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HBEPCTET POCCCO AAEM OPAOBAH eoe ocoe o peaue . M. ypea, E. M. opucoo Moca aeco PAO 1997 1.4 86 cxooeca aoca:

eoe ocoe / o 86 pe. .M. ypea E.M. opcoo. M.: -o PAO, Peoeoao peauoo-uamecu coemo PAO Xyo .. Muxaecu ISBN 5-204-00112-3 oe aopo, 1997 Mxaec , xy oop, 1997 BBEEHE Oo ae epa ao epeoe c peecoo a pacoaae. aoca oaec a pacoaae eo-o (apep oe ee, ooe o op eeoo, ecpaoc paoe aoo-o execoo cpeca ..).

Copeea cxooeca aoca opeeec a cxooeca ca, papaaaa eo e ye yao cxooecx yao-cxoecx ocoeoce eoea.

e ee ec cop opa o ocoeocx eoeeco cx.

cxoaoca ae ce ae oac cxooeco pa, paoy cxooa o e paoopax aec, cxecx cxoooecx ocoeoce, ep oc.

cxoaoca a cxooeca ca cy coee eo ey oecxooec cceoa pao.

Teopeece oco cxoaoc apyc a cooecyx oacx cxooeco ay (oa, epeaa, opaca, eca cxoo p ) eoec cpeca cxoaoc oocc opee pe ye yao-cxooecx ocoeoce, coco opao eppea oyex peyao. p o apae eopeeco eoeco pao oac cxoaoc opeec a opao apoca cxooeco pa B cooec c apoca oppyc ceece oec cpec, coooce co cepa pao paecx cxooo (opaoae, ea, pooop ..).

B oee cxoaoc xo ocpypoae apoa eo, paoa pa poee oceoa, cocoo opao eppea peyao, ocyee oooce opae ex x eoo.

cxoaoca peoaae, o oyee c ee oo peya yy cooocc c ao-o oo ocea o cpaac ey coo. Bc c oo oop o yx ax aoa.

Bo-epx, o ao a ocoe ocaa a ocyc aoo-o paa. B o cyae oyee p aocpoa ae o yax ocoeocx cx cyeoo cooocc c opo (p opeee aoo pa), c e aa pepe.

Bo-opx, o ao, oo axo eco cyeoo py cyex a oc oyya o paeoc ex x aec. oo peyec poec cpaee oyex p aocpoa ax yp oceyeo op, papoae cyex o cee pecaeoc ex x oaaee, eee oaae cooo, cpeeo oo ypoe pa yaex ocoeoce ye cooece c opeee pepe (apep, coao-cxooec opao). cxoaocece eo pa ocaoo cpo aeo oecea cop ax o cyeo opypoa cxooecoo aoa B acoc o ee cxoaocecoo cceoa peya eo oy epea py ceaca (paa, eaoa, eeooa, paec cxooa p.), oope ca pa peee o x cooa coe paoe. ocae ao oe copooac peoea o pa oppe yaex aec peaaac e oo ceaca, o ca oceye x poe Bece c e a ocoe poeeoo oceoa ca cxoaoc oe cpo oppeoo-paay, ocyaoy cxoepaeecy paoy c cye (eo a oo paoae paec cxoo, coea pae cxooeco eeoc).

Ta opao, aoca peoaae oaeoe cpaee, coocaee oyex ax, a ocoe oopoo oe copypoao aee o oeo cyeo pye o ooy paeoc ex x yao-cxooecx yao-cxoooecx ocoeoce.

oee epeca poea cxoaoc ae cpae ocee o o oo cao c pae cxooeco cy oee oo poecc paec cxoo. ceac oc oax oox ypeex, yax poocya, ecx ypeex a pepx. Moo e ecoo oace paecoo cooa peyao cxoaoceco pao.

Bo-epx, cxoaoca eco peec ex oa poecco oye oca. C ee oo oe peac e p aa, cox epe paoa opaoaeo-ocaex ypee o ecx cao o o epao paoo a. Ta, apep, o opeeee oooc peea ooy oye, ee opyx p eyceaeoc apye oco cepe, epea oye, poopea, peaa yaoo oxoa p.

Bo-opx, aoca ec ao cocae eeoc ceaco o pooopy, pooye poopea, oopa pooc ceax yax poocya, ypeex cy aoc, a pepx ceapoax yex aeex. a paoa paa oo aoy pa aoee oxoy poecc pao oc, a y cpoo eoo oae poeccoa a aa, oc eoxooo ypo aa, ca poeccoao.

B-pex, oac paecoo pee peyao cxoaocecx ca ec o-ocyaoa cxoepaeeca paoa. B ao cyae ao aae cxoaoc ec oc p ooe opeo poe y ocypyeoo (cooc ooex c , ae cpax epea ..) op cocoo peo, cococyx x papee.

, aoe, cyea paa, oopo ce oe a yeec poee cyeo-cxooeco cep. B acoc o opeoo cya cxoaoc poo oceoae oepex, oopeaex ceee opypye cxooecoe aee o ex x aecax oc, ypoe eeyaoo pa, cxoooecx ocoeocx ..

cxooeca aoca copeea, cpo paaac, ya oecy aya ca oac pa. aoe yeoe ocoe peaaeo epy oepe paec cxooa pecae coo ocaoo cceaoe ooe oee ocox poe cxoaoc.

B e pecae cee o cop ooe cxooeco aoc, aax ee caoe, ox apaex eex pa.

opoo ocyac ocoe acc eo (ec, opoc, poee cxoooece eo), oe peoa , x ococa eoca, oooc opae, ocoeoc eppea, opoc cxoaoca.

Aop oco oac oaa, a a ocee a-p ece cxoaoce, caec ayo o papoa acca e o epe paa, pooo aeoe ceee aea copoy ee yaa o ao opaee o ee ox pepe oe peyao (ae caceco op), peaa pa oppeooc, ocax paaeo cxoepaeecoo eo cxoaocecx eo ..

cxooeca aoca oo aex ee pao paecoo cxooa. oe aopo oco aeec, o oo ooe ceacy oae cceo ocox o cxoaoc, oaoc c eope pao cxoaocecx oceoa, coppoa aeae pecae o po ece cooecyx eo ccee cxooeco pao c e poc, oe x oooc opae. e ao e oo oao ae c aoee ec eoa cxoaoc, paa poee oceoa, cocoa opao eppea ax, o oece ycoee ecx op cxoaoca, cococoa pa yacecoo ooe cye p poee oceoa pee peyao pecaec, o yee oco cxoaoc ooe paecoy cxooy apoao aeceo poo aocecy paoy aeao cooa ee peya coe poeccoao eeoc aa I CTOP CXOOECO AHOCT 1 CTO CXOAHOCT cxoaoca a ocoa aya ca poa ae y pa caoe Paccop ocoe a oo y.

cxooeca aoca eac cxoo aaa caac a pyee XX ea o oece peoa pa Ee ooee o oooeo eco apae pa cxoo.

ep ee coo caa cepeaa cxoo, ocoy cepea eo e ocoe cxoaocecx eo, papaoa oopx cocae cyoc cxoaoc. cxoaoca poca cepeao cxoo. A ee ooee 5070-e pooo ea cao c opoc e ececoa a oac cxecx e, c poecco ooa cxoo, aaec epeoe ye ocoeoce eoeeco cx pyco cepea ox eoo ececex ay. ep cepea eoa cxoo ca pye ay, a opao oo Haao ooe cepeao cxoo ycoo caec 1878 ., a a eo o oy B. By ocoa epa epy aopaop cepeao cxoo. Be By (18321920), aea epce ocpoe cxoo a eo ay, peoaa papaoy e yx eepeceaxc apae: ececeoayoo, opaeoc a cepe, yypo-copecoo, oopo ay po pa pa cxooece eo ye yyp (cxoo apoo). o eo eop, ececeoaye cepeae eo oo o pe oo eeapoy, ey ypo cx. cepeaoy cceoa oe e caa ya, a oo ee ee poe. ooy eo aopaop yac ocoo oye aee aee a pea, a ae epepecoe oypoe pee, eooyee p.

o opay aopaop Bya coac ooe cepeae aopaop ae e oo epa, o pyx cpaax (pa, oa, A, e, Aepe).

Paaac cepeaa cxoo oy ooa ye oee cox cxecx poecco, ax a peee accoa. (opoee o eoe coox coecx accoa . aoa c. 5.) Cpay e oce ya aoa 1897 . By cooa accoay eoy coe aopaop, xo ca ce y e oea cepey. oyaee oax yae pa o pee pea occ xapaepo accoa, a e ya ocoeoc cyex.

Oao aopo, coa ep coceo cxooec cepea eo, epa ay (18501909), ya ao a, coy oo aop ecccex coo (cyccex cecooopx eeo pe, e ex opeoo ae). O oaa, o oyee peya e ace o coa cyeoo, poce (ae a a e, o pocxo eo cxe) , ceoaeo, oe cee yoeop peoa oeoc. eoo ay op y cepeaoy ye ao.

Aepac cxoo ec ee (18601944) cceoa oe a a e. C oo axcocoa (popa, ooeo pe cyeoy pee cy a pae ope pee) o opee pe, eoxooe oo, o ocp aa pae oe op, y, coa .. Oe a eo oax coca ey opa oeo. poo cepe c ee y co a paaec apaae, ee acpoa eoe aa (aea ocp epe).

Ta a pyee XX ea cxoo yepc oe cepea eo, oop aa opee xapaep cxooeco ay eo. C epee cxoo cepea oee aoap oy ox pepe ayoc ee pecae coac peoc apoe a o yax pax ey .

epeaa cxoo caa ee o coo cxoaoc.

Be pecae o yao-cxooecx ocoeocx, oope c peeo epeao cxoo, eooo o ooee cxoaoc a ay o eoax x epe.

Ho epeao-cxooecoe yee eoea e o poc oec pae cepeao-cxooecoo. Oo caaoc o oece apoco pa, caaa eco eaoeco, a ae ycpao. Oo ocox p, oycox apoee cxoaoc, yo ca yy paeo pao opeoc aoce ee yceo ocax yeoox e.

Oa pax ya, ocex opoca yceo ocaoc, pae paycoy pay .E.. cpo, cpeeyc epepoa pae cee yceo ocaoc. pyo payc pa . Cee ep ye ae oye yceo ocax ee c oo ocox eo. x pao ec opeee a papaoy eoo, ooax opee ycey ocaoc.

2. BOHHOBEHE TECTPOBAH Mey eopeec ooe, paae paax oe cxoo, ocoa cxoaoc poceaec eca ype aoc.

pecae o aooepocx pa yopoa cx c opa yo p ope cxoaoceco eooo, ocpypoa cxoaocecx eo, x cooa pae.

cop cxoaoc o cop oe ocox cxoaocecx eo, pae oxoo x coa a ocoe oopoa o o ppoe yopoa cxecoo.

B o c epeco poce, a oppoac eoope ae cxoaocece eo paax ocox o cxoo.

Tecoe eo po ca c xeopo. Meoooeca oe xeopa ocoaac a o, o ey opao cpeo cyecy eepaoe ooe. Opa, peapy a cy ee cpe, cpec e cya aopy ce copoy pcocaaec e. xeop e cxoo aece eye aeop oee, oa eo a cooyoc ocyx oeoy ae pea a cy. oeee, coaco xeopcco oe, ec ece oeo ye cxoo, a ce ypee cxece poecc o eppepoa o oeo aae oeeec pea. B cooec c pecae e aoc coac epoaao ca oee. eo aac epe cxoaoc, papaoae eo eco (ep ee . aoo).

ep cceoaee, yope cxooeco epaype ep eeya ec, .M. ee. o ep oce ca eea eeyae ec epe, oyoao 1890 . ypae Mind, pope poy ecoc. B cae ee ca o o, o peee cep eco ooy cy o oo op aooepoc cxecx poecco e ca pee peopaoa cxoo oy ayy. Bece c e o caa c o o, o aya paeca eoc eco opace, ec yco x poee yy oao. Ta epe a pooaea eoxooc caapa eco, oo o cao oo cpaee x peyao, oyex pa cceoae a pax cyex.

ee peo aece opaa 50 eco, ax paoo poa epe yceoc, pee pea, pee, apaaeoo a aae eo, oeca yo, ocpoox oce oopaoo pocya, p.

Bepyc Aepy oce pao aopaop Bya e e epe, o eeeo ca pe ec ycpoeo p oyco yepcee aopaop (1891). Bce a eeo pye aepace aopaop aa pe eo eco. Boa eoxooc opaoa ceae oopaoe ep o cooa oo eoa. B 1895 . CA coa a aoax oea, pax oe yc ecooo pa oee apaee ecooec paoa.

epoaao aece eco cooac oe cepeao cxooece ca. o ope o oxo a pe aopaopoo cceoa, o cc x pee pao . Be aae cxooecoo cepea ec cee acoc cxecoo aa o ex ypex aopo, apep, xapaepa ocp o ex papaee, aoa o aco pacpeee o pee oope ..

p ecpoa cxoo pecppye yae pa cxecx ao, oea oyee peya p oo eoopoo pep oe cyae e e yco ocyece x cxecx ao.

Meo eco oy pooe pacpocpaee. Ho a eo pa cea payc pao cxooo A. e (18571911), coaee cao oypo cep eco.

o e opeec, a pao, pa cecooopx aecax yceoc, cpoe pea .. Ho paa peoaa opa o cx cxecx yx, ooaaex oo epa y, ee.

eo y oecea popeee a yceoe oee coo pcocoeo eeoc.

B 1904 . cepco opaoa opyo e ac papaoo eo, c oo oopx oo o oe ee, cocox ye, o ex e eax yc, o cpaax poe eea e cocox yc opao oe. Hya o oa c c eee ceoeo opaoa. Oopeeo opeoaoc coae ceax o yceo eooex ee. e copyece c Ap Coo poe cep cepeo o ye a, a, e y ee paoo opaca (aa c pex e). poeee a ox cyex cepeae aa poepe o cacec pep ca paccapac a cpeco opeee eeyaoo ypo.

epa aa (cep eco) eCoa oac 1905 . ae oa ecoo pa epecapaac aopa, oope cpec ee ce aa, peye ceaoo oye. e cxo pecae o o, o pae eea pocxo eaco o oye, peyae ooecoo copea.

aa A. e oceyx peax (1908 1911) a epeeea a ee ac . Bopa pea a (1908) oaac e, o e pacpe opaco aao ee o 13 e, yeeo co aa eeo oe yceoo opaca. Caoe pooe pacpocpaee oya opa pea a e. oce (pe) pea a, oyoaa o cep e, e eca cyecex ee.

aa aax e cpypoa o opaca (o 3 o 13 e). aoo opaca opac opeeee ec. O cac cooecy ao opaco cye, ec x peao oco ee aoo opaca (80 90%). e o 6 e peaaoc o 4 aa, a e cape 6 e 6 aa.

aa opac ye cceoa oo py ee (300 e.).

oaaee eea aax e yce opac, oop o pacxoc c xpoooec. ce opac opeec o yceoc oe ecox aa. cae aaoc c pee ecox aa, cooecyx xpoooecoy opacy peea. Ec o cpac co ce aa, ey peaac aa oee cape opaco py. Ec o pea e ce, a eoope x, cae pepaaoc Ec e peeo e cpac co ce aa coe opaco py, ey aac aa, peaaee oee aeo opaca ca pooc o ex op, oa e c opac, ce aa oopoo peac cye Maca opac, ce aa oopoo peac cye, aa ao yce opaco Ec poe oo peeo o ae eoopoe oeco aa, pe aaex oee capx opacx py, o aoe aae oeaoc co ycex ece Toa cy e, opeeex ao yce opaco, paoc e oopoe co ece pep peeo pe ce aa, peaaee ceeeo opaca, 2 aa, paccae a oceo co ece paccaec a 12 ece 6 (co aa oceo) = 2 eca (ea ooo aa), 2 ec x 2 = 4 ec a, yce opac peea pae 7 oa 4 eca Hecoaee yceoo xpoooecoo opaca caoc oaaee o yceo ocaoc (ec yce opac e xpoooecoo), o oapeoc (ec yce opac e xpoooecoo) Bopa pea a e ocya ocoo pao o poepe caapa, poeeo Copco yepcee (CA) oeo copyo o pyooco M Tepea o apa ecoo a e peoe 1916 e a oo cepex ee o cpae c oco, o a a ao Cope Ocox o o eco e o a eee aece oaae o ecy oea eeyaoc (IQ), opeeeoc ooee ey yce xpoooec opaca, peee pep oe ecpoa, eo ooc oe caceco op oe IQ peoe B epo, ca cyec e eocao oaae yceoo opaca o, o oa a e paoc ey yce xpoooec opaco pax opacx cyee ee eoaooe aee o ycpa o eocao, ep peo opee acoe, oy aeoe p ee yceoo opaca a xpoooec o oaae, yoe a 100, o aa oeo e eyaoc coy o oaae, oo accpoa opax ee o cee yceoo pa py ooeee copcx cxooo oc co oae o caceco op Hopa caa e pep e, c oop oo o cpaa yae ecoe oaae e ca oea x, aa cxooecy eppea aa Cope a paccaa a ee opace o 2,5 o 18 e Oa cocoa aa pao pyoc, cpypoax o opac pep aoo opaca aoee , cpe oaae oe (x) pae 100, a caceca epa pacce, ooe yax ae o oo cpeeo (<) paac 16 Bce yae oaae o ecy, oaae epa x

B o pe a yae ec, ae, a aa C-opBe, ocoo pec e ocypoa, pyoe ec cooac peyeceo ccee opaoa, poeoc ap.

20-e . aeo coe xapaepoac aco eco yo cpoe pooe pacpocpaee ecoo o oycoeo pee ceo ee apaeoc a oepaoe peee paecx aa epee eea c oo eco paccapaoc a cpeco, ooee ayo, a e pec oo opoca oye, pooopa, oe oce ..

Ha poe epo oo XX ea ceaca oac cxooeco aoc o coao oeco paoopax eco. p o, papaaa eoecy copoy eco, o oo ee o coepeca. Bce ec ae opao caappoac a ox opax;

ecoo oac oo, o ce o oac coo aeoc xopoe aoc.

Te e eee coce e eoca, oope epece p oca eco e.

Baa a opaee oooc eco eea:

poopoa a x ocoe yceoc oe opex, ocaoo yx o eeoc aco e yaaoc. Tpeoaac, oo a oeo ypo eea, ooea opa o ocoeocx cx eoea. Ta oo ooe apaee ecoo ecpoae ceax cocooce, oopoe aae pao o oo oe eco eea, a ocec eoc caocoey oac 4 TECT CEAHX COCOHOCTE OCTEH Too pa eco ceax cocooce cao ooe pae poeccoaoo ocypoa, a ae poeccoaoo oopa pacpeee epcoaa poeoc oeo ee. Ca oc ec exaecx, aepcx, yax, apcecx cocooce. Coaac ecoe aape (oe) oopa ocyax ece, pece, eepe pye yee aee. o papaoao ooo oecx aape cocooce cooa opaoa p ocypoa pacpeee epcoaa. Paac cocao, eoec aeca, o cxo oo x xapaepye a epeaa aoc. aec, pae pae oac opaoa poeccoao eeoc, eaeo paac co eco po.

Teopeeco ocoo ocpoe oecx aape eco cocooce cao peee ocoo ex opao ax o yax pax oppe ey aopoo aaa aop aa oo oee opee accpoa ceae cocooc ooy ocaoc eoo a cop oo apae cceoa Ac cxoo ap Cpe 1904 pe oy, o ooea oppe ey eca a pae cocooc (apep, aeaece epaype) e eoop o eepa aop O ooa eo yo g (o a general o). oo aopa, oeo cex o eeoc, ao x oapyaec ceec aop, coce oo aoy y eeoc (S-aop) Teop Cpea aa yxaopo Coaco ee ooe e cxooecoo ecpoa oo epee g y o Ec ao aop poec o cex yaex cxecx yx, o eo ae ec ece ocoae pecaa oee a pax cyax epee e ceecx aopo cca e ee, ocoy o oy oapy ce oo oo cya Cpe e opa oo, o yxaopa eop peye yoe Ec cpaaee eeoc oxo, o ao-o cee x oppe oe peyao e oo aopa g, o eoopoo poeyooo aopa e co oeo, a g, o e co ceoo, a S Tao aop, coce oo ac o eeoc, aa pyo oee pacpocpaac oa pe, coaco oopo cpyypy coc cocae p ocaoo pox pyox aopo, a oopx oe pax ecax e pa ec Hapep, epa aop oe e o ec ece a coap aac, e ece coecx aao coce eae ece a aeaecoe ee oppe eco ey coo c peyao apyeoc x pyo aopo Aepace cxoo T Tepco, poo pao aopo aaecoo apae, ac poea pyox aopo x ocoe pao 2030-e . . Tepco, ocoac a oocex cceoax, e 12 aopo, oope o ooa a epe ycee cocooc Cpe x oo aa ceye: coecoe oae, eoc pe, coo, pocpace, accoaa a, copoc ocp, y (oecoe ee) p. aee cceoa pe yee aopo. co ox aopo, ocax a ceo e, pao 120.

Ha ocoe aopx cceoa coaac ooaope aape eco cocooce, ooe ep ya ypoe ao cocooce. Haoee eca cpe x aape eco ox cocooce (GATB), aa ec cocooce opex poecc.

Copeeoe oae aopoo aaa oc eoope ee y eo paoy, oopa a 2040-e . aop aa o ca cye ex oppe. Ho ee oppe e oy cac yepcao opo pae aeaeco c ey cxec poecca.

Ceoaeo, ocyce ex oppe e oe ooac a ocyce c ooe, o e oocc eco oea oppe. ooy aop aa oaee ocpeco oo aaa aop e cea epo opaa acoc ey cxec poecca Ho, oay, aoe, o ae coee, o oae a aaex ceax cocooce. cocooc payc e a yae ocoeoc, oe peyae peoa oeca a a, a a ocoeoc, coo pcye ao yao cxe. Taa paoa opoae accy oecx pyoce. B cao ee, oya py coc poc y copeeoo a ae cocooc, o oopx ae pecae e e peecye ooe? He e ya, o cxe ac cocooc, poe cex pyx oecex peoa. Ho exa aopoo aaa pae cocooc a ey aoc;

eceoc e o cy cxece opaoa, axoec ae.

Caaoe yeae o, o oooc aopoo aaa yo oocc c oo ocopooc e ca o aa yepca cpyeo ye cx.

Hapy c eca eea, ceax oecx cocooce o ee o eco, poo peex yex aeex, ec oce.

B oe o eco eea o opaa e coo e ooopaoo aoeoo oa, coo e ceax popa oye a eoc pee ecox aa. cop pa x eco oe poceea c oea ce ococo oe yco op aeo a cey (1845) B Aepe ec oce aa cooac p oope copyo a ocyapcey cyy ye c 1872 , a c 1883 . x peee cao peyp Haoee aea papaoa eeo ex ocpypoa eco oce a oea eee epo poo o cpay oce ee Tec oce oocc aoee ooceo pye aocecx eo O aoee ecx poo peex o cx op eco oce ec Copc ec oce (SAT), epe oyoa 1923 C eo oo oeaec ypoe oyeoc pax accax cpex yex aee aeoe co eco ceax cocooce oce o coao paax cxoex o oece paecx apoco co copo poeoc oo aeee pae eco oce peo oe cepee XX ea pepao-opepoax eco 5. PE B AHOCTECX METO Ocooe apaee cxooeco aoce cao c papaoo pax eoo aoc oc C o e coyc ae ceo e ec, a ocoe eo, cpe oopx ec pee ceo opoc poea exa Opoc, epoo, c ca ep cxoaocec eoa, acoa cxooa ececoa, a, apep, opoc cooa . ap Opoc o oa pya eo, aa oopx pecae e opoco yepe, a aae cyeoo ec caocoeoe cooee eoopx cee o cee e oeo Teopeeco ocoo oo eoa oo ca poce-o. Bo yoo peoc paax peoo eoo, o coepa ec o eoaaeoc yxooo pa, o eoooc oeoo ye cxecx e Oca eao peooee, o, poe caoae, e x cocoo ye coa eoea. Meo opoco oo paccapa aece paooc caoae (a, apep, ca ABe).

oee epx cxoaocecx opoco cao c ee aoa, oop cooa x e ye ocx aec, a oe oaaeo cep eoea (ocoeoce peoo ocp, ycex opao) B oe pooo ea c oo eoa opoco pooc cceoa a (Be, ype), ox o (Po), ypee pe (Ce o) p Oeaae opoc oo paccac o apeca yyx pecoeo, oa x eaa ypaax.

pooo ocx opoco papaoa aepac cxooo Poepo Byopco 1919 . a ax o oc. o opoc peaae e ocea c oeo cy c epoeco coao. a poee c oo pee ece opoc oy poaee pacpocpaee aece cxoaocecoo eoa cceoa oc.

py ec eoo aoc oc c poee ex. x pooaao paoo caec eo coecx accoa, o a ae accoaccx eop. Accoacca oe aece eyeo pa opaa coa eoea cooaa accoa, oe oopo ee coe pocxoee o Apcoe. a eoca ccea accoa o XVIII ee, xo eoope eo p op pae.

Bepe accoa pepaaec yepcay aeop, ocy c cxecy eeoc, y acoo paa ap (17051757). Coaco eo eop e ca ey coo cooec c opo c aepax poecco, pocxox epo ccee. eeppy aopa accoa ap ca ceoc o pee acoy oope.

oo aepacecoo accoaa XVIII ee paac cyeo eacec accoa yex ep a. Coaco x pecae c e aa yp cax eeo coa e peye ao peao oco. x oee y eoea oec yepca aoa accoa, opeee paa caoo coa.

Booee eoa coox coecx accoa cao c ee pecca aoa (18221911). B 1879 . o oyoa peya cox accoax cepeo. peaa cyeoy oea a coo-papae epo pee ooy coeco accoae, ao coca cc co o oepe opa x epe cye (oa o ca cya aece aooo). C oo ceyoepa o cpoa pe oea. oee a eoa oya pae cceoax . peea (1892), . a (1906),. ea A.

Poaoa (1910) pyx.

a eppepyc peya o eo? oco cceoaee ceo co paccapa accoa cepe aece pea ye epeco ycaoo oc. Oao ceye oe, o eppea oyaex peyao opeeec eopeec a cceoaee.

ooy opoc o aoc eo e oe pee ooao e cooece c eopeec o ee coaee Accoa cepe cypoa oee ao py poex eo, a aepee peoe. Bepe ye oc aepee peoe o cooao A. eo 1928 .

poe accoaa eopeece co poex eoo oo ca cxoaae, cae o ay ya oe eccoaeoo. eccoaeoe paoc epoaao a cp ae oc, o, ceo ecy acex y opaa Pay o ooe eccoaeoy cy acpoo exao. oo o popac oac eccoaeoo, o cpe e ee, eoxoo o cepee apa coae a peee ocox aa, oope oo epooo poc eccoaeoy oc. Taoo a aa ac poee eo.

Oa cax oypx poex eo a papaoaa 1921 .

eapc cxapo epao Popaxo. Coaa y eoy, Popax cepepoa c o oeco epx e, oope o pe pa pya cxec ox. B peyae eo ae e xapaepc oeo, oope oo o cooec c pa cxec aoea, oceeo oec ccey oaaee. B aee a eoa cooaac apoaac o cceoae a y ac, a a pyeo.

Ee oa capex aoee pacpocpaex pe eo Tec eaeco aepe (TAT) a coaa 1935 X. Mopa . Mppee Cy aepa TAT coco a c opae eopeeex, oycax eooae ooa cya. cyeoy peaaec pya eoy cop o o, o peo cya, opaeo a ape, a oa ye paac. B acoee pe cyecye oeco oa TAT, ec pae oxo aay eppea ax.

oe poe ooae oox eo o epe cooao .

pao 1939 .

aay 40-x . XX ea aoca c oo poex eo caa oe oypo a aae. He oa aae pyee ooee apyex cceoax oc, ecop a pecoe ooee a, oyae c oo poex eo. pece aea apec x eo oe ac coc yaa a x eocaoy caapa, peepeee opa a, eoaoc pao cocoa opeee aeoc a-oc, a aoe, a cye eppea peyao aepa pa oop cop pa caoe cxooeco aoc a aae, oe, o oa oaec po paoopae coyex eo a ooe op, a x coepa Booee cxooeco aoc ao peoa pa, a ee pae apaeo a yoeopee x peoa C cao oee e cea eopeec oocoax, o eoec coepex peo cocoo aocpoa 6 OTEECTBEHHE PAOT B OACT CXOOECO AHOCT a ye oopoc e, ocoeoc pa cxoo ocee eep pooo ea o ecee ee cepeax eoo cceoa a epa xapaepa pycco cxoo oo pee Oo cxoo epo pa cepeax eoo opeeec paoa Bya eo o Mey e yee cop pycco cxoo oaae, o e paac cepeae pao, pe peyeceo aepaceco apae oeecee cceoa o cepeao cxoo oac o pao o Bya a ye oopoc, o oe coceo cxece e peaaoc ya p oo caoae, a oe cepea eo paa oo ooec cxec poecca B poooooc yoco cxoo oe cepeae cceoa pycco cxoo pooc o ao aepacecx e.

coo oo apae axoc a eax ope ay .M.

Ceeo (18291905) .. ao (18491936) B pyax M Ceeoa aa c 1863 oceoaeo oppyec aepacecoe oae cxeco eeoc ya aepa cycpa cxecx poecco o, Ceeo peo peeopy eop cxeco eeoc pooaee eo ea . ao, coa eop ycox peeco poo y o oex cceoa o yoao oo epao epo cce ye aepax oco cxecx e B Ceeoa aoa oaa peaee oece a poopee oo pecae ececeoayoo apae cxoo BM exepea.

Bc peecoo B.M. exepea a peaae peeopo eop Ceeoa exepe cpec c cxeco eeoc c oo, c ep poecca, aa cxece poecc epocxo o eo e, yee cx e oe opaeo oo ee cyeo copoo exepe yepa, o e ooe ooo coaeoo eccoaeoo poecca c, oop e paac pao oo oe poe (exmepe BMOea cxoo ee pee // Bec cxoo. 1904 9 10. C 730). Oea cxoo oa ooac oo oe eoo xapaepoa cxec poecc oo c eo oeo copo, yepa o Coea cee aa cxooa, ooa, cxapa epooa-ca, exepe ece c e ac opaaopo cxooeco ay, o pyooee ee popeccoo pa Boa cxoepooec cy eepype, o copa e oe cceoaee, ox p pao cepeaoo xapaepa Bece c e p ce popeccoc op exepea a oee eo cceoa po cyecco cxoo o e o peooe ooe cxec poecca a eoea (oo, coycy e, e oaa a ocoo poecc) ao oee , poecy po eaecx o (a, yca, ae), epaoepo oppoa e peae poecc, oope axo opaee x.

epa Pocc cepeaa cxooeca aopaop opac 1885 . p e epx yex oee Xapocoo yepcea;

ycpoe aopaop oo cxoo eepype, epe. B 1895 o ae pyeeo pyccoo cxapa C C opcaoa a coaa cxooeca aopaop p cxapeco e Mococoo yepcea.

aeoa e ca a oo opcaoa A A To-apc Bo cex x aopaopx paoa pa-epoaoo cxap, coeae co cxooece cceoa c paeo pao e, a ae cye e cee cocaa cxooeca aopaop Hoopoccco yepcee ( Oecce) B oe o pyx oa a coaa a copo ooeco ayee poeccopo oco HH ae epao cepeax cceoax, pooxc cxooecx aopaopx, a poea acoc cx o oa o eeo pa cceoaeca paoa a eco caa c eco pao cya e aoc cxecx epx aoea Bx cceoax yac oee pa ex x cxecx e (apep, eee yca xa a opaee o), oaaac peeoc, oeoc ax ocp, cac acoc a a o yco oa .. poe oo, o cex cepeax aopaopx pooc cceoa copoc poea cxecx poecco.

a, o opo ooe XIX ea oeecey cxoo ee cepe. Ho ooe cxooeco aoc eoxoo o, poe oo, o pae opeoaoc ae o yao-cxooecx ocoeocx eoea. epe oeecee pao o cxooeco aoce oc epe ece XX coe.

Bepoo, oa epx aex opeoox oeecex pao o cxooecoy ecpoa, pecaa aoeoe caocoeoe cceoae, a oea.. Poccoo 1909 . Mococo yepcee.

.. Poccoo, pye epoaoo cxap, oca coe e a eo oeceoo cceoa cxecx poecco opao aooeco cocox. o cyecy, o eo, oy poy ecoc a Pocc, a a pyeo, oo pax opax cce eco epe yceo oapeoc. a ccea oceoa, aaa eoo yaoo cxooecoo po, coac opeee cxecx poecco, oope oeac o ecao ccee a ocoa oeo a 10 ocaoo pooo oopax opoco. caaaac ca ppoeoo ya (epoo ya), oop a eoe ycooe aeco pooocac opoy yy, epepo coepecyeyc o e ex oec. cxece poecc, epee eoo Poccoo, eo coca p py: ae o, ooc pooc ocp, accoaa eeoc. O peo paecy opy pecae epe cxecx poecco epae cxooecoo po, oop ao eocppoa coooee yaax poecco.

Oea ocoeoc eoa cxooecoo po eo eacoc o opaca cyeoo. opa po oaaac ae pepe aoc yceo ocaoc.

Tpy Poccoo c epeco cpee a cxooa, a cxapa, ceapoac o poea yceo ocaoc. ooe po c oo pee poo o cxooecy aocy epeco ee.. ocoo, caaoe o ooy eo opeee cxooecoo po: coo oea y eoy, o pae paoy..

Poccoo aoee yao cpe cex oeecex pao, a a e oopa oe oaaee yceoo pa ec. ooe cceoax Poccoo o, cae.. oc, ae o, o oe o aaoo ecpoa o cpec eoco oee oc, ceecoy cocoy opae ee cx cax copo. ocec ceec coco cceoa oc, oopoy cpec Poccoo, aa ypec cxooeco aoce a aae CA.

Ee o pycc cxoo, pepac cxox o a yee oc, A.. aypc, pepo o e pe coa ooe apaee epeao cxoo ayy xapaepoo. Cpoo pepac oa cepea a ocox eoo cceoa, o o e pe co a coae ayo eop yax pa. Ocoo e epeao cxoo o ca ocpoee eoea eo aooce, a ae papaoy ooo oee oo ececeo acca xapaepo.

Heyoeopeoc aopaopo-cepea eoa oya aypcoo ca pye eo. O cyae a ecece cepe, p oopo peaepeoe eaeco cceoae eoea coeaec c ececeo cpaeo poco ocaoo oa. aoap oy, o e aypcoo, yaec cceoa e oee cxece poecc, a o oo eaec, a cxece y oc eo.

Ba eop aypcoo o ooee o ecee c coc xapaepa c ep poecca. pe o o e ocpeee aeco peoo (oaa cocooce e ee paeoo pa oex oocoex yaco ox oyap), a ocee coc oc epo ao opox poecco. a, aya xapaepoo aypcoo cpoac a oa aya, opaac a ecece cepe yee epoa opox poecco. He paa aae ae oece eoa oe cxecx poecco, coy oo aecee eo, o oee oy eocaooc ocex oac cooa paece cxe opeee cocooce peea. Ho pao o apae e aoe , oeaa peepeea oa cceoae (1917).

C pae epeao-cxooecx cceoa cxoo eo ooaac po ox eoo oxoo. Ca oe ocyec ee c c pao. Bce o ocyo ocoo ooe cxooeco aoc. Coceo cxoaocece pao Pocc a a cee aa paac ocepeoo epo. Ocoeo oo ax pao ooc 2030-e . oac eao, e, eoo.

oaee oco eo o opoae aax cxooecx eco. Heaee o poc opax poee ecox ca, opaoe eppea cepeaoo aepaa.

Opeee epec c o pe pa ox op ecpoa pecae epea aa ya A.. oyoa (1928), ooeo ocoy coe pao ay Be Coa, epeeey aapoay..

Cooo ca yceo oapeoc pyccx oo. o cy ea, aa oyoa pecae coo caocoey papaoy ooo aopa eco.

Hecop a ecy aao co ao eCoa, aa oyoa ee ceece ocoeoc: e opoao oco aa, ee coepeo oe aa, peoea oa cpy opa ee cooa, opeeeo pe pee ecox aa, papaoa oaae opacx cyee. paoe oe a A.. oyoa o a eCoa coco oooc poo pyoe ca. e e eee aa paoa a paooo cxooecoo ecpoa. B e co caaec yap exacec oxo cooa aocecx eo.

o oxo xapaepoac cpeee ep opaoy eco eo apaoo cac ece c e aeo opaoa pe opaa opaoe peyao. ye e coepaeo copo aocpyex cxooecx poecco e yeoc coo-y cepeoo a. B o ooe cxoaocece cceoa Pocc opeee ocyee o pa pycco cxoo, cea cpeec eopeeco eoooeco popaoe coe cepea.

Pao o ecpoa ee, o cyecy, ae oc eopeecx ycaoo epce coepecoae ex cepea aeaecoo aaa. Beco ye coepaeo copo cxooecoo ecpoa ecoo aeo opaaa pe opaa opao peyao.

Ocooe eco oeecex ecooecx cceoax aa pao M.. Cpa, ceao yaeo poey copeoc oaaee eco oapeoc pao coaoo ooe (a, ycaoe ee epx paoax e). C ey ocoeoc peeoo pa peyaa ecpoa oy pee a oaaa cepeao (ye cae epe pao ecooo cpoa y acoc). Oao c eee pee coa ace cyecoa eeyax pa ey co acca oeca ecoo caoc ce oee ocp a.

B o ooe peao a pao Cpa, ocoy oeecex cceoax o cxooecoy ecpoa o ep oaa, co poopeo ec ecoa aoca yax pa, oycaa po pooooy eppea peyao cceoa.

Caocoee cepeae pao Cpa oaa, o ey eco oea coa paa cyex eec ea opa c, eoopx cyax ocaoo eca, oy e oaaa coo peeo caoc.

B 20-e . eeo ea ae cpae aeoe pae oya cxoo pya cxoexa (py .H. pea, C.. eepea, H..

eoa, A.A. Tocoo p.). B paax x opace cxoo paaac cxoaoca, peya oopo a peee pe apae apooo xoca, pee ceo poeoc, a pacope, ccee poeccoaoo oye.

Bo ox opoax cpa paoa cxoexece aopaop, ooc ap cxoexo, o coao Bcecooe oeco o cxoexe pao cxooo, aac ypa Coeca cxoexa (1928 1934), pooc cxoexece oepe ce.

a ocoa opac oeeceo cxoo cxoexa opaaoo oopec 19271928 . E oo ceao oac oco paoax eoo cxoexecoo poeccoaoo oye, opaa pyooo poecca, oppoa poeccoax ao ye.

Bece c e cxoexa oepaac pe, ocoeoc a opaoe cooae eoopx eopeec e oocoax eco. Peyao oo cao cepae pao o cxoexe cepee 30-x.

Opaeoe ooee cxoexe ycoc epo oceeco paepyec p eoo, c oopo yee o oo oeo.

eoo a ayaa a oeca aya, aaac eoc, ceec yee ee. Ho ay ce ax cxoo, oo, aao eao e ocyece paax eoo.

peey a po eceo apccco ay o ex, eoo exaec oaa e yx aopo (cpe aceceoc), opeex poecc pa cx, coa aecee ocoeoc paaeoc eoea ooeco xapaepce, yeaac peee eco, paccapa x a cpeco epe yceo oapeoc eo oopa yceo ocax ee.

Bo c aae 30-x . aaac paa pa ox ooe eoo, aepac ocaoee B() o 4 1936 . O eooecx paex ccee apopoco.

Paepyac o epo pea pa eoo copooaac opae ceo ooeoo, o o ceao ye, a ae ca c eooe, oac cxoo cxooeco aoc.

ocaoee aoe ape a peee eco oe. o cyecy, pepae ce cxoaocece cceoa. oaooc ooo 40 e, o o apaee cceoa o ooc occaoeo cox paax. oe 60-x . o aa oc pao o cxooeco aoce.

oo o paccope oeecex pao oac cxoaoc, ceye oe, o, ecop a ooe oeco opx cceoa, opyx aae, cop ec epece caocoee pao, aec pe ayo-eoooece poe aoc. Ha copeeo ae pa cxoaoc o pooe, o e ye paccaao oceyx aax.

epaypa ue A. Beee cepeay cxoo. C. 1895.

ypay .., Mopoo CM. Coap-cpao o cxooeco aoce.

e, 1989.

ypeu M. poeccoaa pooc ocoe coca epo cce. M., 1970.

ao .. ooe copae pyo. M., 19491951.

cxooeca aoca. poe cceoa / o pe. .M. ype a. M., 1981.

Poccoo.. cxooece po. C. 1910.

poecu M.. cop cxoo. M.. 1966.

aa II ACCA CXOAHOCTECX METO 1. T AHOCTECX METO Cpeca, oop pacoaae copeea cxoaoca, o coey aecy paec a 2 py: eo cooo ypo opaa eo aoopaoae.

opaoa eoa oocc ec, opoc, poea exa cxoooece eo. x xapaepa eca peaea poeyp oceoa (ooe coee cpy, cpoo opeeee coco pee cyoo aepaa, eeaeco cceoae eeoc cyeoo p.), caapa (ae op pyx pepe oe peyao), aeoc aoc (opoo o o c. . III ). eo oo copa aocecy opa ooceo opoe cpo ao e, oop ae oooc oeceo aeceo cpaa a c py .

aoopaoa eoa ceye oec ae pe, a ae, opoc, aa poyo eeoc. coco a oe ee cee o cyeo, ocoeo oa peeo ye cya ae cxece e, oope oxo oac oea (apep, cyee epea, oce cc) c peao e (aa ee, coco, acpoe ..). Bece c e ceye e y, o aoopaoae eo oe pyoe (apep, ae a oceye ocyecc oa eee ecox ece) oe cee ocoa a poeccoao oe, cxooeco y caoo cxoaoca. Too ae cooo ypo yyp poee cxooecx ae, ece ooae ea cyax oox aopo a peya oceoa.

Maoopaoae aocece cpeca e ceye poooca cpoo opaoa eoa. a pao, o ao oo py pya.

B ooeo aoceco oceoa eoxoo apooe coeae opaoax eo c aoopaoa. Ta, copy ax c oo eco oe peecoa epo oaoe c oceye o eoop oe cye oaae (apep, c opaec a cyex, x cooc, oae eeoc ..). C o e oy cooa ep, opoc, ae.

2. METO BCOOO POBH OPMAA a ye oopoc e, o a ce epe ax acca eo:

ec (oope, co oepe, ec a ecoo oacco), opoc, poee ex cxoooece eo (ec y oo e, oope papaoa oe .M. Teoa).

Oo aax ocox ce eo opeee yao cxooecx pa eyc eca, a o aoce aac a o ecoo. Oao o coe cxooeco cyoc ec , apep, opoc oe ecxo ey coo. Meo poeoo xapaepa peca ae oco cpye, e oxo a o epecex.

ooy yeo oa oo, o ae aocpoae, x ceye oe py o pya o aa. Ocooe eco o a acca cxoooece eo. o opae cpeca aoc, oe ae cpae.

TECT Tec ( epeoe c acoo cae, poepa, poa) o caappoae pae ae ceo opaee o pee ca, peaaee ycaoe oecex ( aecex) yao cxooecx pa.

Tec oo accpoa acoc o oo, ao pa a ocoae ee. Haoee ae pecac ceye p ocoa acca: opa, coepae e cxooecoo ecpoa.

OPMA CXOOECOO TECTPOBAH o ope ec oy yae pyoe;

yce cee;

aoe, peee, aapaype oepe;

epae eepae (paece).

yae pyoe (oee) ec. yae ec o ao eo, oa aoece cepeaopa cyeoo pocxo o a o. ec e oy cop. C x aaac cxoaoca. yaoe ecpoae ee co peyeca:

oooc aa a cye (a eo o, py epoo pea), ca cpoa epeycopee cpye caa, o ooe oe ooee ecpoa, yoaoe cocoe cyeoo p. poe oo, cxoo, opac a ypoe oooeoc cyeoo, oe o xoy cepea ae o ec py. yaa aoca eoxoa p paoe c e aeecoo oooo opaca, eco cxoo ecpoa c coaec epo cxec apye, e c ec eocaa .. Heoxoa oa ex cyax, oa ye ec oa cepeaopa cyeoo c e oa eo eeoc. yaoo ecpoa yo, a pao, oo pee. Oo pee coe peoa ypo aa cepeaopa. B o ooe yae ec eee oo o cpae c pyo.

pyoe ec o ao eo, oop ooe oopeeo poo ca c oe oo pyo e (o ecox co eoe).

Oo ax peyec pyox eco accooc ca. pyoe peyeco cpy poeypa poee ocaoo poc, o cepeaopa e peyec coo aa. p pyoo ecpoa oo cee coaec eoopae yco poee cepea.

Opaoa peyao oo oc oee oe xapaep. Peya oca pyox eco oy opaaac a BM. Ee oo peyeco pyooo ecpoa oocea eoc cpoa copa ax a cece oee aope o cpae c ya ecpoae yco coocae c pepe. oca copeex caappoax eco e eo eooo o, o x opae op a o 100 o 200 c. eoe, o pe a ae aoee aeo papaoae yae ec p caapa c pyo apa ae 24 c. eoe.

Oao ceye oe opeeee eoca pyooo ecpoa.

Ta, y cepeaopa opao ee oooce oc aooa c cye, aepecoa eo apyc eo coace copya. e cyae coco cyeoo, ae, a oe, yoee, ecooco peooc, oope oy a oee aa, opao pyee pyoo ecpoa. B eo a, eaoe c ao poeypo, copee oay oee e peya pyox ecax, ee yax.

ooy ex cyax, oa paeoe o peyaa ecpoa peee ao cyeoo, eaeo oo peya pyooo ecpoa o yao poepo ecx cyae, o opae, oyeo pyx coo.

ce cee ec. ec paac o ope oea. c ae ceo a yae ec, ce pyoe. ce oe ox cyax oy opypoac cye caocoeo (ope oe), pyx o oe ecox peoex oeo pa aa o, oop cae pa (ape oe). B cex ecax oe ac cye ecoo epa, a ceao papaoao ae oeo. cee oe ae oy oc op ap xapaep.

aoe, peee, aapaype, oepe ec. ec paac o aepay oeppoa. aoe ec (pyoe poo ecoe aae ec apaa yaa) pecae e epae, pop, oopx coepc cpy o pee, pep pee, ca aa pa oeo (ec ecpyc e aeo opaca). capx opoco peycope apa, oa oe aocc e ecoe epa, a a oee a. o ooe cooa o e e ecoe epa oopao, o ex op, oa o e occ. aoe ec oy pec a p yao, a p pyoo ecpoa.

B peex ecax aepa ecox aa pecae e peax peeo: yo, apoe, eae eoepecx yp, ocpy yo execx ycpoc .. Haoee ece x y occa, ec coe yp aopa Becepa, ec BocooCaxapoa. peee eca ocoo pooc yao.

Aapaype ec o ao eo, oop peye pee ceax execx cpec ceaoo oopyoa poee cceoa pecpa oyex ax. poo ec pop cceoa pee pea (peaoep, peecoep), ycpoca ye ocoeoce ocp, a, e. B ocee o aapaype ec poo coy oepe ycpoca. Cx oo oepyc pae eeoc (apep, oe, oepaopa). o ocoeo ao poeccoao aoc, opepoao a opeee pep. B oce cyae aapaype ec pooc yao.

oepe ec. o aoapoa ecpoa ope aoa cyeoo BM. Tecoe aa pec a pae ce, a oe cye o a BM c oo aayp;

a opao, pooo cpay coaec a aop ax (a) a ao ocee. Caape cacece ae oo oe cpo poo aea-o-cacecy opaoy oyex peyao o pa apae. p ea oo oy opa e pao, a, apa, poe.

C oo oepa cepeaop oyae aaa ae ae, oope e BM oy paec eooo:

pe oe aa eca, pe oye pax oeo, oeco oao o pee opae a oo, pe, apaaeoe cye a oyae oea p oae o pee, pe oa oea (ec o coe) BM .. ocoeoc cyex oo cooa yyeoo cxooecoo aaa poecce ecpoa.

Bepae eepae ec. ec paac o xapaepy cyoo aepaa. B epax ecax oco coepae pao cyex c oepa c o, cee ec, ocyecee coeco-oeco ope.

Cocae eo aa aepy a, oopae, e x oocpeoao peeo ope. O oe yce pa oo yype, ypo opaoa, poeccoa ocoeoc.

Bepa aa aoee pacpocpae cpe eco eea, eco oce, p oee ceax cocooce (apep, opecx).

Heepae ec o ao eo, oopx eco aepa pecae ao ope ( e apo, epee, paecx opae ..). O a peey cocooc cyex oo ae oa cpy, cao e oee x aa opaec a epee, cxooope y. Ca ec eepa eco c popecce ap Paea. Heepae ec yea e ox yypx pa a peya oceoa. O ae oea poeypy oceoa cyex c apyee pe, cyxa c ypoe opaoa. Heepae ec poo coyc p oee pocpaceoo oaopoo e. B aece oex cyeco o e o oe ec eea, ox ceax cocooce, ec oce.

COEPAHE CXOOECOO TECTPOBAH o coepa ec oo ec a epe acca, apae: ec eea, ec cocooce, ec oce ec oc.

Tec eea. peaae cceoa epe ypo eeyaoo pa eoea. O c aoee pacpocpae cxoaocec pea.

o eeo a oeo epe opayeac e e poe yaoc, a pee ceo e, oope e ooee oaae poecca y ( e, a, a, ocp). o ope ec eea oy pyo ya, yc ce, ao, pee oep.

Tec cocooce. o eo, peaaex oe oooce a oae a, aa, ye, eoxo oo ecox eeoce.

po e oe ceae cocooc. Oe cocooc oecea oaee o a eeoc. Oe cocooc ooecc c eeo, ooy aco o aac o eeya (yce) cocooc.

B oe o ox ceae cocooc paccapac ooe oe a eeoc. B cooec c a eee papaaac ec ox ceax cocooce.

o coe ope ec cocooce oc paoopa xapaep (ya pyoo, yc ce, ao, pee, aapayp ..). Tec oce, , a x oo aa o-pyoy, ec oeoo opo yceoc (oo, poeccoao, copo) peaae oe cee poyoc cocooce, a, ao, ye oce poxoe eoeo oye, poeccoao pyo ooo. Ta opao, ec oce epy oepe ep e, oopoe oaae a pae a ooceo caap aop oec. O poo coyc oe ox, yex, a ae poeccoax oce.

ocec x ooe oeco paoopae.

Tec ox oce c ocoo pyo ao, o oy pecae oepo apae.

poeccoae ec oce oo e p pae op:

aapaype (ec coe ec), cee yce.

Tec oc. o cxoaocece pe, apaee a oey ooao-oex ooeo cxeco eeoc oa, epeco, o, ooe ( o ce eocx), a ae cocooce oee a opeeex cyax. Ta opao, ec oc aocpy eeeyae poe.

oce ocoeoc epc c oo pex o eo: eco, opoco poeo ex.

opoo ec eea, cocooce, oce oc paccope cooecyx aax oco.

E CXOOECOO TECTPOBAH paa oea eppea peyao cxooecoo ecpoa o ocoac a a oo, ao e o coyc.

po, oye coe pe e ac papaoo eco, a eoxooc e yceo ocax ee c ocey x opeeee ceae o. o ceoeo opeeee eooeoc ocaec ao oac pee oex o cxooecx eco. Oao o cyae ecpoae pooc c e cocae cxooecx xapaepc, acaxc ceecx ocoeoce e, a, a pyx cxecx poecco peea, a ooaeoe aee o o, ec o yceo oca poco eaoec aye, ea eeoo.

o o e cxee pocxo cooae cxoaocecx ax ee, cyex opaax (o apocy cya cocae cxooeco cep). Bo cex x cyax peya ecpoa peaae pecaee cex ceaoce, oope coy x ocao ecxooecoo aoa (apep, ee opeee op aoea) oo oo pee (acpaoo, cyeoo ..).

ocaoo opoe poee cxooece ec axo ccee opaoa, e a ocoa x peyao cac cxooec ao.

Pacpeeee ee o cocooc, cooec c oop pec pae ooo oye;

ee aococox, c oo copo, oapex c pyo;

ee cxooecx p oo eyceaeoc o eoope pep cooa eco opaoa. B oo pae ec oy cooac ae c e poeccoax ocya oopa opeeee poeccoao-exece ya, oe.

cooae eco p ocypoa oceeo pacpoc o yoapaex coeo ooceo yex poeccoax poe o yooo paccope aceo ce eoea ooae coco eoce ooe ce oe oe caoc oeo ocypoa Bce ae peec cxooecoe ecpoae a cpeco caooa caopa, oppe oee oaae eco caoc cpeco, oea y pe pee.

cxooece ec coyc ae c e ye oe pax poe, ax, apep, a opace ee pa eoea, eoc pax eoo oye, oece cxoepa, acoc eoc eeoc o ya.

Oop pacpeeee epcoaa a poex pepx ee oa ocaoo oa oac pee eco. a pyeo cxooecoe ecpoae coyec p ae e a paoy, pacpeee oaoce, epeoe a ooe eco, oe yoe. oo e opao cxooecoe ecpoae peec p oope pacpeee oeocyax.

B paoax oeecex cxooo ce ae cpeaec cooae eco a cpyeo paeco pao o pooopy poocya p o oepaec eoxooc oaaeca paoepoc cooa pooopa B acoc, o oe e eco, oa poecc pee ece peoa a ya ocoeoc eoea, oope ao oac pa, paec e ec eee , o ex cyax, oa pe a oyee poecc peo opaeo, a caa poeccoaa eeoc pee oee peoa ypo aa ( acoc, p oex ceaoce) B poeccx e, e poeccoao ae aeca paac, ec, e eec oooc oeca ox cocooce py, e ycex ac e o ypo, a o aeceoo coeopa cocooce, ao oop e ye cxooecoe ecpoae yeco ae opo a poecco oye poecc, e p ocaa paoo, axoe cax ec, o ooo poo yaoe oyee, cxopepo, a ae ye p paaa ecacx cyae.

OPOCH o aa pya cxoaocecx eo, oopo aa pecae e opoco yepe O peaae oye ax co co oceyeoo Opoc oocc cy aoee pacpocpaex aocecx cpyeo oy opaee a opoc oc opoc-ae oce opoc oo paccapa a caappoae caooe, oope o ope a pyo ya, ae ceo ce, ao oep o xapaepy oeo a opoc o ec a opoc c peca oea (ape opoc) co coo oea (ope opoc).

B apx opocax apaee peycope apa oeo a ocae opoc cye oe pa o x Haoee pacpocpae ec yx- pexaepa op oeo (apep, a, e;

a, e, apyc oe) a pao, ocx opocax e oe pax epax oeo O opaa epy coac ecoac cyeoo c e caae ococo apx opoco ec pocoa poeyp pecpa opao ax, ea opaa oea, o ao p accoo oceoa. Bece c e aa opa oea opye opa. Hepeo y cyex oa apye, oa eoxoo p aeopoe peee Ope opoc peycapa cooe oe e ax-o ocox opae cyee a oe o coey ycope Caapa opao ocaec ye oece poox oeo caap aeop.

Ope opoc apy c ococa (oyee paepyo opa o cyeo, poeee aeceoo aaa oeo) e opeeee eoca: cooc opaa oeo x oeo, apye eppea peyao, poooc poeyp oe apa pee opa oeo ocx opocax oe pecaea ae e a epe B o cyae peoaaec oea ex x yepe o paeoc x aeca, aoeoo ao (apep, py e, xopo oxo) Oo coyec pex-, - ceoee a cye oe oe cee paeoc oeaeoo aeca o coepa oce opoc oy opaee a opoc ep oc, opoc ooece, opoc oo, opoc epeco, opoc eoce, opoc ycaoo Opoc-ae cya oye ao-o opa o eoee, e ee eocpeceoo ooe eo cxooec ocoeoc (apep, oye ax o cop eo ) O peoaa eco cpoa opo, coepae opy opoco, eoe yaae op oeo. Oe oy aac opaae aee c ca coo (ao opoc), o pcyc cepeaopa (po opoc). Aee opoc accpyc pee ceo o coepa ocpy aaaex opoco.

Paa ae c op opoca (opaae caaec cooo ope), ae c ap opoca (ce apa oeo apaee peycope) ae c oyap opoca (oea oe pa oe ca peex a co coce). B aex opocax aco opy ce apa: ope, ape, oyape. o oae oocoaoc ooy opa.

pee e aa ae opoc, cepeaop oe e oe a ceye opoc:

1) epa peoa y opaaeoo (oe , ooo co pye, pyoo, aoopo, pe);

2) ce opoc apa oeo o;

3) cyecye oacoc yo opaaeoo;

4) e oacoc oye ocoo coao eaex cepeox oeo;

5) e co oo apao oeo a opoc;

6) ce ope co copo paecoo oope ae, e epeoco ccox ycax (apep, a pyy cpay), eo aeaa ec cpy, opoc oe (B.A. o).

Cpe opoco-ae cxoaocecx ex poo coyc opaece ae, peaaee oye opa o cep eoea. ae ceo opoc acac opaca, coco opo, ceeoo ooe, ypo xapaepa opaoa, ceax ao, poe o cye pyx ooceo oex oaaee. O ooa copa opa, eoxoy ocoepo eppea oaaee eco.

POETBHA TEXHA o pya eo, peaaex aoc oc. x xapaepe oa oxo oee oc, a e ee oex ee ep.

Haoee cyece pao poex eo ec cooae x eopeeex cyo, oope cye oe ca oo, eppepoa, paa .. Ta, cye peaaec eppepoa coepae cex apo, aepa eaoee peoe, aa ooae eopeeex oepa .. B oe o eeyax eco oe a aa poex eo e oy pa epa;

ooe po aao paoopax pee. p o peoaaec, o xapaep oeo opeeec ocoeoc oc cyeoo, oope poepyc a oe. e poex eo ooceo aacpoaa, o yeae oooc cyeoo aa ae oe, oope oo poec eaeoe ocee eaee.

eo oc ocoo ya xapaep oe coe ac a pee ao.

po paa ceye py poex eo:

eo cpyyppoa: oppoae cyo, pae cca;

eo ocpypoa: coae oopex eae occeoo eoo;

eo eppea: cooae aoo-o co, cya;

eo ooe: aepee peoe, paccaa, cop;

eo aapcca: ocyecee poo eeoc ocoo opaoax ycox;

eo ye cpecc: pcoae a cooy aay ey;

eo ye pecc: peoee ox cyo (a aoee eaex) py.

CXOOOECE METO Oco acc cxoaocecx eoo coca cxoooece eo, aocpye ppoe ocoeoc eoea, oycoee oco coca eo epo cce. O papaaac oeeceo oo .M. Teoa B.. He."a x oceoae paax ooo ayoo apae, oyeo aae epeaa cxooo. B oe o eco eo e coe eopeecoe oocoae:

cxoooecy oe yax pa, coc epo cce x poe.

yae pa, oycoee coca epo cce, e peopee coepa cxecoo pa. O axo coe poee opao-aecx ocoeocx cx oee eoea ( cpoe, ee, ococ, paoococooc, oexoycooc p.).

Ceye opa ocooe ae a oy epy cxoooecx eo, aocpyx yae pa: o e oeooo oxoa y. poo ec eea cocooce, cceoae ae oeo cee oeooe aee: o cye e ye pyoo, o e opay, pyo ae Oeo oxo ee eco opocax, paa, e o cex, a oo ex, e cac e eoope oepae, e cooecye opay eoeece ococa ocapoa x ocyce aocece cxoooece eo e peey a oey, ocoy caa, ae coca epo cce ye, a ae xye, eooo B ox ocoecax ye po ce c o coca epo cce, pyx c py.

p opeee aoceco aoc peyao, oyex c oo cxoooecx eo, coyc ce e pep, oope papaoa paax paoo ecoo (caapa, aeoc, aoc) o coe ope oco cxoooecx eo c aapayp- coyc epoeaopa a ceaa aapaypa Ho ocee a ece papaoa eo a apaa yaa (aoe eo). paecoo cxooa o oy peca oco epec, ocoy x oo poo cooa oo pae eocpeceo a pooce poe oo, eoope x oy pecae oepo apae a aapaype, a aoe eo oc ya xapaep opoo cxoooece eo paccope VII 3 MAOOPMAOBAHHE METO Teep paccop eoope pe, oope ac oe aoopaoae aoc a ye oopoc, cy ax peo oocc ae, opoc, ece (ep), aa poyo eeoc.

Meo ae. o cape eo cxooeco aoc C eo oo oo oy opy opa o eoee. O ec eae a, e e papaoa eec caappoae poeyp.

p o cceoae poee ae e peyec coac o op yac aaex Ocoo aoe aee eo ae ee ye cxooecx ocoeoce ee, ocoy peeo a oe cceoa pecae oe pyoc cepeaoo ye, e poc eoe B ae cpae 20-e aee poo cooaoc paoax M acoa p ye oee ee a papaoaa eoa cxooecx ae Ocoo p o eo, oa ee o pexc paee eox cxooecx ae (apep, yB epa, . epa p ), o acao ooa ca oex ex poe Bopo p o aee epepoo poecca, a e oex eo oeo. pe p paeoc ac Pecppyc oo e poe, oope cyece opeo aa cceoae. p o, o e M acoa, pecppoa p ae ceye e oo ee poe, o e ee o oooc ypee cy, oope x a, a ae oy ocaoy (o), oopo ocyecoc oeee.

B cooec co coe ayo oee M.. aco papaoa opoy cxey cxooecoo aaa ae oe p oca ye poo ae y eaoo-cxooo. o e .M. Teoa, eoa cxooecx ae M.. acoa a eceo poo epaype ayo papaoo oo eoa. a oea o cx op ocaec cpaeo.

ocoy o eoe aece epeoo cpyea cyae ca aae, oe ao, o o ae exo ae a coo ypoe oo oee. Haee oe a ay Ha coco ae oe co ac o ocx cocooce aae, eo ycaoo, aepe Peya aoo ae oc eopeee xapaep oy eppepoac py cceoae coepeo o paoy. Moo caa, o o oe epe xapaepy caoo aae, e oo, a e o aae.

cxooec e oe cooecye ayoe aee, , a eo aa M.. aco, cceyee, paee aee Taoe aee ocyecec a ocoe aeo peapeo ooo. Oo pepaec co cpoo opeeeo e, oopa opeee pe ae, oop yx ao. py coa, ayoe aee oaec o aoo ocaoo poe, opo cya ae, opeeee cxooecx aec ocoeoce oee, oope o ca oeo ae, papaoao cceo ca ac peyao, ooaoc oa py oyex ax. B aece pepa pee copypoae P eeo (1957) paa cxooecoo ae.

1) oeee cyeoo oo oeeo paoopax cyax ( oe a paoe, oecex ecax) pax poex ox (yaeoc, paoa, oa, ca, pya ), ooy aae oe poo c cye eeeo opeeeoe oeco pee eee 23 ece;

2) apaee o opeee ep oc ocoeoc oee, oope eoxoo oe;

3) cepeaop oe peapeo apepoa ooo oee, 4) aee oo ecpcpac, 5) oea ooo oceyeoo o e eee 10 aaee ooaea oea oa peca cpeee x ae, p o cyee aoo x oo eac.

acca ae pooc o pa ocoa. o cee opaoaoc aee oe eopopye (cceoae oyec o pa ao) opopye (pecpa oee e o eao papaoao poeype). B acoc o ooe aae paa pocoe ( ooe) aee, oa co pecppyc co copo, coyacyee ( eoe) aee, oa cceoae aec opeeey coay cya aapye co a yp.

Coa poea, oopa cae p pee eoa ae, aaec o, a cpoa aaeoe. oco opa pooopoa ae oo oec ceye: paoe aoe cce, cce aeop a pea (oeo). oa pooopoae eec ccee pao, o apaee oca opee oee, coaece eo oeeeco cep, oo cpy, ae x oc o o epo ae. pa oe ooa e peoa ooeoo pace. Hapep, cxee ae ya cooa ae pa' ye paoae c yeo, ye paoae c aeo pyo, ye oppye opoc yea, ye oeae ypo, ye poo ae p.

Ccea pao opa, .e. oe pooea. B o ee oe o cce aeop. B ccee aeop o ooc oca ce oee aaeoo;

oa poecce ae o-o ooe ye e.

Hapep, aeop, eee aepac cxooo P. eo ye oceoaex a pyoo eeoc, ceye opepoa eo py ooe oe aa, oea xoa oe aa ea py;

opo, aa p pee;

copooae poecc p pee o (ooee opaee).

coy paoe aeope cce, aae oy aa oe, eppea (apep, e, cpo ), oope aoo x e coe aee.

o ea cyea, coy a pea O pey ca e a paa, a cee eo paeoc Hapep' ao epec poe ye o pe a Cee paeoc oo epeca oo oe o 5-ao ccee coce e poe (1 a);

ea poe (2 aa), poe ao-o epec (3 aa), poe oo epec (4 aa);

poe y epec (5 ao) a o, eo ae ec ocaoo pyoe co aocec cpyeo, pey o aae ooo poeccoaoo oa ceao ooo o pa oy eoy opaoa xapaep (apep, cocaee eco poeyp ae, oyee c oo a pea oecex oeo) cococy oe oeoc ocoepoc oyeo opa.

Opoc. o eo copa epx ax a ocoe epao oya p coe opeeex pa o ooe oy e eee aey opa o cox pooo acoeo, o ycox coocx, oax ex x ocyo, o cyex cocox, e eo ae o oo ca, o opoc ca e pee eo cycco cooa oo eoa coco o, o a, a cpaa, ae aaa opoc, a yec o, o oo ep oye oea.

a o-pocax oc, caa oa cooc, oopa oae p pee oo eoa, aaec opypoa opoco Cyecy oocee paa ocpoe opoco, pacooe x opeeeo ope, pypoe oee o B epaype opoo oca e o, oae p epaoo ocpypoa opoco (B A o, 1972).

Meo opoca e eoope pa o ope xapaepy x opaa Ta, o oy pooc yco ceo, yao pye, o pa oopao Bopoc oy opypoac po ope (oe ceye oa o e cce, a eo oae opaae) oceo (oe peoaae pacpoy o, cpo o oeaeo cce) O oy e op ap xapaep O aoee pacpocpaex o opoca ec ep ep. o pooa o opeeeoy ay ecea, peoaaa po oa epepa c pecoeo (oea) o ope oo ae coooe (ecea e cpoo eaa opoco, o o oe popae cpoa cpae ox epax, a aa cooa), caappoaoe (ocyecea eaa papaoa ce poeyp, a o a ece, oceoaeoc opoco, apa oox oeo: coe cpae aa);

aco caappoaoe (coa cpae, a aa oee cooa) aocec e oe epe cooecye caappoaa opa ep, ocoy ae oooc oy cpae ae o pax cyex, opaae e ocopox oec, ooe oo epe yo oceoaeoc opaoa ce opoc. Oao eo ceye pe oo oa, oa oea oxoo e a o B poo cyae peya oe eyoeope, ocoy caappoaoe ep o ocpaec a cya aeaooo opoca, o opaae poe eocpeceoc cpeoc oeaeo. p paoe c e caappoaoe ep peec peo. cxoo cpec oee ecece opa ece. ae ceo ep ee ceyy cpyypy a) eee- acpoa a ecey, a copyeco;

) cooe caa cyeoo;

) oe opoc (apep- T oe e o-y paccaa ooe?), ) opooe cceoae;

) ce oeo ape paee paeoc a yace ecee.

ep e oo pooe cy. Pecpa oeo e oa cepa oeaeo. eppea oyex peyao e ea cyea, ooy, a ye oopoc e, x ceye paccapa oece c a aocecx eo.

B acoc o eeoo aae ep pae a aocece ece. aocecoe ep o eo oye opa o cocax oc, coye a pax aax cxoepa. Oo oe ypae eypae (coea). ecoe ep o eo epaeeco ece, ooae eoey ocoa co ypee apye, o, cpe o oee Aa poyo eeoc (oe-aa). B cxoaoce cyecye ee o coco oye opa o oeceo aece aa oyeax coo, oo ya poy eoeeco eeoc o oe oyea co oac ca, aoopa, e, oopa, ac a oee, poee cycca, aepa cpec accoo opa (ae, ypa .).

oo o p ye oyeo oo o peooe cye cceoae, ocoepy opa ocaoo oo ee pecppoa, papaoa cea eo, oy aae oe aa (yao aa coepa) Bepe o aa pec aa c 20-x . aeo coe opao aepao cpec accoo oya o oee eee opaoa eo aaa oyeo, oa a ocoe oe cceoae oyeax aepaax ec ceae e opa, a ae ocaec acoa x yopee Ta, apep, 20-e pycc cceoae H A Po xoe aaa coe pocea, a pacpeec ooee opaee oe oa coe acoc o opaca oa pyo pep B 80-x H H eex A aeeo pooc oe-aa oo ecooc apecc aax oeecex oax Aa oeceoe peoaae oee eco xapaep oox oo aax ax Ta opao, ocoa poeypa oe-aaa caa c epeoo aeceo opa a cea. C o e ec a a e ccoe, aecee, e aaa e cea, oecee Ocoa pyoc p paoe c oyea coa yee poec aece aa, e e ccoe e o o oo ac o o oeeoc cceoae, ypo eo opecx oooce Ta a oe-aa ocoa a pe oopeoc, aco cooa pax ccox e (apep, opeeex o, cye, opao ), eo ceye pe oo oa", oa ec ocaooe oeco aepaa aaa B oe-aae o pocoo ocea aco cpeaeoc ex x ccox e oceeo epe oee co cacec pea (oppeoo exe aopoy aay) Ho ao pa oo eoa caa eo oepa Ocoeo poo o coyec CA a papaaac caape popa aaa paoopax oyeo, ooe ocaoo cpo aeo poaapoa opo oe opa ocoo opoo o yoeoo pyoo cocoa B cxooeco aoce oe-aa aoee aco coyec aece cooaeoo eoa poeyp opao ax, oyex p pyx cceoax C eo oo oepac aay peee cooe cyeoo, copooae paec e aocece oceoa, ocoeo p yao poeype opeo oe-aa oe pec p opaoe ax, oyex ocpeco poex eo (apep, TAT, ec Popaxa, aepee peoe), ep, coepa ece, pyo peeo ceo poy cyeoo, opx opoco ae Ta, apep, eoax aoc ocx ocoeoce (peooc, epoa p.) pooc oe-aa paaecx ccecx ocpy pe cyeoo- oeco eaecx caa (oe, cpax, eyepeoc ..), aoo, oecx oo . Tao aa epeo ooe oepoa cpy ee oeax cyeoo B oceee pe aao cxooeco epaype oc ep ec ye. o opayeac e oo paoe ec yea opo ox oce, a eeapaeoe cooae yee coe paoe aoopaoao aoc Ocoo eec yee poo cceaece ae, ee coe e yee yao cxooecx ocoeoce yeo, x oee o ocoaeoc papao ec ye aeo oca o oo, o ocyo opaoao aoce Oao cao yoae o x cxoaoceco epaype, epoo, ceye paccapa a oo poe eyoeopeoc o opacoc, oopa caa eoeeo epo cxooecoo aocpoa Too coeae opaoax eo aoc c ae, ecea py opa ye oceyeoo oe a yoeop peya.

epaypa aco Mpae cxooece poee M, 1975 C 429 ypay , Mopoo CMCoap-cpao o cxooeco aoce e, 1989 C pa cxooec coap M, 1985 C 430 Oa cxoaoca M, 1987 C 303 cxooec coap M, 1983 C aa III TPEOBAH OCTPOEH POBEPE METO 1. CTAHAPTA aoceca eoa oaec o o cceoaeco e, o oa caappoaa. a oeae A. Aaca (1982), caapa o eoopae poeyp poee oe oe eca. Ta opao, caapa paccapaec yx aax: a paoa ex peoa poeype cepea a opeeee eoo pep oe peyao aocecx ca.

Caapa poeyp cepea opayeae ya cpy, ao oceoa, cocoo pecpa peyao, yco poee oceoa.

cy peoa, oope eoxoo coa p poee cepea, oo, apep, oec ae:

1) cpy ceye cooa cye oao opao, a pao, ceo;

cyae ycx yaa o ac pax pyax o e e coa, o cex, oaoo aepe;

2) ooy cyeoy e ceye aa ax peyec epe py;

3) poecce cepea e ceye aa oe cye ooee oce;

4) cepe c pa pya ceye poo oaooe o oooc pe , cxox ycox;

5) peee opae oe aa cex cyex o oao ..

Oo aop eo pyooce po oe opoe yaa o poeype ee poee. opypoae ax yaa cocae ocoy ac caapa oo eo, a a oo cpooe x coee ae oooc cpa ey coo oaae, oyee pa cye.

py aoee a ao caapa eo ec op pep, o oopoy ceye poo cpaee peyao aocecx ca, ocoy aocece eo e e apaee opeeex caapo yceoc eya x oe. Ta, apep, peeo ec e, o ec yceoo pa, oy a, pa 117. a o oa?

Xopoo o oxo? aco ao oaae cpeaec y ee aoo opaca? oece peya a aoo eo e oaae. oye ooo a e eppepoa a oaae ooceo cooo, cpeeo oo pa, a a o pae paeo eax epe, pcyx ao eoe, , a opao, acooo ae oyee peya e e oy. Oeo, yo pacoaa oo ocea a-o cpoo opeee epa, o c x oo oea oyee p aocpoa yae pyoe ae. Boae opoc, o a y oy ocea pa? B paoo ecpoa aa oa oaec cacec ye o a aaea caceca opa.

B ox epax caapa aoceco eo, opepoao a opy, ocyecec ye poee o eo a oo pepeeao ope oo a, oopoo oa peaaea. Ooceo o py cyex, aaeo opo caapa, paaac op, yaae e oo cpe ypoe oe, o eo oocey apaoc e e cpeeo ypo. B peyae oo oe pae cee yceoc eyceoc oe aoceco po. o ooe opee ooee opeoo cyeoo ooceo opao op op caapa (A. Aaca, 1982).

ce caceco op cxoo-aoc opac ao pee oo pea aeaeco cac. Paccop pep.

Ha po y c ecoo c oox e. oyc, o ce o pepo ooo opaca. o oy p epe x poca? Oo oaaec, o oco o ooo poca, coce eoo ye e oe aeoo oe cooo poca. Ocae e pacpeec cepo, yeac o oecy o cpeeo acya y pyy copoy. Pacpeeee paccapaex e o opaoe pacpeeee ( pacpeeee o opaoy aoy, pa pacpeee aycca). Maea oaa, o oca aoo pacpeee ocaoo a a oaae cpe apeecy a aaeoe caapoe ooee, oopoe oyaec ye ecox ce.

Haoe cpe apeecy x, a caapoe ooee (ca aa).

p opao pacpeee ce yaee e paec axoc peeax + 5.

Hopaoe pacpeeee oaae o peyeca, acoc oo ooe apaee pacca, coo cyae ye pacooeo opeeeo yae o cpee apeeco p cooa opeee yaeoc caapoo ooe. oo ec ceae a. x o, o peeax x axoc 68% yaex cyae. a peea axoc 32% cyae, a a a pacpeeee cepo, o o 16% c ao copo. a, peoaaa aoee pecaea ac pacpeee axoc peeax x .

Paccop caapa aoceco eo a pepe eco CopBe. B pyy cyex xo 4498 eoe o 2,5 o 18 e. c copcx cxooo apae a o, o pacpeeee oyex o aoy opacy ax o oe eco o o opaoy. oo peyaa yaoc oc aeo e cpay;

eoopx cyax ye pxooc ae o aa py. B oe oo paoa a aoea, oooe ec o aoy opacy co cpee apeeco, pao 100, co caap ooee, pa 16, c pacpeeee, opaoy.

Be oopoc o o, o p epe poca oopae o oyeo opaoe pacpeeee ax o x poce. Ho e eac poecc epe, e ae ox oopae py. Bce oyoc ececeo, cao coo. Ho p paoe c cxooec eoa eo e e a. O cxooa, eoxo peca cxece oooc ee, pxooc ae eoope aa, o p oyee peya opaoy pacpeee. Peya aocecx ca cxoo oe peo yaac pa opaoo aoa;

x pxoc oo ceao oo. p oo e yo ca cao cyece eca, oycoeoc eo oe oooo cyex.

a, copc cxooa o oyeo pacpeeee, oe opaoy. eo oo yo? o ao oooc accpoa ec oye aepa o aoy opacy. ao acca coyec caapoe ooee cpe apeeca x. paec, o peya peeax x oaa pa aoee xapaepo, pecaeo ac pacpeee, pa op aoo opaca. p = 16 x = 100 pa op yy o 84 o 116. eppepyec o a: peya cyex, oope e xo a pa, axoc peeax op. Te, peya eee 84, axoc e op, a e, peya oee 116, e op. Hepeo o e pe pe aee acca. Toa peya peeax o x o x - 2 eppepyc a ecoo e op, a o x -2 o x - 3 a aeo e op. Cooeceo accpyc peya, axoec e op.

Bepec peyay, oyeoy peeo ec e, o oopo yoaoc e. Eo yceoc o ecy paa 117. o peya e op, o oe eaeo (epx paa op 116).

poe caceco op, ocoo cpae, eppea peyao aocecx ca oy ca ae oaae, a poe poe o poea o o op caapa, ep peya oopx e aoo epoo oaae. Hapep, ec 28% e pao pea 15 aa apeeco ece, o epoy oaae 15 cooecye 28- poe (P28)- poe yaa a ooceoe ooee a ope caapa. x ae oo paccapa, a paoe paa, oee co oopx pao 100, c o pae, o p papoa po aa oce cepxy, ec yeo ea py, oyaeo pa 1. B cyae e poee oce eec cy, ooy e e poe, e xye o a.

50- poe (P50) cooecye eae ooy oaaee epao ee. poe ce 50 peca oaae e cpeeo, a e, oope ea e 50, cpaeo e oaae, 25- 75- poe ec ae o aae 1-o 3-o ape, ocoy o e epx eep pacpeee. a eaa, o yo oca pacpeee oaaee cpae c py pacpeee.

poe e ceye cea c o poe oaae ocee c ep oaae peca coo poe pao oex aa, oa a poe o poo oaae, yaa a o o oeo ca eo py. ep peya, oop e oo oaae, oyeoo ope caapa, ee yeo poe pa (P0). Peya, pea o oaae ope caapa, oyae poe pa 100 (P100). poe, oao, e oaa yeoo acooo peyaa oe eca.

poee oaae oaa po ococ. x eo pacca o ae cpaeo eoooeoy eoey. x peee ocaoo yepcao oxo oy y eco. Oao eocao poee o cyeceoe epaeco e ocea o cyae, oa aapyc pae o pacpeee. p cooa poee (a ye oeaoc e) opeeec oo ooceoe ooee yao oe, o e ea pa ey oe oaae.

B cxoaoce cyecye pyo oxo oee peyao aocecx ca. B ae cpae o pyooco .M. ypea papaaac ec, oopx aece o ocea cyae e caceca opa, a eac o peyao ca, oeo aa coao cxooec opa. B ae XII ao opeeee oo o oaao, e peyeco aoo pep oe o cpae co caceco opo.

Coao-cxooec opa peayec cooyoc aa, cocax ec. Ceoaeo, ca ec oo eo oee ec a opao. Bce coocae yax pyox peyao ecpoa pooc c e acyo, oop pecaec ece (a o o aop a). B aece pep oe cyae oaae, opaa cee oc peyao opay. eec papaoaa cxea pecae pyox oecex ax.

aaa ax ooceo x oc coao-cxooecoy opay, ycoo paccapaeoy a 100%-oe oee ceo eca, ce cyee opaec o peyaa ecpoa a 5 opy (%):

1) aoee ycee 10;

2) e yce 20;

3) cpee o yceoc 40;

4) aoycee 20;

5) aeee ycee 10.

ao opy ocaec cpe poe pao oex aa. Cpoc ccea oopa, e o oc accc y oepa opy, o oc opa poe oex ao opy aa. oce aece cooecyx oe epaec pa, opaa pee ao opy coao-cxooecoy opay. Taa opaoa pooc o peyaa a eca eo, a aoo cyeca oeoc 2 HAEHOCT BAHOCT pee e cxoaocece eo oy cooa paecx ee, o o po poepy o py opax pepe, oaax x cooe aeco eoc. peoa cxoaoce caac oa poecce pao a eca a x coepecoae. B peyae oac oooc opa cxoo o ceoox epaox oeo, peeyx a o, o aac aocec eoa.

cy ocox pepe oe cxoaocecx eo oocc aeoc aoc. oo a papaoy x o ec apyee cxoo (A. Aaca, E. e, . op, . poax, P. Topa E. Xae p.). papaoa a opao-oec, a aeao cacec aapa (pee ceo oppeo eo aec aa) oocoa cee cooec eo oee pep.

B cxoaoce poe aeoc aoc eo eco aoca, e e eee cyecye pa paeoo oe x aex xapaepc. Cey e, ae c paccope aeoc eo.

HAEHOCT B paoo ecoo ep aeoc oaae ooceoe ococo, ycooc, coacoaoc peyao eca p epo oopo eo pee a ox ex e cyex. a e A.Aaca (1982), p oo c oepe oocc ecy eea, ec o ey aae ee peeo e oaae, pa 110, a oy 80. oopoe peee aex eo ae cxoe oe. p o opeeeo epe oy coaa a ca peya, a opooe eco (pa), aaeoe cye pye. o, pyo cyae p oope oa oo eoope pacxoe, o ao, o o eae, peeax oo py.

Ta opao, oo caa, o aeoc eo o ao pep, oop oop o ooc cxooecx epe, .e. ooe cy o o, acoo ya oepe oyee peya.

Cee aeoc eo ac o ox p. ooy ao poeo paeco aoc ec cee eax aopo, x a ooc epe. Moe aop ac coca acca ax aopo. Cpe x aoee aco aac ceye:

1) ecaoc aocpyeoo coca;

2) ecoepeco aocecx eo (epeo cocaea cpy, aa o coey xapaepy paopo, eeo copypoa yaa o pee eo cye ..);

3) eac cya oceoa (paoe pe , oa pooc cepe, paa oceeoc oee, ae ocyce ocopox yo ..);

4) pa aepe oee cepeaopa (o oa oy o-paoy pee cpy, o-paoy cypye oee aa ..);

5) oea yoao coco cyeoo ( oo cepee oeaec xopoee caoyce, pyo yoee ..);

6) ee cyeoc cocoax oe eppea peyao (oa eec pooopoae oeo cyex, oeac oe o cee oo, opaoc ..).

Ec ce aop e y ocapac ao x ycpa yco, cae ooc epe, o oo oc peeoo ypo aeoc eca. O aex cpec oe aeoc cxoaoceco eo ec eoopae poeyp oceoa, eo cpoa peaea: oaoe oceyeo op cyex ocaoa yco pao, oo xapaep cpy, oaoe cex peee opae, coco ocoeoc oaa c cye, opo pee aa .. p ao caapa poeyp cceoa oo cyeceo ye e ocopox cyax aopo a peya eca a opao oc x aeoc.

Ha xapaepcy aeoc eo ooe e oaae cceyea opa. Oa oe a ca, a aa o oaae, apep, aeoc oe cycceo aea, ec ope eoo papoc peyao, .e.

ec peya o co ae py pyy. B o cyae p oopo oceoa oe peya ae pacooac eco pyo. Booe ee paox ec cyex yy eae, , ceoaeo, aeoc eo ye coo. Taoe e eopaaoe aee aeoc oe oy p aae peyao op, cocoe py, ee oe coe peya, py c oe oea o ecy. Toa aeo ocoe py o pya peya e yy epepac, ae ec eac yco cepea cyae aop. ooy pyooce oo eaec ocae op, a oopo opeeac aeoc eo.

B acoee pe aeoc ce ae opeeec a aoee oopox opax, .e. a opax, cxox o oy, opacy, ypo opaoa, poeccoao oooe .. ao ao op poc co oe aeoc. po oaae aeoc pe oo pya, oo e, a oopx o opeec. Ec eoa peec ope, oaec o o, a oopo poepac ee aeoc, o a poeypa oa poeea aoo.

a oepa oe aop, paooce aeoc eo a e oo, a yco, x a peya aocecx ca (B ep, 1983) Oao paecoe peee axo ecoo o aeoc Ta a ce aeoc opaa cee coacoaoc yx eaco oyex po oaaee, o aeao-cacec pe, c oo oopoo ycaaaec aeoc eo, o oppe (o pcoy Cpey, c . XIV). Haeoc e e, e oe oye oe oppe paec ee, aoopo.

B ao oco p oca o aeoc ocoo yop eaec a pao .M ypea (1969, 1975, 1977, 1979), oop, poe ae aa apyeo epayp o o poee, peo ooa aeoc a:

1) aeoc caoo epeoo cpyea, 2) caoc yaeoo paa;

3) ocaoc, .e. oocey eacoc peyao o oc cepeaopa oaae, xapaepy epe cpye, peaaec aa oeo aeoc, oaae, xapaepy caoc epeoo coca, oeo caoc;

a oaae oe oc cepeaopa oeo ocaoc.

eo ao ope peoeyec ocyec poepy eo:

eecoopao caaa poep cpye epe. Ec oyee ae yoeope, o oo epexo ycaoe ep caoc epeoo coca, a ye oce oo p eoxooc ac pepe ocaoc.

Ocaoc a oee opoo paccope x oaaee, xapaepyx c pax copo aeoc cxoaoceco eo.

1. Opeeee aeoc epeoo cpyea. O oo, a cocaea eoa, acoo pao oopa aa c o pe x aocoacoaoc, acoo oa oopoa, ac ooc, oeoc oo cxooecoo epe. Bype oopooc eo oaae, o ee aa ayapy oo o e coco, pa.

poep aeoc epeoo cpyea, oopeo o eo oopooc ( ooeoc), coyec a aae eo pacee.

Oo aa ec a ee eee, oeo opaaac, a ae peya yx oyex po oppepyc ey coo. pee oo cocoa yo oca cyex ae yco, o o co yce pe ( oac pe) ce aa. Ec eoa oopoa, o oo pa yceoc pee o a ooa e ye, , ceoaeo, oe oppe ye ocaoo co.

Moo e aa py ye, apep cooca epy ooy eca co opo, epy pe eep co opo eepo . Oao paceee a ee eee aa pecaec aoee eecoopa, ocoy eo o coco aoee eac o ax aopo, a paaaeoc, pepoa, yoee p.

Meoa paec aeo, oa oye oe e e 0,750,85. ye o aeoc ec a oe opa 0,90 oee.

Ho a aao ae papao aoceco eo oo oy ecoe oe aeoc, apep, opa 0,460,50. o oaae, o papaaaeo eoe pcycye eoopoe co aa, oope cy coe ceoc ey ce oea oppe. Tae aa eoxoo ceao poaapoa o epeea x, o ooe .

o ee o ycao, a ce ax aa cac oe oppe, eoxoo poaapoa a c ca a, oooe oppe. Ceye oe, o e ee coepa eo e aa, x epecaoa, epeopypoa opoco oeo peye aoo ca oe aeoc.

p oaoe c oea aeoc e ceye aa, o o ac e oo o paoo oopa aa c o pe x aocoacoaoc, o o coao-cxooeco oopooc o op, a oopo poepac aeoc epeoo cpyea.

B cao ee, aax oy cpec o, aoece oo ac cyex, o xopoo ece pyo ac. O oo, a oo eoe ax o, ye ace oe aeoc, aa c a o oy cyao pacooc eo eeo ooe eca. Oeo, oaae aeoc e ceye pca oo eoe a aoo e yoa a o, o o ye ee, c ao opo poooc ecpoae.

2. Opeeee caoc yaeoo paa. Opee aeoc cao eo o e a pe ce opoc, cae c ee peee.

Hyo ee ycao, acoo yco, cae pa, oop cceoae aepe ep. o eoooeco oo pacca a acoy caoc cxooecx pao. Bo, o epe pa co peee eec, e eo oacoo aeoc. Bce eo o, ax peeax appyc peya o oa oy y ooo oo e cyeoo, e po oea oy, o cye o eo pa oaaec o aae, o cepee, o oe op. Cea ae-o opee o o ypoe pecaeoe epeoo paa y aoo cyeoo e. Ta opao, oea paa e o e epecayeoo xapaepa. Ec e c p pex oea, o ao pa e oe cooa aocecx ex.

poep caoc aocpyeoo paa, coca coyec pe, ec a ec peec. O aaec oopo oceoa cyex c oo o e eo. O caoc paa cy o oey oppe ey peyaa epoo oopoo oceoa. O ye ceecoa o coxpae ecoxpae a cye coeo opooo oepa ope.

Ha cee ycooc, caoc aocpyeoo coca paoopae aop. co x ocaoo eo. Be ye oopoc o o, a ao coa peoa eoopa poeyp poee cepea. Ta, apep, ec epoe ecpoae poooc ypee ac, o oopoe oo poeeo ypo, ec ep o copooac peape oao aa, o p oopo ca o ycoe ae oo coeo ..

p opeee caoc paa ooe aee ee poeyo pee ey ep oop oceoae. e opoe cpo o epoo o opoo ca, e (p pox pax ycox) oe aco, o aocpye pa coxpa ypoe epoo ca. C yeee peeoo epaa caoc paa ee ee cac, a a opacae co ocopox aopo, x a ee. Ceoaeo, apaaec o, o eecoopao poo oopoe ecpoae epe opo cpo oce epoo. Oao y ec co cooc ec cpo ey ep op oo eoo, o eoope cyee oy ocpoec co pee oe a , a opao, ooy o cca oe aa. B o cyae peya yx pee eo ye e paccapa a eace.

Tpyo eo oe a opoc, ao cpo oo ca oa oopoo cepea. Too cceoae, cxo cxooeco cyoc eo, yco, oopx oa pooc, ocoeoce op cyex, oe opee o cpo. p o ao op oe ayo oocoa. B ecooeco epaype aoee aco aac peee epa ecoo ece (o e oee oyoa.) p oceoa ee aeo opaca, oa opace ee pae pocxo oe cpo, epa oy opa ecox ee (A Aaca, 1982).

Bao o, o oe caoc e ceye paccapa oo c eo yo opao copo, o eo aco ae. Ec ec cceye coco, oopoe epo ecpoa axoc poecce ecoo pa (apep, yee poo ooe), o oe caoc. oe oaac eco, o o e ceye cooa a eocao eca Tao oe caoc oe eppepoac a oaae opeeex ee, pa cceyeoo coca. B o cyae, apep, M ype (1975) peoeye paccope o ac y opy, a oopo ycaaac oe caoc. p ao paccope ec ac cyex, poxox y pa oaoo poo ee, pya ac e pae o ocoeo cp ea;

ac op, e pae y cyex paec coce e ae. aa ac op acyae ceaoo aaa cooa. Ceoaeo, eocaoo poco ocapoa, o oe caoc , yo o, o eo o ac.

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