaoc, xapaepyec ae oc oao epa.

o opee peaoc ocpeco oaaex epeex apae a oey eox eeyax aopo oaaex ce. . op eo copy aa c 1954 . e 16 oeecx eeyax cocooce, xapaepyx peaoc. Cpe x ae:

eoc c (oeco e, oax ey pee), oc c (cocooc epeac c oo e a pyy), opaoc (cocooc poo e, oaec o oepax o), oaeoc (yceoc poea opyae pe), cocooc papaoe oe, ppeeaoc (oeca eacoc pea o cya), aacoc (oa oopaoc oea o peaoc p a oeco c ey cyo peae). op oe aop o o aae epeoo e, oopoe poec oa, oa poea oo ee oa opeeea pacpa oa e cyecye apaee pecaoo, ycaoeoc y pee ( oe o oepeoo e, opepyeoc a ecoe oxoee peee poe).

ccey, pae cocooc peca ee, epe pao eeya eca, peaoc, ae opeeea c oo ceax eco, yee oy poopee peya.

Ooaoo oea a opoc, ca ey coo ee peaoc, a ocoa x peyao a eooo.

Ec e eco epe o eca cooac pyo coco oe peaoc o ypo opecx oce o e eeoc, oop aac cyee, o oya ooae peya, ceecye o xoo peaoc eea.

Oao e ce cxoo pa peaoc oco aeco, oo paooce ox cocooce. Heoope x, apep H. Map, . Bepo, . ep, paccapa peaoc a oy copo eea, e epey pao eeya eca. B o x yea peya cceoa, oaax acoc oeo peaoc o pooo oa, xapaepa ycoex a ao, ocoeoce opyae cpe. Ta, .Oep B.a, y 1165 oo A, oa epa, ycao, o oe peaoc c ye cooooecoo ooe. Bo cex cpaax e, paeae pepoaoy accy, oy oee coe oe o eca peaoc, e x cepc cpeeo eo acco (a ypoe aoc p < 0,01).

acoc oeo peaoc o opyae cpe ooe, oecy a oce, oppoa peaoc, paa ee. O ax oaaee opyae cpe epy oepe oo a paaeo ec? a oaa cceoa, opyaa cpea oa oac oaco opa oo cooo, oo aocepo. Ta, . Xeo . o oapy oee coe oe peaoc y yaxc o, oaxc eopao aocepo opaae oye o cpae c oee opa oa.

ooe cceoa ceecy o oo po ocx ocoeoce pa peaoc. oc oxo ye peaoc xapaepyec oco ae ooa oao aopa, e o coco. B ooe ocx ocoeoce, cax c peaoc, peya pax cceoa cxo. Bee eoope oce ep (caoaeoc, apeccoc, caoooco, oppoae coax opae yx e), oae peax o epeax.

o e eoopx cxooo, o oop o cyecoa oeo a peao oc oe o a oc epeao. epeco, o cceoa, poeee a ex ooe, oaa, o oce ep x pocx peax o coaa. o oaae, o, o-oy, peaoc oo pecaa a ocoa poe ocx ocoeoce ooo pae opace.

Cyecye oa pe, coaco oopo opece oce ca c epoa. Ta, . poax coe py peaoc e oxo pey ceoo poecca, eye ae aece poceae e, a.

oo oaa, o peae e e aepe c aooec oc ocoeoc. Ho ec cceoae, oope, apo, oea y coopeax o oy cy yxa, cooc oexa opyae cpe, paoo poa oa.

He eo o pe ooe oaox xapaepc peaoc. Coaco oo oe pe, pea aec ay opao peaoa ce, acao cooecoa co oooc, o oe, epe eo eeoc, pe oe coco eeoc. Coaco pyo oe pe, oa peax ocoaa a cpee pcy, poepe peea cox oooce.

oo o ecaaoy, oe, o oco eeyax cocooce, aae peaoc, acoee pe poo yaec ao aepac cxooa. paec c peaoc c opec oce oc, oao cyoc oo coca oa o oa e cea.

He oa c oo yepeoc oe eo o eea paoo oa. He ae aee coco epe peaoc.

8 AHOCTA PEATBHOCT Hecop a eae poooca opecoe ee ee, a pae ec peaoc cpoc o oy e py, o eeyae ec, .e. eca copoc eco aaoo coepa op, ep coa ec aoc epeoo e, e co oc cox oaaee x aoc.

E Toppec, coa aoee ece ec peaoc, opa ocooe ae e a peya, a a ca poecc opecoo e. Ho x ecax coepae opecoo poecca pe pee eca opae Ta, apep, p opeee aoo aopa peaoc yceoc poea cye eee 10 y oe ceo epec ce ooe poe, oope oy oy yx cyax: o pe ya ae p oe oaeo aa. Caoe oee, o oo oy c oo aoo eca, o cpoy ooc accoa cee ocpoy.

cceoae ca, o ocoo eocao eco a peaoc eye ocx aopo Bepoo, ep peaoc oo c oo e eco, a oex ao opeca.

Te e eee ecpoae opecx cocooce ooo poo pacpocpaeo acoee pe CA a oo apae oca oapex ee c e oye x o cea popaa Oea opecx cocooce ee ocoo pooc a ocoe eo Toppeca.

x eo ecoo. Tec Toppeca a opaeoe opecoe ee coa 1966 . O c eepa peaae aoc ax apaepo e, a eoc, ooc, oopaee opaoc, y ee opace o 5 e cape. Teca peycapaec oee cye ax aa, a ocpypoae ap (a ocoe opae po pacpaeo yp epao op), aepee ap, cooae apaex pyo cocae opae.

Tec Toppeca a epaoe opecoe ee (1966) peaae aoc ee, aa c 5 e, pocx ax xapaepc, a yee aaa opae opoc, ycaaa ooe p cec peeo cya, opae a cep apo, peaa opae coco pee ox peeo, aaa ecaape opoc o ooy xopoo aooo peea, cpo peooe.

Ee o, aoee o o pee coa ec a opeeee opecx cocooce ec e ooo papaoa Toppeco 1980 . aa oo eca cocae a opao, o a peey oooc po co opece cocooc poecce coooo epee ao o oee. oaae opeca cya eoc, oc, ooc opaoc e.

ocoy cooae ox oo peyao ecpoa ex e x apoa eocaoo (o e ye a pe e), cceoae cooa apy c ae eocpecex ae a oeee ee, a ae opoco poee ocaee.

9. POEM OTEECTBEHHO CXOAHOCT MCTBEHHOO PABT epec opoca cxooeco aoc oeeceo aye peo opoc 6070-e . paecoe peee cxooecx a peoao aex oex eoo oe cxecx y coco. Pao ocax ax eoo eyc y pao pa cocoa.

O oxo coco pee paox apyex ecox cce.

p o.acoae ocpaoo eca oaae e poco eo epeo, o aeoe eo aapoae, poepy aeoc aoc, papaoy op.

ye y, acoc, eepypce cxoo.

B cxooeco cye PAO pyo copyo o pyooco oopa cxooecx ay .M. ypea aae 80-x . ae a poeea paoa, apaea a epeo aaa yx eeyax eco pyooo eca . Ba ( yaxc 1012 e) eca P. Axaypa ( opoco). Oa eca apopoa a ox oeecex opax (opa 500 eoe). oye ocaoo coe oaae x aeoc aoc, oao o papao op aop epeoa oaac, cooa p eppea oyex ax o pep coao-cxooec opa, oe ye opoee caao e.

Tec Axaypa oca e. a pay xapaepcy pyooo eca .

Ba (T) O papaoa coa cxooo ece a ae, a, xopoo apeoeoa ce pae o. Tec coep 7 cyeco: 1 coee cpy (apae a ee copoc oa pocx yaa x ocyece);

2 apeece aa (aocpye coppoaoc aeaecx a ec, oope ycaac oa poecce oye);

3 ooee peoe (oeae oae cca oex peoe, pae ox ao, yee oeppoa paaec cpyypa);

4 opeeee cxoca pa o (poepe yee aapoa o, cpaa x a ocoe ee cyecex pao);

5 coe p (e yee axo oece aooepoc ocpoe aeaeco opa);

6 ycaoee aao (aocpye yee c o aao);

7 co (poepe copoce oooc oe poco yceo pao).

T papaoa yx opax, oope poepe a aoaeeoc. Ha oee aoo cyeca ooc opaeoe pe (o 1,5 o 6 ).

oe yax peyao eca coyec oe pec eeo opaco op, oaae pa op aoo opaoaeo opacoo ypo 1, 3, 5 6 acco cpee o oye a opax pocccx oo. oo oeo aa o ecy aop oeeceo oa Ta peaa coco oe yaapo aeaeco apaeoc yaxc, coppoaoc oex epao-oecx oepa, copocx xapaepc yceo pao eoope pye aaa.

T peoeyec cooa aoc ypo yceoo pa yaxc 36 acco. Tec Axaypa xopoo oaa ce aece eo oe yceoo pa yaxc 811 acco.

Ocoe e, oce oopx oy pec aae ec, ao:

a) opo a eoc ooo oye;

) ee eaooyx ae yceoo pa yaxc, yaxc oppe yceoo pa;

) opeeee yax apae oppeoo pao c yac;

) opeeee p oo eyceaeoc;

) oop yaxc ceacc ceo;

e) ee yaxc, cocox oyac o yao popae;

) cpaee eoc pax cce eoo peoaa, oea pao oex yex aee, pax eaoo.

B e ecoepeco oxoa aoce, ocoaoo a epeoe aaa ocpax eco?

a oaa oocee cceoa, ec cee poeoc cyeoo o yype, oopa pecaea ece. .M.

ype o oy opocy ca: Aop eca, oo o cxoo-p, o opae yo e coa ooaaee o ex oo yoax ooex, oope xapaep ao yyp. Mepy poeoc e oapyae ecpoae (ypeu M. cxoaoca oa. Ta, 1980. C 22). ooy ae coepee epeo aaa eca e e oo aoo ocoeca, o o ec y cpyeo, coa pyx coao-yypx py cooec c xapaep ao yyp peoa yceoy pa x pecaee. p epeoce eca oy coao-yypy cpey o cea ye opeeeo cee ecpae o ooe ee ea.

Bce caaoe opeeo oee pyoo oxoa ecpoa, aaeoc papaoe oeecex aocecx eo, oope cooecoa copee eopeec ycaoa. O ayx oeo, ep c a y aay, a pyooa .A. Beepo aopaop cxoo ee oooo opaca H oooo oca AH CCCP. Peyao x ooee eeoc ca oec eo, apaex a oey ypo yceoo pa ee opace o 3 o 7 e ypo oooeoc ooo eceeo opaca ooy oye.

Ocoe p, oop pyoocoac cxoo p x coa, coco ceye:

1) opace op pa ycaaac c yeo oca yco ee;

ooy o e oao ee ooo aeapoo opaca, a oc ee, ocaxc opeeeo opaco pye ecoo caa;

2) oco oaae yceoo pa xapaepc oaaex ec (epex eeyax);

3) ee ypo yceoo pa coeao aecey xapaepcy cocoo pee aocecx aa oecey oey, opaay peya x pee;

4) aocece aa ee ao opaco py pecae ocyo ope, e xapaepe eco eeoc.

aocece eo, papaoae a ocoe yaax e po, caappoa oopao poepe.

pyo ay oe (o pyooco B.. yocoo) papaaae aocece eo e aep apye yceoo pa ee. e, ocaea oeo, coco coa cce aocecx eo, ocpoex c yeo ceecx ox aooepoce aoaoo pa cx. Ta ocoeoc c cpyypa eea, aece xapaepc cxeco eeoc oeae oooc oaaeo.eeoc. peocaea c oo x eo oeca, a pexepa xapaepca cxeco eeoc ooe epepoa aepy cxecoo pa o eo cee yceo ocaoc, c oo copo, o eaoeco ayeoc p opao cxeco pa peea c pyo. oo oo, paeca aoc pee ax eo opeeec oooc ocpoe a x aepae oppeoo pao c e.

poe, oope ee peco pe c c coae ax eo, acac x caapa coepecoa pepe oe yax oaaee. o e acaec eopeeco oocoaoc aoceco cce, o oa acyae cao coo oe.

B oceee ecee cxooeco cye PAO oe, pyoo .M. ypee, ac coae oeecex aocecx eo, apaex a oey ypo yceoo pa yaxc. B paax papaaaeo .M. ypee oe coao-cxooecoo opaa cea o ec yceoo pa (TP), peaae yaxc 79 acco.

Coaco o oe cxecoe pae pocxo o oece cce peoa, oope pee oeco aoy coey ey. oec x peoa, aae coao-cxooec opao, oe cya pepe oe yaoo opacoo pa. Booe, acoc, ox opaoaex popaax, o oe ca coo coepa eca yceoo pa (.e. opee coca co o, a ae oece ec c ). B aa TP e o, oeae oaeoy ycoe yex peeax pex o' aeaecoo, yaapoo ececeoayoo. oo oo, opeeac oceoeoc eoopx ox oeceo-oecoo ayo-yypoo coepa.

Tec coco 6 cyeco: 1 2 a oy oceoeoc, 3 a ycaoee aao, 4 a acca, 5 a ooee 6 a ycaoee aooepoce cox pax. (opoee o TP c.:

cxooeca oppe yceoo pa yaxc. M., 1990).

B o ae ocaoc a ecox pax ocoeocx, oax TP o paox eco. epoe oe ocooe coepae, oopoe o aax (e ece, a oe o, oaee ycoe). Bopoe oe e coco pepeea opao aocecx peyao (oa o caceco op cooae aece pep oe yax peyao cee pe coao-cxooecoy opay). Tpee oe oppeooc eo, oooc peycapa a ee ocoe ceae coco cpae aeex eeo pa.

TP cooecye co cacec pep, oop oe cooecoa o aocec ec. O apopoa a ox opax oaa co eoc p pee ax aa, a: 1) aa yceoc pa o epe epexoa acca acc;

2) cpaee py yaxc, oopax cooec c a-o e;

3) cpaee eoc pax popa eoo oye;

4) oop ceacc ceo;

5) ao p oo eyceaeoc;

6) oop yaxc, yaxc oppe yceoo pa;

7) oea eoc pao pax eaoo eaoecx oeo;

8) ee yaxc, yaxc yax popaax oye;

9) poopeaoa paoa c yac aoc yceoo pa yco cpee o aypeo cxooeco cye PAO papaoa cea ec yceoo pa ACTP ( aumypuemo u cmapeaccuo mecm ycmeoo paumu) Tec coa a ex e eopeecx pax opao aoc, o TP (aopc oe: M.. Aoa, E.M. opcoa, .M.

ype, B.. apx, B.T ooa,.. ooa, AM. Paec, HA. epec).

Tec ae 8 cyeco: 1) Oceoeoc;

2) oe aao;

3) aoc, 4) acca;

5) Ooee;

6) oece cxe;

7) coe p;

8) eoepece yp.

Bce aa eca cocae a aepae ox popa yeo peaae ye ypo yceoo pa yco cpee o.

p opaoe peyao ecpoa oo oy e oo o a, o ya eco po cyeoo, ceecy o popeo oae o oec oepa a aepae ocox o yex c (oeceo-yaapoo, o-aeaecoo, ececeoayoo) peoaa epaoo opaoo e Ta opao, a ocoe ecpoa oo poopoa yceoc oceyeo oye yco yex aeex paoo po Hapy c ocoeoc yceoo pa ec ooe oy xapaepcy copoc poea ceoo poecca (cyec aoc), o ec ceeco a y cyeoo opeeeo paeoc coc epo cce (aoc epoc) He poc pep cyeco, xox ec ACTP.

1. Oceoeoc. O cyeoo peyec pao oo peoee peex co, apep. poooo coy opae ye coo.

a) eya;

) cop;

) a;

) cya, ) ooe.

2. oe aao. cyeoy eoxoo opee oece ooe, cyecye ey y o, p yco, o oex apax o ooy o poyeo Heoxoo oopa poyee o a opao, o ey ep coo aa ep coo oo ax a op ap o aoe e coooee, a ey op coo aa op coo o e ap Hapep' Co x = aa y a) ee oe ) oee ocya ) ee ocya ) py oa ) cy pa oeo ye ee ocya 3. aoc. B cyece peyec oe opo epo pee cpo e oo o p pocx yaa, apep, ax: Hae epy yy coeo e oce yy aa eyeo eca.

4. acca. ac ec co Cpe x yo a a, oo a, oope oo oe o aoy-o oey pay. Hapep: a) oa, ) oya, ) o, ) y, ) cae, e) epa. coe coa yy o cae, ocoy x oo oe o oey pay: o pyoe coo ooaae opoy coa.

5. Ooee. cyeoy peaac a coa. Hyo opee, o ey oeo (a aoee cyecee pa oox co) aca o oe a oeo Hapep, o pa. pa oeo ye coo oca.

6. oece cxe. cyeoy peaaec pacoo oecy cxey o oeo acoy ecoo o. To ec peyec ocpo epeo oecx ooe, ooa eco aoo o cooecye yo, a ooe ey cpeo Hapep' a) aca, ) ooe, ) apo ye, ) coaa, ) ecoepca aca, e) ye. Cxea aoa' ooe coaa ye apo ye aca ecoepca aca 7. coe p. peaac coe p, pacooee o opeeeoy pay. Heoxoo opee a ca, oope pooee cooecyeo pa.

Hapep: 2 4 6 8 10 12 ? ?.

B o py aoe oceyee co a 2 oe peyeo ooy ceye ca yy 14 16.

8. eoepece yp. o cyec aocpye ocoeoc pocpaceoo e cyex ae paoopae aa a oae epee, opeeee eoepecx yp o paepa p.

poeee eca aae ooo oyopa aco. Tec poepe a aeoc aoc.

Apoa eca a opax aypeo pex cx yex aee oepa eo pooc oopa cyeo a pae aye Tecpoae o poeeo c aypea o-aeaecoo ayea eaoecoo cya, eeoo ayea ecoo cya yaapoo oea.

Oaaoc, o epe ye ceo o aa o-aeaecoo a eca, ope aa ececeoayoo a ocee aa oeceo yaapoo a p o oe oppe, opaa cee c ey peyaa ecpoa o ecy eo ea poxox ao, pae 0,70 p ypoe aoc 0,01 Bce o oepae paoepoc cooa ACTP oopa cyeo a pae aye cx yex aee.

10. EHE AHOCTA PEATBHOCT B OTEECTBEHHO CXOO B oeeceo cxoo poo papaaaec poea opecx cocooce eoea. Oa cac a poea opecoo, poyoo e, oe o pepoyoo e. cxoo eoy pa oo, o o ceo ae cee poye pepoye ooe o a, o cyea e oe acoo eco aa, ae oa epecae eo aae. Bo e pe eooa aaa, oopo e pcycoa ooe aox o pooy oy aa Ec, oyc, peo peey-ooy aay a epaoe ccee, oa ae e cy eo aece aa, a a e yy o ee coepae, e, oopo ceye oc. a cpaeo oe aep, oooc payoo (a e oee opecoo) pee aa cyeceo ac o aeca pee popeex a ye (..

aep, 1976) p pee pax aa o-paoy coeac pcece epcece ooe e. ooy paa aa opece, peye coeo pee peaoo e, xapaepyec coo cee o oyaeoo peyae pee poya, eopece, p pee oopx yopye pepoyoe ee, coyee ece oxo coco ec;

oyae peya e oaec ec oo opaoc ocoy pa ey poy pepoy ee ocaoo yco, cyecye ee, o exa, eae ocoe e, e, oe ee ec opec (A B pyc, ypoa) B poooooc ao oe pe cyecye pya, copo oopo peo pae poyoe epoyoe ee (.A ooape, O .

Txopo). caaec c o o, o exa x o ceo eeoc pa. oee oo, c ee, ea ocoe eeyax cocooce, o pa opecoe ee cepeae cceoa opecoo e, ocyecee c oo opecx aa, aa-ooooo, oaa ey e, o ocoe yoo pee, caa, oa ea oec aa, paccyee, op apao. poe oo, xo poecc yoo oca e ocoaec, oce oye pee eo oo epaoa ( A ooape, 1980). Hecoeo, o ceecye o eo ppoe yx o e opecoo eopecoo B oeeceo cxoo ooe ae yeec poee yco pa opecoo e, eeapaeoo oppoa pcecx peo (. aoa, 1981;

.. aep, B aoa, 1980;

.C Ayep, 1979) oaao, o oaee pcec pea ae o oo pa opecoo e, o e apapye yceoo pee opecx aa ooy, ecop a ey ppoy pepoyoo poyoo e, ce e ocaec aao, a o e oeo cee ooae a axo peee opeco aa' a, oeeceo cxoo ooe ae yeec pacp cyoc peaoc, ce exao opeco eeoc ppo opecx cocooce o e acaec aoc peaoc, oo caa, o pao o apae o e M oe oo cceoae, poeeoe ooeco (1983).

E eea ea epe opecx cocooce, aaa eeyao ao. Aop paccapae ee a ce ycex cocooce oaoo cpyyp oc, poxc pooe ceo eeoc a peea peyeoo, a peea pee aa, oopa cac epe eoeo. B cooec c oeo .. ooeco peoe eo peaoo o, oo cyeoy e oec eeo cya epe o ocyece aao eeoc eopeecoy ooe aay aao cya B paax oo eoa o cocpypoao ecoo eo, oope poxo poepy a aoc. Aop ca aee pyoc axoe eeo pep. Topeca yceoc ycaaaac eoo cepx oeo, e e p eocao.

oyee oppe cepeax oeo eeyao a c e pepe oe co, o cyeoc paoo pep e ooe ca o o aoc papaoax eo ooae.

oo o oeecex cceoa oac aoc eeyax cocooce peaoc, yo oepy, o o aeo eopeec oocoa, yae pa aapyc e oo c oeceo, o c aeceo copo, a caa aoca ee eo opeeee paece e Te e eee ce ee eaeo oeco cceoa o oac. He xaae eo aoc, a pao o x coa eocaoo.

epaypa Aacmau A cxooecoe ecpoae M, 1982 ypeu M, opaea E ceoe pae- pep opa M, emec H C O yceo oapeoc M, 1960 cxooeca aoca poe eo M, 1981 Tenoe Mpae py M, 1985 T aa V AHOCTA COCOHOCTE 1 TO TAOE COCOHOCT epec cxooo poee aocpoa cocooce a y a pa. Bo-epx, apoca pa oye oca ee.

eceo, eaoa poe ao a cocooc cooc peea ocpoe aeao cce cxooo-eaoeco pao, peaa yaoo oxoa, pae aoc oapex ee, paeoc y x yax, xyoecex pyx aao. ca oop, o ox ax opeco eeoc coepeeoe ee cocooce eoxoo ee c c e, o oce pxoc a ooo ooo opac (apep, xopeopa o 2025 e, cepe opaeoo cycca 3034 oa, x 2630 e), o e oocc copy. Haee poocece eo aoc cocooce eoxo ae ax oace pa, a poocya paeee apo o pao oca, pooop pooyee aoca cocooce ee paey yacecy apaeoc, ocoy cococye opy aoee oxox epeca cooc eoea poecc, ye cocoo ocpoe oye c yeo yax cocooce Bopa pa, oya cxooo opac poee aoc cocooce, cocoa pa oo aa, o paoe ec eea cocpeooe a opao a ye acpax , a x ee aa, aaeecx cocooce, ax, a coe, epae p ee eoe pe paccapac a eoe, eeoe coco. Oao peee aopoo aaa oaao, o ee ca o cee ae p ooceo eacx cocooce, ax, a epae, aeaece, pocpacee, eece.

Hapy c o oaao, o eeyaoe pae axoc opeeeo acoc o ypo pa eoopx ceax cocooce, apep, cecopx, ooy cee o x paeoc peoac ae oee paoo oa aooepoce oppoa eea o ooo ae oy oee oy xapaepcy oc , coceo, a aao ae peya oox cceoa oo ae o IQ.

B apyeo cxoo o cocooc oac o poee cocooc a, aao opeee ce yye oce cyea (capacity), o popeee a ye (ability). ocaoo pacpocpae oac cxoaoc cocooce ec ep aptitude, oop xo aae ox eco, a opao eco oex cocooce.

B aco cxooeco coape o opeeec a ppoa cocooc popea ooceo oe ceae a ye. Ha eoeoc x opeee yaae ec cxoo .M. Teo O oeae, o apyee yee o ca o oe c ypoe ax oce cyea, o co eo poe oe a, opee oooc eo pa aee B coe cae Cocooc oapeoc, oyoao 1941 ., .M.

Teo poaapoa ae epo ability capacity, oope yopec o ce e aepac ac cxooa ooae o cocooc. Aop po opeee x epo, x aepacx cxooecx coape: ability yee o ec, ae ce coe ooppoae e papeee ycex aa o, o oe ceao eoeo a ao ypoe oyeoc pa;

capacity acae oooc ooe ao-o y, opaee eo poeo ocye epee eopeec e peeo, o oopoo oe paa a y p oax ycox, oooc opaa, opeeee opaaee eo poeo ocye (.M. Teo, 1941 C 2425) Coe ooee oooc cooa x epo M Teo paae, opac a copypoaoe ca opeeee o cocooc, oopo ee p ae paa:

Bo-epx, o cocooc payec yao-cxooece cocooc, oae ooo eoea o pyoo, o e cae oop o cocoocx a, e eo e o cocax, ooe oopx ce pa..

Bo-opx, cocooc aa e ce ooe yae cocooc, a e, oope e ooee yceoc oe ao o eeoc ox eeoce.

B-pex, oe cocooc e coc e a, aa ye, oope ye paoa y aoo eoea (a e C. 2223).

cxo aoo oa cocooce, oo a, o oo pex opeee, yopeex apye aopa, e opaae cy o cocooc.

epoe (ability), o cyecy, ec e eo, o aeo epe oee cocooc cooyoc ao ye, popeex o. pe e pyx epo (capacity, aptitude) oaao pae oo, o cocooc eoea c poe , ooo, aao opee aeee pae cyea. Ho cocooc a yao-cxooece ocoeoc ye o caoy opeee e oy poe Bpoe oy aaoo-ooece ocoeoc, ppoe peoc, aa, eae ocoe pa cocooce. aa pe opee ooe apae pa cocooce, aaax cocooc a a oe, o ca cocooc cea peya pa.

Ceye oe, o ocoe ooe, copypoae .M. Teo ooceo oa cocooce, opae o cex cxooecx coapx, ex oceee pe (cxooec coap, 1993;

pa cxooec coap, 1985;

cxoo: Coap, 1990).

Mey cocooc, a ye cyecye coeopaa aeeca c: oae oce eoxo cooecye cocooc, a cao oppoae cocooce peoaae ocoee cax c cooecye eeoc a ye. o acaec ppox, poex aopo, o o paccapac a aaoo-ooece aa, eae ocoe oppoa cocooce, ca e cocooc cea peya pa opeo eeoc. o coa .M. Teoa, cocooc e oo poc, o coac eeoc. O ao po ppox ocoeoce, acoc coc epo cce eoea, oppoa cocooce pa a eeoc ceecy cceoa, pooec ay oeo o pyooco .A. oyeo (.A. oyea, 1993) po e oe ceae cocooc O ox cocoocx a pe ae IV, oopo ocyac opoc yceoo pa. Hao , o oe cocooc oecea oaee pa a a ye, oope eoe peaye o ox ax eeoc. B oe o ox ceae cocooc paccapac ooe oe, cea oac eeoc, o paaec x acca o ee a (aeaece, epaype, xyoecee ) B apyeo cxoo e papaoao eop cocooce, a paeee a oe ceae ocoaec a oyeo c oo aopoo aaa peco ee paoopax aopo, oope paccapac a poee pax cocooce. Tae cceoa pooc Cpeo, . Tepcoo, . opo p B oeeceo cxoo coooee ox ceax cocooce paccapaec a coooee oeo ocoeoo ec cxoo C .

Pye oxapaepoa o cey opao' Cocooc eoea peao a cea eoopo ece ox ceax (ocoex ex) coc He ee poooca x py pyy Mey eec pae eco (C Pye, 1940).

Ocoe ooe eop cocooce oy coe pae opea oocex paoax oeecex cxooo o ye ceax cocooce . Aae co co ay oeo papaoa oec oxo cceoa paocopox ocoeoce oooce eoea poo ec pao B A pyeoo o ye aeaecx cocooce, M Teoa o ye yax cocooce cceoae opaaopcx cocooce pooc . ac, eaoecx cocooce H . yo, H A Ao, ex cocooce .

aoo, xyoecex cocooce E.. ae, A A Me aae, epaypx 3 H Hoco p 2 AHOCTA CEAHX COCOHOCTE Moo ocapoa, o oeeceo cxoo papaoa po eopeo-eoooec yae cceoa cocooce, oye oa aec aepa, aa eo coepaea eppea. Hecoo eee eco papaaac coceo aocece eo. Be ecoo pepe, o oop oo cy o paeoc cocooce. Cpe x peyaoc eeoc, copoc yceoc oae eoxo a aa, opaoc caooc oe pao, a ae cee peooe eaopx yco cpe.

ye cocooce cceoae pe paoopae pe aee, ecece aopaop cepe, aa poyo eeoc, cepe oe ceaco a pao, o opa pep eo e oee o ypo peoa, peex eoa cxoaoc Heoxooc e ax eoax oyaec ce oee ocpo c c opoc opeoc cooa cxooecx a pax oacx pa, acoc paoe cxooeco cy oe a pooce ocoy aoee papaoao poea aoc ceax cocooce ec apyex cceoax, ocoyec po a accae cocooce pa a eeoc Bec epe oe py cocooce: cecope, oope, exece poeccoapoae, e cooecye o o poecc oopce, apcece, xyoecee p a , acca a e ec eyopeo, ocoy eee py cocooce pooc o y ocoa: o-epx, o a cxecx y (oope, cecope), o-opx, o a eeoc Oao aoe eee coyec aoee aco cxooa p ocye eoo aoc ceax cocooce.

Paccop opee eo ye oopx cocooce , a x ee aa, cxooopx (cecooopx, aex) Haoee aco cocooc aocpyc p poee pooopa a opeeee poecc, oopa copceo Moope ec apae a yee copoc, ea ooc e, peo-oopo oopa, ooc e ae py, peopa, ooc eoo yc Po cxooop yceoc oae paoopa a eeoc yaec cxoo ao, acoc, pocee aocece pe cooac ee a-oo, peeo Bae cpae 30-e . a oyoaa yaeaa paoa M ypea H Oepeoo Bo-opo ac coe cxooopa aop opoo ocya aoee ece ec a apopoae, a axoec ca papao ye oopa, copoc, ea e Aopa peaaec oopaca aa eco o aao co aa e Ta, apep, peoe 5 py eco aoc aex cocooce ee 1 Caeca oopa (cocooc co eee 15 c c ap aa ooepeo a pao, eo oe, ocax ..).

2 aeca oopa copaepoc e (p, epee pa, peae ypo ya ).

3 Copoc e (yaae oe opoy, poaae ya c aece a e pya, cae ypo ).

4 Ca e (cae, pacpee pax peeo .) 5 Copooee e (aopae a, ee ce py ..) a a pao oe ec acec 1 a Bpe oe aoo aa opaeo Beo poeypa c 4060 Papaoaa aa op opacoo pa (o aao c aa Be) B 1955 CA oac coocaapoaa aa aoc oopoo pa ee, oopa oya aae eca oaOepeoo.

Coae eco pa, o oope y oac cpo pepoe ypoe pa a pax cax oae poecce eoao.

Ocoeoc oopx cocooce ec ocyce eoeo oeo aopa, oe oopo oapeoc. O o ceecy pece ae aoc oop: peya, oyaee o pa eca, peao ao ca ey coo Moocee cceoa oopx cocooce po cxooo eoxooc e e p caocoex aopo, ax, a ooc oe e, oea opea (cocooc axo pa oe a paoopae cy ycox coo copoc x pee), oopa, pe pea, copoc e py, oea opo (yee opopoa eee copoc apae e oeo), pya ooc, aea oo-pa, epoc py, copoc e ac ae (apep, p paoe a eepao aapaype). p o papao ce ox aocecx peo ye cxooop po op ox oopx cocooce oe oaeo oca oopx eco peyec ceaa aapaypa, o cyecy aoe eo o a ox aopo, ey peyaa x o eco oeac oe e oppe, aco aa c oce ocycye.

Haoee pacpocpae eca, cy o apye ya, c ceye: Tec ooc ae 0'oopa, Tec ooc Cpoepa, Tec pyo ooc ype, Me-coc ec copoc aypoa, Tec ooc aypoa c e peea payopa. Paccop oce epecex. oe eca peyec epea oca, cocoa yx ce. aa ce coep o 48 oepc, pe oo ce oepc e pey. poe oo, aepao oe eca cya pece cep eooo paepa, eaece oe, ypy, e oepa Baae cye c oo ea oeae cep oepc oc, a ae a a p aeae oeo Bo opo ac eca cyeoy eoxoo oec eoe ypy oepc c peo a x c oo oep. Oo p ocee peyao yaec pe oe eca co oo (poyco). oa e a oee eca ooc opeeeoe pe yac, ay ac pao yceae o cye a o epo aa oooo a peao pacpocpae ecpoa oop Ta, apep, ooe eo cceoa oop e oypy aape eco opeee ox cocooce AT (opoee oe ye caao e) Coae eco pa, o oope y oac cpo pepoe ypoe x pa a pax cax oae poecce eoao.

Bcoa pepyeoc oop ceoc oopx y yco coae cooaex eco eee oea eca e oae eo aeoc, ocoy eee ox aa po oxay x oopx aec, a p ee ooo ca ex aa caaec aop pepo ooy aeoc oopx eco oo oeec o 0,70 o 0, o acaec aoc, o oa eea Hapep, poc oppe ey yceoc oe eca ooc ype cep oea poeccoao eoc yaoo oe pax aa eca oec o 0,19 o 0,47, a Mecocoo eca copoc aypoa o ecoo e o 0,40 Aop ea oca o o o, o p ycaoe aoc oopx eco ocoeo ao pa peeae pep, oope oy a oee ee poeccoaoo pya B oeeceo cxoo poea aoc oopx cocooce aoee eco papaaaac 2030-e cxoexa poep cxooop cye peaaoc cpo ee aa y, aa yc, oo oe pya coe yp, opaee a ce ya, poca apaao epo ceax aax, paoax opeee opao, B acoee pe papaoa eco o ae epec ox cceoaee c c aaa oopa opeeee poecc, a ae oopa copceo. Moo aa pao HA Poe, E a p Meo aoc pyo py cocooce cecopx poc cepeax cceoa ocp, oope yceo pooc ye ecoo ece. Oo oace pee cecopx eco ec ecoe ecpoae, apaeoe a ee eeo pa ex x cecopx y Oao aoee pacpocpaee eo oy p poee cxooecoo oopa a poecc poeoc oeo eoce Xo cxooecoe yee cecopx cocooce pacpocpaec a ce oaoc, caappoae eo coa a opao ye ocoeoce cyxa pe. yaec, apep, acoc eoc aeca eeoc o ypo pa cecopx cocooce, ae o x pa peac aay p paaa, ecacx cyae ..

Tec yax cyxox cocooce epepyc acoc o oo, ae xapaepc ocp o ep. Haoee ae yae cocooc ocpoa pe, paea yceoc, ocpe y, eopaee epe ocpo pe coyec aa Ceea c opaee y, oceeo yeaxc o ee oee cpo ec, oopo oeceaec coee caapx yco poee ecpoa (ypoe ocee, apaee opa p ), aaec eoo OpoPeepa Aao y epee c Tec poep pe, Tec peoo ocp epe cocooce cyxooo ocp coyc eo aoc ocpo cyxa ( epee acox opoo), ee cao yooo oa, a ae ec a paee pooc, co, epa yo. B aece papaee coyc e oo c y, o paoopae y, eoeec ooc, pooc p, coa, ccoe yc eca O cax oypx eco ec ec yao oapeoc Copa, coye e oo oceoa yao, o pooopa a poecc, oopx xopo cyx xo coca oeca poeccoao ax aec. Tec coco cep aa a yee ocp c ya, ecoc, epa Opac paccope aoc execx cocooce Caec, o o e cocooc, oope poc paoe c oopyoae eo ac p o yaec, o aa paoa peye ocox ycex cocooce, a ae cooo ypo pa cecooopx cocooce, ooc, eco c. . Tepco paccapae exece cocooc a oe ycee.

oaao, o apy c eoopo oe cocooc, oopa oe paccapac a oa execa oapeoc exec o, popeae eoeo paoe c exo, cyecy eace aop: pocpacee pecae execoe oae. o pocpace pecae e y cocooc oeppoa pe opaa, apep, p ocp eoepecx yp Texecoe oae o cocooc pao ocpa pocpacee oe, cpaa x c py pyo, yaa oaoe axo pae. B cooec c a paeee a a aopa coac eco Cae epe coae eco execx cocooce peoa o cyex ye copa exece pcocoe oex eae. B acoee pe oco ax eco coa e aox eo Tec execx cocooce ae ceo coyc pooopa exao, aao, peoo, epeo, eepo Coae eco yepa, o papaoae aa ocy ce, o oaae xo eo oo pao c eeap exaa, oope opya ac oceeo , oao yeex oaaec oy e eec. Haoee oyp ceye ec' Tec eea a execoe oae, Tec execoo oa ype, Mecoc ec a ocpe pocpaca, Tec pocpacex aoce p Hapep, ec eea ae cep apo c opaee ecox oee, aa apa copooaec opoco. oea a opoc eoxoo oae ox execx po, pocpacex aoooe . Mecoc ec a ocpe pocpaca ae cep aa e apoe c opaee 6 eoepecx yp. Oa x papeaa a e ac oee, a 5 ex cye oe ceo coe papeae ac opee, aa 5 yp p o oyaec. a pao, aeoc eco coa, aoc e (apep, eca eea) yoeopea: ocoe oe oppe peyao ecpoa c e pep (yceoc oye exec ceaoc poeccoae oce) oec o 0,30 o 0,60.

aa ocyee aoc execx cocooce, ceye pa, o a pya eco apaea a opao a ee a, oa, aoeoo cye. O oy popea o o cpee, pye eeee, o p oo ec cp e oy. cxoo T B ype, C aca pye oaa, o ceaa opaa yeoo poecca ooe apaeo oppoa a execoe ee eo, a pocpacee pecae acoc ec ep aoe cee ypoe ocyo cyeo execo oceoeoc, a oac ex, oa pao c oopyoae exec pcocoe.

oce pya cocooce caa pecaea, ocoy oee cocooc ca pa a eeoc, oa aaec pyo poeccoapoax cocooce. B ee e xyoecee, yae, apcece, oopce pye cocooc, ao py coac co ocoe ec. Ho apy c cyecy oee oae ecoe aape, .e. py eco, oeee ao-o opeo aae. Tae aape peaae epe cocooce, eoxox pax ax pya, oo opepoa eoea a e cep poecc. eo ao aapee, oye pooe pae, caa aape eco epeax cocooce (copaeo AT: apeaypa poc cooec c ac aae).

aape AT epe a coaa 1947 ., a ae epecopea 1963 . Oa coaaac y cpee o aa peee poeccoao opea yaxc. o acy ee epx coaee oa oa a a epee ax aec, oope e aee pooe opaoa ce oe. AT papaoaa cxooeco accoae ae oce cyeco.

1. Coecoe ee. aa peaac e ox aao. O cyeoo peyec ao poyc co peoex (coa a op poc aa), apep:

... eepo, a apa...

a) y yo ) po ypo ) ep yo ) eee paoc ) y ypo.

pa oe o yo .

2. coe (cee) cocooc. cyeoy peaac aa, apep:

3 = ?% o a) 5;

) 10;

) 20;

) 30;

) o x.

3. Acpaoe ee. Cep yp aa pacooe opeeeo oceoaeoc. cye oe poo cep, pa cooecyy ypy 5 peoex.

4- 5- cyec poep execoe ee pocpacee pecae cyeoo: peyec o aa a oae opaex a pcyax execx cya ceoe caae eoepecx paepo opeeee yp.

6. Copoc ooc ocp. a ecoo oa coo, oa oopx eea. cye oe a oe ay e a ae oeo, apep:

aa a oeo 1. AB AC A AE AH 1. AC AE AH AB A 2. A7 7AB7 7B AB 2. 7BB7 AB 7AA 3. A 3B 33 B BB 3. BB 3BB A 7- 8- cyec ep cocooc cyex pao ooac paocae cpo peoee (cooae a).

Oee pe, eoxooe poee ca, peae 5 aco, ooy eo oee peoeyec paa a a aa. aape papaoaa yx aex opax. oe aeoc oex eco pa 0,90 ( cpee). Tecoa aape a caappoaa a ope oee 64 yaxc. Coae aape oaa a ee oe ae, oaa, o oyee c ee oo ae ooy ocyec poo oee paoopa epepoa, ee o eaec c oo eco eea. p aae oeo oppe ey peyaa ecpoa oo yceaeoc oaaoc, o eoope cyeco e coe oppe o cex yex peeo. Haoee a cex peeo oaac ceye cyec: Coecoe ee (oe oppe oeec o 0,39 o 0,50), coe cocooc (0,32 0,49), peoe (0,300,52).

Opac a ae, coae eca cea o, o poepee cyeca cocooc c oco yceoo oye oe ye. B eo ae o aoc AT pecae eco ca oeo oppe, ce o ocaoo co, o ceecye o coo pooceco ce o aape ooceo oe poeccoao ooo (eec y poecc oye). Cyap oaae cyeco Coecoe ee coe cocooc paccapaec a ec cocooce oye;

o oppepye a ypoe 0,700,80 co co pepe yex oce.

Aopcoe pao a AT pae cxooeco opopa H-opa.

pya eca aape, peaaea aoc cocooce, aaec aapee ox cocooce (copaeo AT). Oa a papaoaa 40-x . CA cooaac cyo aoc ocypoa ocyapcex ypeex.

a aape cooaac poeoc ap poeccoao ocya, paee apo o pao eca. Coae o aape poe peape aa o 50 eco, papaoax pax poecc, oapy, o o o oo coaa ee 9 cocooce, oope epc o cex aapoax eoax, eo x oooe aa AT. Ta opao, copeea aape ae cyeco, epx 9 cocooce. aoca ox ycex cocooce ocyecec c oo pex x (aac co, aeaecoe ee, pocpaceoe ocpe pexepo pocpace). Bepae cocooc aocpyc ye aa a opeeee coo aoo (aac co).

coe cocooc yac c oo yx cyeco a ce a aeaecoe ee. pocpaceoe ocpe aapyec c oo eoepecx paepo. Bocpe op pecaeo y cyeca, oopx cye coocae pae cpye eoepece op.

Cyec a copoc ocp epa pecae apa co, eoc oopx eoxoo ycao. Moopa oopa pecae coo aae cyeoy ea oe apaao cep apao. Pya ooc, aea oopa yac c oo ceaoo pcocoe (4 cyeca).

He poc ocae 12 cyeco, cocax aape AT.

1. Bepae cocooc. (Bpe a oee 6 ).

Tecpye oe 4 ap co pa oy co ao:

a) ocopo a) pyec ) opo ) oee ) pae ) ae ) cp ) oepy 23. Cee cocooc.

2. Oea copoc ooc pocx cex c e ca.

Hapep: 256 - 83 = ?, 37 x 8 = ? (Bpe a oee 6 .).

3. aa, apep: o apaaae 1,20 oapa ac. aoa eo apaa a 35-acoy ee? (Bpe a oee 7 ).

4. pocpaceoe ocpe. aa paepa eoepeco yp, ao opee, aa ypa oyc p caa paep (a cyece AT).

(Bpe a oee 6 ).

56. Bocpe op. aa cocooc ae ce cpoy ooc ocp op oee. Oa oeaec c oo yx cyeco (pe a oee 5 ) cpaee op (pe a oee 6 ), oope paac o y yax cyo B epo cyeoy eoxoo cpe pcyo, opaax paoopae cope, cecape pye cpye, a coepeo coaae. Bo opo cye axo ee eoepece yp, ae pecaee a pcyax.

7. Bocpe epa. (Bpe a oee 6 ). yaea cocooc ae cpoy ooc ocp a ceco aepae. cyeoy pec ecoo ap e aa. Hao opee, c oa e aa ap e ec pa. Hapep:

o oc o oco aop aop 8. Tec oopo oopa. epec copoc pocx, o oe ox oopx oeo. aaa cyeoo a oo cpee oca poco a pex px ay eoe, opaex a ce ya.

Oeo caec oeco eo, pao aoex a 60 c. (Baae paa o 10 c pooc pepoa).

ceyx 4 cyeco eoxoo ceaoe pcocoee:

poyoa oca, cocoa yx ce, ao oopx o 50 oepc.

'912. Tec ox py. epc ooc copoc pyx e py.

9. epe cye axoc oca, e oepc oo ce aoe pec epe cep c pae oa. ecy y pya, cye oe a oo cpee y cep oepc epxe ac oc ca x cooecye oepc e ac. a a epecae cepe cye oyae o a. aae oec p o 15 c a pa.

10. Bce cep pacooe e ac ce oc. cye oe co y cepe oepc, oepy eo a 180 payco ca oepce epxe ce oc. aae oec pao pyo ( e eo), coco pex cep, aa pooeoc 30 c. cye oe o aae a oo cpee.

11. Bepx ce oc, eae epe cye, aoea ae eaec aea c ao, apeeo a epao cepe.

cye oe, c, oo pyo y aey oepc epxe ac oc, a pyo c ay c epaoo cep, ae ape ay aee copay ea ca cooecyee oepce e ce oc. Ha c poeypy ooc 90 c.

12. cye oe y aey c ao, oo pyo aa ay a epa cepe, a pyo ca aey cooecyee oepce epxe ce oc. a ay epecaey aey cye oyae o a. Ha aae ooc 60 c.

a , aape oee pae eco peeye a oxa ecox cocooce oopeeo. Ha oee ce aape yxo ooo 2, .

oppe oeo pax cocooce ao aapee coa o 0,66. oopx eco oppe ocaoo aa, o o paec e cooocc c oca eca. Tec a ocpe ee ae ao ca py c pyo. o acaec aoc o aape, o, xo eoopx poecc oa a (xyo o epae 0,250,28;

cpaxae 0,240,25), eo oye oaeae ae ooo 0,50. Baoc aape eoaoa pax poecc. Ta, oope cocooc oaac a pa poecc, cax co copo, pocpacee poecc oe .

AT peypo coyec ocyapcex ypeex CA p ocypoa ocye a paoy. poe oo, aape oe cooac opaa, a oope oa ceao e paccaa, apep cpee oe, oee .. Tecpoae oocex py paoax, ocyax a cyy oyaxc pa a pao, ooo paoa ccey oaaee, oopo ao poecc ycaoe eoxoe ee oae cocooc ae ae caappoax oaaee. Hapep, yxaepa eoxoo oy oaae e e 105 o aopy ox cocooce oye e e 115 o aopy cox cocooce;

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