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Paaoa ea Mc 2000 Mcepco paooxpae Pecy eapyc Mc ocyapce ec cy aepa paaoo e oo Paaoa ea o o.

pe. po. A.H. C oapoa "oyeo Mc epc o opaoa Pecy eapyc aec e yeo o oco c ye o ec c ye aee" Mc 2000 2 C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

616-073.75 (075.8) 53.6 73 P15 P e e e : pe op M, -p. e. ay, po. C.B. aopoo;

a.a. a o. o. MM, -p. e. ay, po. .. Bco.

A op: A.H. C oapo, .A. e,.A. Cooa, A.P. Ae co, O.. Coa, C..C.

Coapo A.H. p.

P15 Paaoa ea: e. ocoe /A.H.C oapo, .A. e,.A. Cooa p. o o. pe. po. A.H.C oapoa.- M.: MM, 2000. 154 c.

ISBN ae ae ocoe po pae eope ece pae paaoo e, eo oe oa poecco oppoa yeo o opee , coo e c eo, poee poa ec epop , ca e a e ocec oec opy ye.

eoe ocoe peaaeo c ye o ce ay e o, ya paaoy ey, a ae acpa o ay co pyo coo e c ye o po.

616-073.75(075.8) 53.6 ISBN oe a opo, Mc ocyapc e ec c y, C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

pecoe Copee a pa oec a, c po ec o pep epo o oo o a, peee o e oo ( o ce ee) ca c opac a ac aa pee c oo opye o ye. a ee yeae pc oye e ac aa epcoaa acee.

epoca a ac poa o paepa ocec a pe opyae cpe - pyea c op epo ep e . Bo e cpey oc yo paoa eec oe a oc ooo 10 .

Haoee oec o (ooo 70%) ao a epp op eapyc.

ep, pe Pecye eapyc epoco a ac poo, o oc epp op pecy oe oo eco o ec . a ea oe a oa, coppoaa a ee eapyc a ce oye pa paoya, oycaae o o o ece ocec a ac po, cae c poc o aoeaeoc , ac oc , c ooo eco a oo e oo ee y e e poc, yeee oecoa eco aoeaeoc p.

Ceoa eo, coepeo eo eea ac poecca o o o pae - opooe pacco pee e ao ec opye o ye a op a eoea, a ae ocec ao o oec .

Paaoa ea a o c eco c c o e, oeypo oo e, a ooo e, ec ca, paaoo eo py ca. Oa a ee paaoo e - c peee oy c ye o oa aoc ey ep opea e aa ec opye paa oppoae e o e a o ae ocec , oa cocoo peypee epoa a e o. Bpa oe oa ocoe p peeo o pca p ec ao o oo o eco o a opa, a e c opyee yee.

Hac oee yeoe ocoe o paae ocoo po pa a epa o paaoo ee. B e o ocoy ooe eo ypc, ae a opa a ce ay e a Mco o ocyapc eo o eco o c y a eee 10 e cyec oa aep. Ocoeoc oe C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

a epaa - e o c py yppoae oee eca e pa c py eo oo ec ca.

A op o e pa cpe pa eoc pyooc y AO "Meapec " (Map pocoo .B., yao C.C. Pecoy B..) a opaoy oepy peoc aee oc oo o oc ya epe.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

ABA BBEEHE B PAAOHH MEH.

PAOATBHOCT. AOH PAOATBHOO PACAA.

OMETP. PAAOHH OH EM. POBH OEH HACEEH OT PAHX CTOHOB PAAOHHOO OHA.

Paaoa ea - aya, yaa ocoeoc oec opye o ye a op a eoea, p ee ye opee poa oo ocec oye acee.

Paaoa ea yae po py opoco eco caa c paooo e, epo o oo, oop aeco oo eco e, ec ca, eoo e.

oo pae paaoo e - paaoa ea, o opa eea a caoc o ea eeca aya.

Tep opye ye coye c oca epeoca epe poc pac o ep e e poa o o cya o ac . opye ye - o paooc ye, cocoe a oa a oo o cpee, epe o opy o po o.

o ppoe opye ye e c a a oco a:

a) opycype, apep: aa, e a;

) e poa e, apep: aa pe eocoe.

Ocoo apa epc opy ye c:

opycyp ye - ap ac , ee acca, a ae ep ;

e poa ye ep ( a.1-1).

apae p opee ocoeoc aoec opy ye c eec o , coo e c eo, c ee epo oc opeae o ec .

Xapaepca ocox o ye:

aa-ac 1) (pa e) e ap +2, accy 4 a.e.., ep , epey MB;

oaa coo oaoo cocooc , e ea ey poay cocooc : poe oy e epe c ca e pa, oo eco a - poe pa ;

ea-ac 2) - o e po o po, ee peepeo ay accy ap -1, +1 coo e c eo;

ep ae epe c B;

yea o oc oa, coaaea e a-ac a, pepo pa ee, e y aa-ac o e ep ;

poaa cocooc y C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

e a-ac oe, e y aa-ac : poe oy e coc ae e p, oo eco a - ca e p;

epo 3) e accy, pay 1 a.e.., ap 0;

e po oe e ep o 0,025 B o 300 oee MB. o ep e eee c pe e po, paa ey e pepo oac 1 MB.

ep e poa opeee apa ep e o aoec c eec o;

. + 0 -1 + n Pc.1-1. poaa cocooc pa o opye o ye.

aa-yee opaye c p ep pepae ee y 4) o 10-10-10-14 ;

oaae coo poae cocooc , a poe a oy e oc ae co e e po;

5) peeocoe yee ee y o 10-9-10-12 . Paa apa epc ecoe pe eocoe yee opooe. Xapa epc ecoe pe eocoe yee opaye c a ce ee ep e eco o coc o e poa p e o epe oe a ep e ec oee oy op a. Topooe yee opaye c p c ooe ape ac c ac a eec a, epe o opoe o po o. e ee a o, e e ep ye oe e o poaa cocooc (pc.1-1).

C o e opye ye eco cao o e paoa oc . c opec paoa oc e c ep ep poecco, oapye eoeo (A. eepe, 1896.). B yee ao o poecca oo a ec Map Caoca-p ep p.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

Ta. 1-1.

Xapa epc a oco o opye o ye.

B Macca yee ye (a.e..) ap a e a epa Aa ac a 4+2 ya a, oa, oea e a ac a 1/1836 -1, ac acca, c eo, e e +1 e a.

aa, e po- Tee e a, e o, pe eocoe a a 00 py.

oa aee c p e poo:

oa, apa, e o, ac acc;

He po ac a 1 0 o oe eo e poo:

opa, opa c a, op pa, ca a co co.

Paoa oc - caopoooe pepaee ep o ee o py e, p o opo po epe o oee yc ooe coc oe. poecc copooae c cycae opy ye (opycyp o e poa ).

Paoa e pepae apa epy c:

1) cocoo ee oo ep , o opa o ae c o e aa- e a-ac opeeeo ep , o e poa o o ye;

2) peee po ea paoa o o pacaa epo oc pacaa pa a ey pee. Paoa paca - ee c a c ecoe. He pecaa , o a eo pacae c aoe ec aoe po. oca c a c ec aooepoc e paoa o o pacaa coye c ec ec ea c a c eca ea aaea oc oo pacaa, oa e ac o pee. Cc e coc o o, o ec ooe co N oao ec a ep, o a ey pee C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

cpee ye pacaa c N ep. Bea N aae c a oc apa epye yee peapa a eo, a e o eo o pa.

a e paoa oc p :

a) cc ea - eepe (, Bq). 1 pae a oc ya paoa o c oe, o opo a pe 1 c poc o 1 a pacaa (1 = 1 pac/ce ). Ea aaa 1975. ec payco o yeo o A. eepe (A. Becquerel, 1852-1908.).

) paoa (ecc ea) - p ( , Ci ). Ea aaa ec payc ye. p M. Caoco-p eea 1910. C 1956. oaae aoe oec o paoa o o eec a, o opoe pacaae c c ecoc 3,7*1010 pacao 1 ceyy,.e.

1 = 3,7*1010 , 1 = 2,703*10-11 .

eee oec a a ep c eee pee poc o coo e c c aoo paoa o o pacaa, o op ocae c coeao po (pc.1-2) opypye c cey opao: a pae poey pee poc o pepaee pa oe a a oo. ao paoa o o pacaa ee ceyee a ea ecoe paee:

t Nt = N0 *e [1] e N0 - c ooe oec o paoa ep;

Nt - oec o a ep, oc a c cyc pe pacaa t;

e - ocoae a ypa o apo;

- oc oa pacaa, t - pe pacaa.

oc oa pacaa caa c epoo oypacaa (T1/2 Tf). epoo oypacaa aae c pe, eee o opo o co paoa ep yeae c oe. oce a ea ec peopaoa opya [1] pope ae cey :

-0.693t Tf Nt = N0 e [2] o opyo oy c pa ec ee, o a a peoea o oooc cooa a pe paoya C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

epp op, poy o a, o .. Ta a epe 10 T1/2 oc ae c pa ec c a cpea (.e. oc ae c ee 0,1% o c oo o oec a N No N / No/ T1/2 2T1/2 t Pc.1-2. eee oec a paoa ep c eee pee.

paoya). Hapep: I-131 ee epo oypacaa, pa 8,05 cy o;

eoe ooo c oe oo ec o o pooc a apea cooa eee 2-3 ece oce poca paoa o o oa;

y Cs-137 epo oypacaa pae 30,1 ;

y Sr-90 epo oypacaa pae 29,12 ;

.e. e, a pee Cs-137 Sr-90 oo ye cooa cyc 300 e oce aap a AC.

pee e papa pepae ep, eo oo co , o ocoo apa epc o a oa (Pc. 1-3) c 2 ca: accooe co (A), paoe cye po oo e poo pa, a o oep (Z) epoeco cc ee ee o Meeeea, pa cy po oo pe,.e. coo e c y apy pa. a ac a, oa coc a pa (a po o, a e po), aae c yoo. o o - a o c o e e Pc. 1-3. C poee a oa eoa-20.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

apo pa, o pa acco co,.e. o o a c oec o e poo pe. Paoy - pa paoa a oo. Paa ec ec ee cycc ee paoy. Paoy, o ope opaoac oc oo opay c e yac eoea, p o aa ec ec e paoya. ac oey pee ec o oee paoa o oo, oye cycc e y e. Ocoeo o o cycc e paoyo oya ep pea opa pao o aae, o ce pea opa AC, e coa c oe o o e poo. B ac oee pe pa ec e cyec ye a ee o, y o op e o paoa o o o oa. o ec coc a paoo o e o a c o c a, o ec c a paoa o o cey ec e o ce eoa coo e c c ec oo ec aoa py oopo a ppoe.

Hec ae pa pe epea 4 oco a paoa pepae: aa-paca, e a-pepaee, aa-pepaee co aoe eee ep. T paoa o o pepae opeee c o ac , cycae p pacae. poecc paoa o o pacaa ce a o epe,.e. e c eee ep . c ooe po aae c a epc ( epee c ea ooaeo coo X), a oyaeec oce pacaa po - oep ( c ea - co Y).

1. Aa-paca coc o o, o eoe po caopooo A 4 A - X + Y Z + 2 Z - cycae aa-ac y,.e. o c o epoe ee.

ec o oee 200 aa-a ep, o ce o e opo oep oe 83. ep aa-ac e ep ae ce o a o c epae o 4 o 9 MB. Hapep, aa-ya paoya c Am-241;

Ra-226;

Rn-222;

U-238 235;

Th-232;

Pu 239 240:

238 4 222 U +2 +234Th Rn+2+218Po 92 90 86 2. e a-pepaee ep - o y pyo poecc, o ec pe pacaae c oo yo, poc o y pe epec poa pa, e ae pa p -pacae ac (e po e-, o po e+, ~ e po, a e po ) poa c o pe pacaa. Boooc C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

pacaa ooo o yoa opoo c ppye paca cooo o e poa c epoo oypacaa 11,7 .:

~ n p + e- + Paa ceye e a-pepae ep:

a) e po paca:

A A ~ X Z +1Y + e- + Z 40 3 3 - ~ ~ K Ca + e + + 1.4 B H 2 He + e- + + 0.02 B 19 ) o po paca:

A A + + + X Y e Z Z - 122 122 + I Te + e + Cs 130Xe + e+ + 53 55 ) e po a a (aa -a a o,.. po o oae o e poo a oo ooo, oo -ooo):

- A A e + X + Z Z - 22 e- +11Na10 Ne + e- +125I 125Te + 53 pepa paoyo, pe epea e a-pepaee c p (H-3);

C-14;

paoy a p (Na-22, Na-24);

paoy ocopa (P-30, P-32);

paoy cep (S-35, S-37);

paoy a (K-40, K-44, K-45);

Rb-87;

paoy c po (Sr-89, Sr-90);

paoy oa (I-125, I-129, I-131, I-134);

paoy e (Cs-134, Cs-137).

ep e a-ac appye poo aaoe: o 0 o Emax (oa ep , eac p pacae) epe c B, MB. oao ep pacpeeee e a e poo o ep e c aooep aae c ce po e poo -pacaa, e a-ce po (Pc.1-4).

o ce py ep e a-ac oo poec e a pacaae oc ee a (Pc. 1-5).

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

3. aa-paca: a ce ep oye po cycae aa a, epe o oee c aoe coc oe. Maccooe co a o Pc. 1-4. Pc. 1-5.

Ce p pacpeee ep e ece ce p e a-ac o e a-ac H-3, C- ep . P-32.

E - ep ac ;

N - co yco y y.

oep p o e e c:

aa-yee - ee y pepoe, ce p aa-ye Am A X + X z Z ce a cpe e. cycaee pa aa-a oo e ep o ec o B o eco MB. ec m oaae e ac aoe coc oe pa.

aa-pepaee ( oep epe o) pe epea pa cey o oo: Rb-81m;

Cs-134m;

Cs-135m;

In-113m;

Y-90m. Hapep:

134 m Cs +134Cs 55 4. Co aoe eee e ep ooo y ep, aa c accoo o ca 232. po e c a 2 cpa o acca ocoa. eo co aoe eee ep o paae oooc oye o pacypao ee o. B epo ep e e coye c poecc ee e ep p a a e e poo:

235 1 90 140 U + n Kr + Ba + 5 n 92 0 36 56 C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

B pey a e ee opay c oco c o oec o e poo, o ope a e pe epea ecoo oceoa e pepae (ae - e a-paca).

OMETP - o opeeee o ee ooc (.e. o ey pee).

B ac oee pe paa ceye o:

COOHHA OA (X) - oec ea apa epc a o c oa opye o ye ( aa pe eoco o), apa epya ey oa cy o o oy a p a ocepo ae.

pee (P, R) Tpaoa (ecc ea) ea cooo o -.

Ea aaa ec eeo o a B.. Pe ea (1825-1923.), a eea 1928. 1 pe e pae cooo oe pe eoco o aa ye oy e, p o opo copea opycypa cc opaye a 0,001293 oy a o, ecye ap, pa 1 ee apa CC ao o aa (0,001293 - o acca 1 c3 a ocepo o oy a p eepa ype 0o C ae 760 p. c.).

yo a opa (/, C/kg Cc ea ea - ). 1 / pae cooo oe o oo o ye, p o opo cya e pec apo ce oo oo o aa, coa e poa, ocooe oyeo oy e acco 1 , p oo cooa opye cocooc ce e poo, paa 1 .

Coo oee e: 1 P = 2,58*10-4 / ( oo);

1 / = 3,88*103 P (p eo).

ac o oy c o e ooc cooo o eo, paeo P/ P/. Oe ooe oaa e ooc cooo o eapyc - o 18-20 P/.

Tpaoo cooa oa peac pe eoa oc e a oap oy, o opya cocooc pe eoco o ye oy a oo eco a p eo oaoa. Oao p epe oe cooep e ec a ye cac o paeoc cooa o apa epc p oee o oeo o, ocoeo op aa. B c c cooa oa, a pee, pee c oe o c oa ye, a opeee aoec opy ye co cpeo coye c py oe C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

OOEHHA OA (D) o e -, pec aa oec o ep , o oaeoe ee acc oyaeo o eec a.

Ee C o oeo o e c oy a o pa (/ ) co cea aeoae pe (p, Gy). 1 p = 1 /. Ea aaa 1975. ec a co o a . pe (1905-1965.). B aec e ecc eo ( paoo) e coye c pa (rad, rd) pa 0,01 p ( a.1-4). Haeoae rad opaoao o aa y pae radiation absorbed dose - o oea oa ye. ae oe pe eoco o -ye o oea oa 1 pa pepo coo e c ye cooo 1 P ( oee 1 P = 0,93 pa).

c ep e eco apa epc o, o oea oa e ac o a ep opye o ye opeee c ee paaoo o oec ,.e. e c epo oae ocec oye. a cyec ee pa e ae aoec pa o ye c eec o, opye cocooc , o cooo o poe a .., ceye oa , o oa a e o oea oa oe a pa oo ec e. oec eo oe ao o pa o c o e OTHOCTEHO OOECO ETBHOCT (O) OEHTA AECTBA (, k) EH. O ao o-o ye - ce oe, o op pae o oe o oeo o opaoo o ye D0, ae opeee paooo ec e, oe pacca paeo o ye D, ae o e paooo ec e. = D0/D. B aec e opaoo o p o pe eocoe yee c ep e 200 B. e o = 1. Ceoa eo, o oea oa py o o ye oe ae a o oeo oe opaoo o ye, o c ye o . Ta opao o c o e ae o o.

BBAEHTHA OA (H) ec epa paeoc e a oye paa o oeo oe, yoeo a oe aec a ao o a ye:

H = D k B ac oee pe MP peoeye cooa pace a ae o o BECOBE MHOTE EH WR.

( a. 1-2) C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

ae a oa HTR op ae a T, coaa yee R, opeee c coo oee HTR =WR DTR e DTR- cpe oa o ye R a op ae T;

WR - ecoo o e ye.

Ta a WR - epaep o e, ea C ae o o a e, o o oeo o - /, co cea aae ep (, Sv), eea 1979.. o o o cooa ecc ey p (rem) ey -, pay 0,01 ( a.1-4).

Ta. 1-2.

Becoe o e ye.

B ye aao ep Becoo o e ye WR o o ce ep e po ce ep - ac He po c ep e:

< 10 B o 10 B o 100 B > 100 B o 2 B >2 MB o 20 MB > 20 MB Pc pa c o ac ec e o ac e oo o ae o o, o o paoyc eoc ae op ao, oep c oye. oppoa o o c o ac ec e a eeo o e ETBHA BBAEHTHA OA (HE), o opoe o peoea MP (ya 60) aeeo a oee poc oe aeoae - ETBHA OA (E). E pec ae coo cyy ee ae o o ce a op aa ea paae c coo oee:

E = WT HT T e HT - ae a oa a op ae T;

WT - ecoo o e a T.

WT apa epye o oee c o ac eco o pca opae ao o o op aa a pcy opae ce o op aa p paoepo C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

oye ce o ea. Pc opae ce o op aa pa pa 1, o ec cya ae eco o ee paa 1. Peoeyee MP (ya 60) ae ae eco o ee pee ae 1-3.

Cc ea ea e o o - ep (, Sv);

ecc ea ea p. O pae 100 p ( a.1-4).

p oye o eo o eoea oop o yao oe.

p paaoo oec a pyy e pacc a oe e o:

a) oea aea oa (ST) a T pee c pae oe o oye ope o a op aa y py , oa paa Ta.1-3.

Taee ecoe o e.

Ta op a WT Ta op a WT ooe ee 0.20 Mooe ee 0. pac oc o 0.12 ee 0. Toc e 0.12 eo 0. e e 0.12 oa eea 0. eyo 0.12 oa 0. Moeo yp 0.05 Oc ae op a 0. poee ca oye a cpe ae y oy op ae a;

) oea ea oa (S) o oc c, eo, oyeo oy. Oa paa poee cpee e o o a co oyeo pye.

B opeee oe o ae o oe o e o o e yaao pe, a o opoe oyea oa. o oy p pace e oe o ce a oo e oe yaae a epo pee pyy , o o op pooc a pace.

oe e o coy oe yeo a py a oy pca pa c o ac ec ocec ec e* e*p.

opy ye. E oe o - PAAOHH OH EM. POBH OEH HACEEH OT PAHX CTOHOB PAAOHHOO OHA.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

opye ye o ppo c oo, a ae o paoyo, pacce ocepe pey a e e eoc eoea, Ta. 1-4.

Coo oee ey cc e ecc e ea o.

Bea Ea Becc. Coo oee ey ee co C ea ea cooa / P 1 / = 3.88*103 P oa, X 1 P = 2.58 *10-4 / o oea oa, p pa 1 p = 100 pa D (/ ) 1 pa = 0.01 p ae a oa, p 1 = 100 p H 1 p = 0.01 e a oa, p 1 = 100 p E 1 p = 0.01 coa paao o (P). P oec ye a ce aceee eo o apa, ac oee pe ee o oc eo oc o ypoe. B poo o pe epea eoopa o pee ee.

P ee 2 coc a :

1) ec ec e P;

2) e o eo ee P.

Oa ooe a P yac y oppoa e o oye eoea a a ce ee o, a a ce y pee o oye.

B cpee e a oa o pa c oo P oeae c 3,6 o.

ECTECTBEHH PAAOHH OH (EP) - cooyoc opy ye o ec ec e c oo eeo o eo o poc oe.

c oo opy ye eeo o poc oe e c epoe ocecoe yee, o opoe opec oc e coc o aa eco o oceco o ye ( eeppoao o ee oo eec , o yae o e oe a ) coe ocec ye. Cpe ep ocec ac ooo 108 - 109 B.

epoe ocecoe yee coc o ocoo po oo (90%) aa-ac ;

c pea c pa , ep, opa py e. o o e poo coc ae ooo 1.5% o oa ce ocec ac ;

o poo 5 pa ee;

eoo oec e oapye ae aa-a .

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

Ma oe oe e ae o e a epoe yee, pe c y oe a ocepy oep e ec ac . B a o oe e cyec y "oy",.e. oac poc pac a, apa epyec e, o apee ac e o y e a e, e a . Ma e oy - ec ec e peepyap aoe ape ac ( ocoo po oo e poo). Tae o aa paao oca e.

epoe ocecoe yee aoec ye (a, oee, o oae c) c a ocepo, pey a e e o oppy c opoe ocecoe yee (o opoe coc o oo, po oo, e poo, oo, e poo o oo) oco ee paoy, oec ye a eoea.

ecoc opo o oceco o ye ac o o a ocep: ocecoe yee a ypoe op pepo 100 pa eee eco, e a pae a ocep coc o ocoo oo;

Ceep oca oya oe opy ye, e a opae oac (a ce a o o o e).

p oec ocec ye a a ocepy ee ep co poc o pae epe pea, pey a e e o opay c oco ee paoy. Ocooe aee e : p (H 3), C-14, P-32, S-35, Be-7, Na-22 Na-24.

B eo, eoe, y a ypoe op, oyae 0,315 / o a ce c oo opye o ye eeo o poc oe, o ce a ce ee o oye 0,3 a ce y pee o oye 0,015 .

Ec ec ee c o opye o ye eo o poc oe pec ae paoya 2 py:

A. Paoy, oe paoa e p.

. Paoy, e oe paoa e p.

A. Paoy paoa po.

Paoa p - o oceoa eoc paoyo, opay c pey a e aa- e a-pacaa peye o ee a.

Haoee o oye o o aa c aa ao o .

paoa po C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

Cyec ye 4 paoa pa , coo e c eo, 4 pooaaa:

ope p: aoee o oy o o op-232 (Th-232), T1/2 = 1.4*1010 e ;

2 ypao pa:

a) aoee o oy o o ypa-238 (U-238), T1/2 = 4.5*109 e (pc.1-7);

) aoee o oy o o ypa-235 (U-235), T1/2 = 7*108 e ;

e ye p: aoee o oy o o e y-237 (Np-237), T1/2 = 2.2*106 e.

cpae epoo oypacaa pooaao paoa po co peee cyec oa e o, o ac o oe Th 232 o ec co pac, U-238 pacac ac o, a U-235 pacac oe ac (.e., ac o oe eo ope U-238 oe, e U-235 140 pa), o o Np-237 pacac pa ec ec. B poecce pepae ee o aec e poey o poy o pacaa opay c paoa e o o pa, paoa, oo, cy a, ca, o ope oppy a ey oy oye eoea. po eo paa eoao pa ec eo o apa ac o oe pa paoyo o o yac e eo op.

oe coepae paoyo apa epy c opo yaeco o poc oe - pa, aa ;

opao ee paoa ee o ocao opoa (ec , eca;

a.1-5).

Haoee coe ypo eo paa aa c pa (a a opco o ypop a yapaap - o 175 / o), a o-aae - a epp op ec o a e ope ec (oa oe ec). ec py e ec a c co ypoe paa, apep: o pa, H ep, a Maa acape. oe coepae paoyo ypaoo o pa o ae c epp op Caac c pa A .

o oce a HAP OOH cpe e a oa ee o oye, o opy eoe oyae a o o e c oo ec ec eo paa, coc ae 0,35 , o ce a ce paoyo ypaoo o pa 0,09 0,14 a ce paoyo opeo o pa.

poy pacaa ypaa op o e eoa, a ae c oy o oo oc ya op a eoea, oycaa y peee oyee: a C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

ce ceec a ypaa e a oa coc ae 0,95 / o, a ce ceec a op 0,19 / o. p epopao oc ye paoa ee o ao y a pac opoc , coo e c eo, oe caca.

Ta.1-5.

Coepae ypaa, op pa opoa oa.

T opo, o A oc A oc A oc U-238, / Th-232, / Ra-226, / By ec e:

pa 59 81,4 96 - aa 11 11,118,5 - 40, Oc oe:

Ca 44 44,4 14, eca 18 11,111,1 - 25, o:

epoe 21 35, epoo- 15 22, ooc e Tope 66, Haoee aee oppoa o y pee o oye e pa-226;

pao-220;

oo-210;

ce-210.

Pa-226 (Ra-226 pe epeae aa-paca c opaoae Rn 222, T1/2 - 1620 e ) poo pacpoc pae ppoe, oe oc ya op a epe eyoo-e pa (oe caca eyoo-eo pa e - 0,2), op a a eopeey oy.

E o c oo eoea ocoo cya epoe y yp e, ype a;

cpeee oc yee c oc e - 2.3*10-12 /cy ;

pa, eaco o eco op coee p oc ye, eopye c oc o a, o opo o c c T, pa 17, e (T pe, eee o opo o op aa o c ooa eeo o eec a).

Pao (Rn-222 pe epeae aa-paca c opaoae Po-218, epo oypacaa Rn-222 - 3,8 cy o) - oc ocoo a ec ec ey paoa oc a ocepo o oy a ypo oye eoea a ce ec ec e c oo paa. B op a pao opo oye poy e o pacaa oc ya ocoo epe op a a, o o y oc ya epe eyoo-e pa (apep, p e paooo C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

o) epe oy (apep, p pee paoo a). Beee paoa op aa eaco o cocoa e o oc ye ocyec e c a opao epe e e. oee opoy opa o paoe oo oy poe 1.

U 4,56*10 4,56*10 234 234 Th Pa U 90 24 90 24 91 6,7 91 6,7 2,48* 2,48* Th 8* 8* R a 1617 1617 R n 3,8 3,8 Po 3 3 Po Bi Pb 82 27 82 27 - - 20 20 210 210 210 210 Po Tl Pb Bi 81 81 1,32 1,32 5 5 138 138 Tl Pb 4,2 4,2 Pc. 1-7. oceoa eoc paoa pepae py U-238 - Pb-206.

aa pepae (aa-pepae ooae ep ao c peo, e a pepae ooae opo ao c eo) epo oypacaa ee o (, o, cy. - cy , - ac, - y , c - cey).

oo-210 (Po-210) oep ae c aa-pacay c opaoae c ao o Pb-206, T1/2 - 138,38 cy.;

oe caca eyoo eo o pa a 0,2. B cpee a cy op a eoea c e oc yae 0,037-0,37 Po-210 (.. opaoe oc yee). B pe oa, e eoe o pee y opco o poc oe, a ae ae c co ceep oee aae c oeoe oc yee Po-210 op a 2,2-11,1 /cy.;

apep: e e oe coepae Pb-210 11-18 pa peae cpeec a c ece p. ypee yeae oc yee Po-210 op a eoea: e ypa, ypae o 10 - C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

c ape cy , coa c oe pa Po-210 1,66 /, o 2-3 (o o 7 - 9) paa e, e y eyp, coo e c ye oa 0,027-0,04 p/ o.

op aa eoea Po-210 o c c T, pa p eo cy.

Ce-210 [po Pb-210 oep ae c e a-pepae (e po paca) c opaoae Bi-210], pacaae c c T1/2 - 22,3 oa;

oe caca eyoo-eo pa e - 0,2 ( ce coee);

ee oc eo poe ca c oeo a ocopa;

op aa ( o ce oc o a) o c c T, pa 12 - 10000 cy. Pb-210 - o c oo oe op ae Po-210.

. Paoy, e oe paoa e p.

a pya ocoo coc o 11 o oy paoyo (epo oypacaa o 107 o 1015 e ). ao a oppoae e o o oc -40 Rb-87.

a-40 (po -40 pe epeae e a-paca, epo oypacaa 1,32*109 e, -40 e c e a- aa-c oo oye o ), aae 2 ec o a c o ye, oycoa ppo paoa o. B ppoe -40 ce a coy c ye c aoy - (o -40 - ooo 0,01%), oppy ooy e y oy a ce ee o oye 0,12 0,18 a ce y pee o oye.

a-40 ac o oycoae a oc oep oc o o co o, pay 1-2 /2. A oc pac eo o opoa e o -40 paa (0,5-1)*10-8 / cpo o eca. A oc e poy o o - coc ae 10-9 / cp poy o. Haoa a oc - pe c ppye c e, ope a, aco, ap oee ( a.1-6).

o -40 oc yae pac e, a a e, c e - op a o eoea. Paoa e o o a oc ya op a, a opao, c e oo. a pa ec ooc cacae c eyoo-eo o pa a paoepo pacpeee c op aa a. T a coc ae 58 cy o.

Cy oa o peoc eoea a coc ae ooo 3,.e. op a oe oc ya a eoe oec o -40 ( a.1-7).

Hapep, cpe a oc -40 paco oc o o e eoea oeae c 121 / (coepae a paco oc o o e - 4 / ), cee a - 90 / (coepae a - 3 / ).

Py-87 (Rb-87, T1/2 - 4,8*1010, po pe epeae -pepaee) o coc a poy o ee ypaa (o 6%). p epopao oc ye C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

pa ec ooc cacae c eyoo-eo o pa a paoepo pacpeee c op aa a ( a.1-7). T ae eoea coc ae 44 (o 32 o 57) cy o.

Ta. 1-6.

Coepae -40 opyae cpee.

c o a-40 A oc -40, / ec 30 - pa 925 eca 300 oca o-ae yope Ao o-ocopo-ae yope 1200 oa 37 epoe 18,5 aco Oo cee 40 ap oe Ope a p Ta. 1-7.

Cpe yea a oc K-40 Rb-87 op aa a poco o y coaaee ooe ae e o.

-40 Rb- Op a a Cpe.A1, / 2, Cpe.A,/ , Op a eo 60 0,183 8,5 0, oa 64 0,18 180, e e 64 0,188,1 0, pac oc 130 0,27 7,0 0, o oa 33 0,1 5,3 0, eea peae: 1. A - yea a oc ;

2. - ooa ae a oa;

3. ooa e a oa.

TEXHOEHHO MEHEHH PAAOHH OH oppye c pey a e e eoc eoea, ocoo, a ce c oo opy ye, coye ee;

oa ae paoyo;

c poa epao;

eee;

aa.

c o , c oyee e e, c oco c oo C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

cycc eo o oye pea oec e ce py cycc e c oo. Cpeepooe aee yao o oye ce o ea cec e ec poeyp ( a a ae a oc a) coc ae 0,4 - 1,0 / o;

eo op c paa coc ae o 50 o 100% EP. B 1996 oy oyee acee eapyc a ce ec c oo oeaoc 2,0 - 2,5 / o. ( cpae: o a yao o oe peco o o po o e oy yae o pao o pe eae o paoo o aopa op coc a 2,5 - 6,3 / o). ee eapyc ao ca ooe a py a ce ec c oo.

C po ep oppy e y oy, pay 0,1 / o.

Ec eoe a o c oee, oa ee o oye ee c o e y po oooo ec y a opo:

a) papoae ee o ye ae;

) yee ec ec e paoyo, a o c a epaa, o op oc poeo ae.

B acoc o oe pa -40, Ra-226, U-238 Th-232 pa c poa epaa ooc o oa ee c o 4*10-8 o 12*10-8 p/ (0,04-0,12 p/). B cpee, p, e o a ooc o 2-3 paa oe, e epe oa oa c e ec a epao, e oa oo coc ae 0,04-0,05 p/.

A oc ec ec e paoyo e oa pea y epe opa o: Ra-226 - 0,37 /, Th-232 - 0,259 /, K-40 - 48,1 /.

Heo oo o e , o, e oe o oo pooc a oo a o oee c poa epaa, e e oe e o yea a oc .

Ta. 1-8.

ea a oc Ra-226 Th-232 pa c poa epaa (/ ).

C poa epa Ra-226 Th- epeo 0,3 - 0,5 0,2 - 1, p 33 - 152 21 - e o 11 - 80 9 - ya ypa ppoo o ca 1 - 13 1 - oco c 24 - 255 3 - aoe o a ocoe aco c 320 - 2620 24 - cae o e e p oy o e a 2 py:

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

A. oae ae paoyo a ce c a epo o opy.

. oae ae paoyo a ce e eoc pep epo- oo o a.

oa aa ae paoyo, oapyaee a o ec a poca,.e. pa ec o oe eo o apa. o poc o, o a paoy oaa ep e co poocep (o o y a o c a o 30 cy o) c pa ocepy ( c pa ocepe o aepa c o o - o eco ece e ). paoy o oe pe aa pao oec e a pae yac oep oc ce o eo o apa.

A. oae ae paoyo a ce c a epo o opy.

Haa c 1945 oa a ac oep ac oye a ce paoa ocao, ca c c ae epo o opy (O) a ocepe. Macy c a p o c a 2 epoa:

1) 1954 - 1958., o a p poo CA, CCCP Beop a;

2) 1961 - 1962., o a p poo ocoo CA CCCP.

B ac oee pe e a oa o c a O coc ae eee 1% o o a ce ec ec e c oo ye oeae c 0, / o. Ba oaey oe y e y oy oye acee o ep po, pea 1%, a oo paoya: C-14, Cs-137, Zr-95, Sr-90.

o oye p c a O pae epo oce pa oppy c a ce pa paoyo:

a) acaoe aee aee pe oce pa e paoy c T1/2 o eco cy o o 2 ece, ae a I-131, Ba-140, Sr-89,.e. o e acaoe aee aee pe oce pa;

ca pae Zr-95 (T1/2 = 64 );

) Cs-137 Sr-90 (T1/2 pepo 30 e ) yy aa a oyee p eo o oa ea, o pec a aoy o eay oacoc ;

) C-14 (T1/2 = 5730 e ) ye oc aa c c oo paoa ye ( o c o ooc o) ae o aeo yye, a a 2000 oy o o epe 7% coe a oc .

. oae ae paoyo a ce e eoc pep epo- oo o a.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

ep o (T) ae ceye c a: oa ypaoo py;

epepao a ee oo aeoe U-235 epoe oo;

pooc o eoe ee o (TB), o ope coc o ypaa e aeco, apo oco ope, aeo o oooy po, a eo o caa epaee c a;

cooae TBo a AC (opaa cya a AC);

epepao a o pao ao o epo o oa ( oceye o cooa eeo o ee oc a epaa, ea ocoo ypa y o), epepao a a opoee opay c paoa o oo. Oa eo ao o o pacop poe paoa a epao oecee ce c a.

a pee opyae cpe paoya poc o a ce c a T, o ao a oc :

a) epepao a o pao ao o epo o oa a pao ec aoa ;

ocooe aee e paoy C-14, Kr-95, H-3, I-129;

) opaa cya a AC;

p opao pao e pea opa opyay cpey ya c (oce po oe cc e oc ) aoopae (ac o apooe) e o o. Ocooe aee e paoy I-131, Cs-137 134, Sr-90, a ae paoa e ep e a.

B ac oee pe e a oa a ce cooa epo ep e oeae c 0,1/ o.

Oea oacoc opao pao AC eoea, eo oo o e , o poae y oo TC ooc 1000 MB, c ye o poco ppo paoyo (K-40,U-238,Th-232,Pb-210, Po-210) ec aepo eo (e[a]pe), co pa oee oaco, e poae AC aao o ooc ( a.1-9). C ya oe cyec eo e c pey a e py aap.

Tee e e - c o o o pe eoco o ye. Mooc e o o oye ce o ea o e o o eeopa a pacc o 250 c o paa paa 2,5*10-3 /. Eee eee oa pe acoo poco p e eepo pa oppye oy 5 - 7 . a ce eee oppye c cpe eea ooa e a oa, paa 0,01 .

cooae yeae oyee eoea a ce paaoo o oa, coaaeo o ocec ya, o ee oppoa ooo e o o, pao 0,05 . Bo pe oe a a caoe e ooc o oye ce o ea coc ae 1,35 / a C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

co e 8 ;

5 / - a co e 12 , 13 / - a co e 20 . a 7 ac 25 . paca a eco o epee a H-op - ap a ypopea o Ta. 1-9.

Cpa ea oea oe o yepa opo o epo o y oo o oo o o (T T), o ecea pao e 1 B * o.

B yepa* T T co cyae peepeeo cep 1 300 (20-600) oee copaee poo eoc 20 1* , e.* o /(0,06-1,8)*104/ oe o ep pyococooc 107* e.* o /(0.4-12)*103/ * - e ye a ooo o yepa opo o epao aoea, ae eaepo e ooe a poco TC (SO2, NO, Hg, Pb, Cd p.) Ta. 1-10.

c o paaoo o oa ooe e e o oye acee.

c o ooa e a oa, paaoo o oa Be. oy. y p. oy. cya Ec ec e p o o:

Beeoe yee 0,3 0,0150, eoe yee 0,35 2,326 2, o ce: ceec o U-238 0,09 0,95 1, ceec o Th-232 0,140,190, a Rn-222 1,0 1, K-40 0,120,180, Rb-87 0,006 0, BCEO c o EP 0,65 2,341 2, Texoeo ee p o o:

ece ay 0, c po ee a epa 0, c a O pep 0, T Teeee 0, oe a caoe a 0, BCEO c o TP 0, BCEO 3, C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.

caoe e accap oyae ooo 50 , a accap cep yoo o caoe a (pe oe a - 2 35 ) ooo 40 , o oep ae c oee ecoy oye. Ba pa c oo paaoo o oa oppoae oo e o oye c ppye aa 1-10.

C oapo A.H. p. Paaoa ea.




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